Zhob (//; Pashto and Urdu: ژوب), formerly known as Fort Sandeman or Appozai, is a city and district capital of Zhob District in Balochistan province of Pakistan. Zhob is located on the banks of Zhob River 337 km from Quetta, the capital of Balochistan.. The city was originally named Appozai after a nearby village. During the British colonial era it was named Fort Sandeman. It obtained its current name on 30 July 1976 when the then-Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had the name changed.
A view of the city
|• Metro||20,297 km2 (7,837 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,426 m (4,678 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+5 (PST)|
A Chinese pilgrim, Xuanzang, who visited the region in 629 AD mentioned Pashtuns living in Zhob. The prime historical importance of Zhob is having been a cradle of the Pashtuns. Early in the 13th century the country came within the sphere of the Mongol raids organised by Genghis Khan. In 1398 AD, an expedition against the Pashtuns of the area was led by Pir Muhammad, the grandson of Amir Timur. Although no authentic information exists about any foreign occupation, many forts, mounds and karizes are attributed to the Mughals. Both Nadir Shah (1736-47 AD) and Ahmed Shah Abdali (1747-73 AD) extended their power through Balochistan and thenceforth Zhob remained under the more or less nominal suzerainty of the Durranis and Barakzais until it came under British protection.
In the middle of the 18th century Ahmed Shah granted a sanad (certificate) to Bekar Nika, fourth in descent from Jogi and the head of the Jogizai family, conferring upon him the title and position of "Badshah or Ruler of Zhob". This family continued to exercise authority over the Kakars until the British were first brought into contact with them.
Until the Zhob Valley expedition of 1884 the area was practically unknown to Europeans, and in 1889 the Zhob Valley and Gomal Pass were taken under the control of the British Government. In December 1889 the town of Zhob, then known as Apozai, was occupied by the British and named Fort Sandeman after Sir Robert Sandeman.
The district of Zhob was formed in 1890, with Fort Sandeman as the capital. The population was 3552, according to the 1901 census of India. The military garrison included a native cavalry and a native infantry regiment. It was also the headquarters of the Zhob Levy Corps. In 1894 a supply of water from the Saliaza valley was established, allowing irrigation and planting of fruits and trees and providing drinking water. It cost a little over a lakh of rupees.
During the colonial era, the Political Agent resided in a building known as "the Castle", that lay to the north of the town and 150 feet (46 m) above the surface of the plain. The military lines, bazaar, dispensaries, and school lay below. During this time the railway system was built. The nearest railway station in Baluchistan is Harnai, 168 miles (270 km) distant. Bhakkar, the railway station for Dera Ismail Khan, is 122 miles (196 km) distant. The population numbered 3,552 in 1901.
A local fund was created in 1890; the income during 1903-4 was 18,000 rupees and the expenditure 17,000 rupees. One-third of the net receipts from octroi was paid over to the military authorities. There is a small sanitarium, about 8,500 feet (2,600 m) above sea-level, about 30 miles (48 km) away at Shinghar on the Sulaiman range, to which resort is made in the summer months.
Zhob is also the location of a Pakistan Army cantonment. Semi nomadic people from various provinces or Afghanistan migrate to Zhob amid the weather of the city. Tribes known for migration include Yusafzai, Tarakai, Mehsud, Wazir etc.
According to the census of 2017, the total population of the Zhob District is 310,544. Gender-wise, 168,358 of those are male, 142,186 are female, and there are no transgender people. The average annual growth rate is 2.52% from 1998 to 2017.
Zhob has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh), its rainfall being high enough to avoid the arid climate category found at lower elevations. Unlike most of Balochistan, Zhob does on occasions receive rainfall from the monsoon, though this occurs very erratically.
|Climate data for Zhob|
|Record high °C (°F)||22.8
|Average high °C (°F)||12.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.0
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−8.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||18.3
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||237.8||218.1||241.1||256.0||323.4||312.7||298.2||300.9||301.0||300.3||275.0||249.6||3,314.1|
|Source: NOAA (1961–1990)|
Zhob is 365 kilometres (227 mi) from Quetta and 225 kilometres (140 mi) from Dera Ismail Khan. However, the road linking with Dera Ismail Khan is mostly a track passing through water streams and almost all of the road is metalloid[clarification needed]. The Quetta to Zhob National highway has been completed recently[when?] on the expenditure of 7 billion rupees by NHA in five years in two shifts (Quetta-Killasaifulah and Killasaifulah-Zhob). Zhob has an important link with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa because it connects Balochistan with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and then with Punjab; originally it took 12 hours or more to reach Dera Ismail Khan, but now it is distance of almost 4 hours. On this route there is a heavy traffic of cargo and goods carrying vehicles to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. The route is very convenient for transportation between Punjab and Balochistan. This road is very important for carrying goods from province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the sea port of Karachi.
Zhob is linked by rail with the Pakistan Railways network. In 2006, the Pakistan Railways converted the narrow gauge railway track into a broad gauge. The Zhob line splits off the Chaman line north of Quetta at Bostan. A more direct route to the capital via Dera Ismail Khan and Darya Khan is also proposed. The new project will link Quetta with Peshawar via Bostan, Zhob, Dera Ismail Khan, Bannu and Kohat.currently there are no railway tracks in the zhob. 
This section does not cite any sources. (June 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan constructed an airport at Zhob[when?] with a 6,390 feet (1,950 m) runway that links Zhob by air with the major cities of Pakistan. A Pakistan International Airlines flight operates from Quetta, linking Zhob with Multan, Dera Ismail Khan, Karachi, Peshawar and Islamabad. The Zhob Airport was used by NATO till 2008[clarification needed]. However, it is once again[when?] under the control of Civil Aviation. It is a very important airport, due to its location in the center of Pakistan. From Zhob Airport to anywhere in Pakistan the travel time is 1 hour at longest. It is a national airport, although it is not used as much as the other airports of Pakistan.
- Tehsils & Unions in the District of Zhob - Government of Pakistan
- Zhob Background - Balochistan Police Website Archived 4 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Zhob". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 979.
- Chisholm 1911.
- Fort Sandeman - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 103.
- "Zhob(Pho) Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- "PR to establish rail link Quetta to DI Khan via Zhob". PakTribune. Retrieved 1 April 2011.