Yutian County, Xinjiang

Yutian County (Chinese: 于田), also transliterated from Uyghur as Keriya County (Uyghur: كېرىيە ناھىيىسى‎‎; Chinese: 克里雅), is a county in Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. It contains an area of 39,023 km2 (15,067 sq mi). According to the 2002 census, it has a population of 220,000. Its government is located at Keriya Town. The county is bordered to the north by Aksu Prefecture, to the east by Minfeng/Niya County, to the west by Qira County and to the south by Rutog County and Gêrzê County in Ngari Prefecture, Tibet.[4]

Yutian County

كېرىيە ناھىيىسى
于田县

Keriya, Yutien
Kereya International On Foot Street
Kereya International On Foot Street
Location of the county (red) within Hotan Prefecture (yellow) and Xinjiang
Location of the county (red) within Hotan Prefecture (yellow) and Xinjiang
Yutian is located in Xinjiang
Yutian
Yutian
Location of the seat in Xinjiang
Coordinates: 36°52′N 81°42′E / 36.867°N 81.700°E / 36.867; 81.700Coordinates: 36°52′N 81°42′E / 36.867°N 81.700°E / 36.867; 81.700
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Autonomous regionXinjiang
PrefectureHotan Prefecture
Area
 • Total39,094.83 km2 (15,094.60 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)[1]
 • Total249,899
 • Density6.4/km2 (17/sq mi)
Ethnic groups
 • Major ethnic groupsUyghur[2][3]
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
848400
Websitexjyt.gov.cn (in Chinese)
Yutian County, Xinjiang
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese于田县
Traditional Chinese于田縣
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese玉田县
Traditional Chinese玉田縣
Second alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese克里雅县
Traditional Chinese克里雅縣
Uyghur name
Uyghurكېرىيە ناھىيىسى

NameEdit

The county derives its Chinese name from the Kingdom of Khotan. The name was written as '于闐' at that time.[5] This was later changed to '玉田' (literally, Jade Field) following the adoption of Simplified Chinese and eventually to '于田' in 1959.[6][7] The three names have a similar pronunciation in Mandarin Chinese.

The original name of Hotan/Khotan is Gosthana/Gausthana/Gaustana, Godana or Godaniya, the name used in Sanskrit cosmological texts and also how the area is historically referred to as.[8][9]

Gosthana/Gausthana/Gaustana/Godana/Godaniya translates to "land of cows" in Sanskrit. In Chinese, the same name is written as Yu-t'ien, pronounced as Gu-dana. The pronunciation changed over the years to Kho-tan. However, the Tibetans continue to call it Gosthana, which also carries the meaning of "land of cows".[10][11]

Keriya, the English-language form of the Uyghur name for the county, is derived from the name of the Keriya River.

Yutian County is dubbed the "Home of Jade".[12]

HistoryEdit

The ancient name of Keriya was Yumi (扜彌, Gyuymi, Umi). The name Yumi was used by the Chinese envoy Zhang Qian in his 125 BCE report on his embassy's travels.

Yutian County (于阗县) was formed in 1882, its administrative center was Karakash, and Keriya was only a post station. In 1885, the administrative center of the county was moved to Keriya.

Aurel Stein travelled along the Keriya River in his early 20th century expeditions in the region.[13]

In 1920, the area was part of Hotan Dao (和闐道).[14]

In 1950, the area was part of Hotan Special Area (和闐專區).[14]

In 1959, the Chinese character name for the county was set as '于田'.[6][14]

In 1977, the area became part of Hotan Prefecture.[14]

In November 1980, the Yutian hydroelectric plant, located on the Keriya River, went into operation.[15]

On March 21, 2008, the county was at the epicenter of a 7.1/7.3 magnitude earthquake.[16][17]

In February 2014, the county was at the epicenter of the 6.8 magnitude 2014 Yutian earthquake. No injuries or deaths were reported.[18]

In 2018, the Financial Times reported that the Yutian county vocational training centre, among the largest of the Xinjiang re-education camps, had opened a forced labour facility including eight factories spanning shoemaking, mobile phone assembly and tea packaging, giving a base monthly salary of ¥1,500 ($220). Between 2016 and 2018, the centre expanded 269 percent in total area.[19]

In 2018, Regiment 225 (兵团二二五团, part of Kunyu,[20] was listed as part of the county.[21]

Administrative divisionsEdit

As of 2018, the county includes two towns and thirteen townships:[1][21][22]

Towns:

Townships:

Others:

  • National (Kunlun) Sheep Farm (国营(昆仑)种羊场), Yutian Prison (于田监狱), Regiment 225 (兵团二二五团, part of Kunyu[20])

EconomyEdit

The county is known for its production of jade. Agriculture and livestock farming in the county produces corn, wheat, rice, cotton, grapes and melons. Industries in the county include jade mining, cotton ginning, tractor repair and preserved fruit processing.[6]

As of 1885, there was about 96,700 acres (636,133 mu) of cultivated land in Keriya.[26]

DemographicsEdit

As of 2015, 277,206 of the 282,182 residents of the county were Uyghur, 4,678 were Han Chinese and 298 were from other ethnic groups.[27]

In the late 2010s, Uyghurs made up 98.3% of the population of the county.[2]

As of 1999, 98.56% of the population of Keriya (Yutian) County was Uyghur and 1.37% of the population was Han Chinese.[28]

TransportationEdit

Notable personsEdit

  • Kurban Tulum, promoted by the Communist Party of China as a symbol of unity with the Uyghurs

GalleryEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ (from map: "DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE")
  2. ^ From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative."

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c 于田县历史沿革 [Yutian County Historical Development] (in Chinese). XZQH.org. 2 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2019. 2003年,于田县总面积39094.83平方千米,{...}2010年第六次人口普查,于田县常住总人口249899人,其中:木尕拉镇30179人,先拜巴扎镇19796人,加依乡17612人,科克亚乡18582人,阿热勒乡17941人,阿日希乡7664人,兰干乡19524人,斯也克乡21862人,托格日尕孜乡14573人,喀拉克尔乡14294人,奥依托格拉克乡18271人,阿羌乡8494人,英巴格乡9070人,希吾勒乡4312人,达里亚博依乡1281人,拉依苏良种场2489人,国营(昆仑)种羊场1580人,新城区街道13687人,老城区街道6159人,兰干博孜亚农场2529人。
  2. ^ a b 于田县概况. 于田政府网 (in Chinese). Retrieved 22 January 2020. 于田县位于新疆维吾尔自治区南部,塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘,距首府1300公里,距和田180公里,全县总面积4.032万平方公里,总人口28.95万人,其中维吾尔族人口占全县总人口的98.3%,辖13个乡、2个镇、3个场、2个街道办事处,205个行政村,766个村民小组。
  3. ^ 1997年于田县行政区划 [1997 Keriya County Administrative Divisions]. XZQH.org. 6 January 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2020. 和田地区辖县。位于塔里木盆地南缘,南依昆仑山与西藏自治区接界。面积4万平方千米,人口19.4万,其中维吾尔族占98.6%。
  4. ^ Shixin Wang, Baolin Yang, Yi Zhou, Futao Wang, Rui Zhang, Qing Zhao (2018). "SNOW COVER MAPPING AND ICE AVALANCHE MONITORING FROM THE SATELLITE DATA OF THE SENTINELS" (PDF). International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. 42 (3): 1766. Retrieved 26 May 2020 – via Semantic Scholar.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 31, 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ a b c 夏征农; 陈至立, eds. (September 2009). 辞海:第六版彩图本 [Cihai (Sixth Edition in Color)] (in Chinese). 上海. Shanghai: 上海辞书出版社. Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. p. 2781. ISBN 9787532628599. 1959年改于田县。{...}农、牧业发达,产玉米、小麦、稻、棉花、葡萄、瓜果等。以产玉著名。工业有玉石开采、轧棉、农机修理、果脯加工等。
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved April 21, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-asian-studies/article/philippines-public-policy-and-national-economic-development-by-frank-golay-ithaca-cornell-university-press-1961-xviii-455-map-tables-index-bibliographic-essay/7851EE3274E488CDE43901E06D281B54
  9. ^ https://eurasiantimes.com/how-sanskrit-language-is-associated-with-the-tibetan-and-khotan-region/
  10. ^ Bangwei Wang; Tansen Sen, eds. (1 October 2011), India and China: Interactions through Buddhism and Diplomacy: A Collection of Essays by Professor Prabodh Chandra Bagchi, Anthem Press, p. 186, ISBN 978-0-85728-821-9
  11. ^ Puri, Baij Nath (1987), Buddhism in Central Asia, Motilal Banarsidass, p. 52, ISBN 978-81-208-0372-5
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 21, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "NJ 44 Ho-tien". Washington, D. C.: U.S. Army Topographic Command. 1971 – via Perry–Castañeda Library Map Collection. STEIN 1906-08{...}K'o-lo-ya Ho
  14. ^ a b c d 于田县 - 历史. 于田政府网 (in Chinese). 15 January 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2019. 1920年隶和阗道。1950年属和阗专区。1959年县名简写为于田。1977年属和田地区。
  15. ^ "China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: Cornucopia or Achilles Heel?". June 1981. p. 98 – via Internet Archive.
  16. ^ 新疆于田县今晨发生7.3级地震(图). Sina (in Chinese). 21 March 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  17. ^ Xiwei Xu, Xibin Tan, Guihua Yu, Guodong Wu, Wei Fang, Jianbo Chen, Heping Song, Jun Shen (22 January 2013). "Normal- and oblique-slip of the 2008 Yutian earthquake: Evidence for eastward block motion, northern Tibetan Plateau". Tectonophysics. 584: 152–165. Bibcode:2013Tectp.584..152X. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2012.08.007.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  18. ^ Chris Buckley (12 February 2014). "Earthquake Strikes Remote Area of China". New York Times. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  19. ^ Emily Feng (16 December 2018). "Forced labour being used in China's 're-education' camps". Financial Times. Retrieved 13 December 2019. Two of Xinjiang’s largest internment camps — the Kashgar city and Yutian county vocational training centres — have opened forced labour facilities this year. Yutian’s detention centre boasts eight factories specialising in vocations such as shoemaking, mobile phone assembly and tea packaging, offering a base monthly salary of Rmb1,500 ($220), according to Chinese state media reports. Satellite images show that Kashgar’s internment centre has more than doubled in size since 2016 and Yutian’s grew 269 per cent over the same period, according to a report compiled by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, a think-tank.
  20. ^ a b 兵团第十四师昆玉市225团成立. خوتەن 和田政府网 (in Chinese). 9 May 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2019. 新疆生产建设兵团第十四师昆玉市225团成立暨新城区建设奠基仪式在这里举行。{...}于田县“两场一区”兵地共建筹备领导小组与兵团第十四师昆玉市225团筹备工作领导小组共同签署移交接管协议
  21. ^ a b 2018年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:于田县 [2018 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Yutian County] (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2018. Retrieved 11 December 2019. 统计用区划代码 名称 653226100000 木尕拉镇 653226101000 先拜巴扎镇 653226200000 加依乡 653226201000 科克亚乡 653226202000 阿热勒乡 653226203000 阿日希乡 653226204000 兰干乡 653226205000 斯也克乡 653226206000 托格日尕孜乡 653226207000 喀拉克尔乡 653226208000 奥依托格拉克乡 653226209000 阿羌乡 653226210000 英巴格乡 653226211000 希吾勒乡 653226212000 达里雅布依乡 653226401000 国营(昆仑)种羊场 653226402000 于田监狱 653226500000 兵团二二五团
  22. ^ 于田县行政区. 于田政府网 (in Chinese). 22 March 2018. Archived from the original on 11 December 2019. Retrieved 11 December 2019. 于田县辖2个镇、13个乡:木尕拉镇、先拜巴扎镇、加依乡、科克亚乡、阿热勒乡、阿日希乡、兰干乡、斯也克乡、托格日尕孜乡、喀拉克尔乡、奥依托格拉克乡、阿羌乡、英巴格乡、希吾勒乡、达里雅布依乡。县人民政府驻木尕拉镇。
  23. ^ قۇربانجان قېيۇم, ed. (28 February 2019). ۋۇ گاڭ: ۋەزىپە، مەسئۇلىيىتىمنى تولۇق ئادا قىلىپ، جەمئىيەت كۆڭۈل بۆلۈۋاتقان مەسىلىلەرنى ئىنكاس قىلىمەن. Tianshannet (in Uyghur). Retrieved 13 May 2020. كېرىيە ناھىيەسىنىڭ كۆكيار يېزىسى
  24. ^ huaxia, ed. (17 September 2020). "Full Text: Employment and Labor Rights in Xinjiang". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 20 September 2020. Amina Obul from Siyak Township, Yutian (Keriya) County, Hotan Prefecture
  25. ^ 2009年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:于田县 [2009 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Yutian County] (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2019. 代码 名称 653226100000 木尕拉镇 653226101000 先拜巴扎镇 653226200000 加依乡 653226201000 科克亚乡 653226202000 阿热勒乡 653226203000 阿日希乡 653226204000 兰干乡 653226205000 斯也克乡 653226206000 托格日尕孜乡 653226207000 喀拉克尔乡 653226208000 奥依托格拉克乡 653226209000 阿羌乡 653226210000 英巴格乡 653226211000 希吾勒乡 653226212000 达里亚博依乡 653226400000 拉依苏良种场 653226401000 国营(昆仑)种羊场 653226402000 于田监狱
  26. ^ Herold J. Wiens (November 1966). "Cultivation Development and Expansion in China's Colonial Realm in Central Asia". The Journal of Asian Studies. 26 (1): 75 – via JSTOR.
  27. ^ 3-7 各地、州、市、县(市)分民族人口数 (in Chinese). شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى 新疆维吾尔自治区统计局 Statistic Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. 15 March 2017. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  28. ^ Morris Rossabi, ed. (2004). Governing China's Multiethnic Frontiers (PDF). University of Washington Press. p. 180. ISBN 0-295-98390-6.

See alsoEdit