Working electrode

The working electrode is the electrode in an electrochemical system on which the reaction of interest is occurring.[1][2][3] The working electrode is often used in conjunction with an auxiliary electrode, and a reference electrode in a three electrode system. Depending on whether the reaction on the electrode is a reduction or an oxidation, the working electrode is called cathodic or anodic, respectively. Common working electrodes can consist of materials ranging from inert metals such as gold, silver or platinum, to inert carbon such as glassy carbon, boron doped diamond[4] or pyrolytic carbon, and mercury drop and film electrodes.[5] Chemically modified electrodes are employed for the analysis of both organic and inorganic samples.

Special typesEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Kissinger, Peter; William R. Heineman (1996-01-23). Laboratory Techniques in Electroanalytical Chemistry, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded (2 ed.). CRC. ISBN 978-0-8247-9445-3.
  2. ^ Bard, Allen J.; Larry R. Faulkner (2000-12-18). Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications (2 ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-04372-0.
  3. ^ Zoski, Cynthia G. (2007). Handbook of Electrochemistry. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-51958-0.
  4. ^ Irkham; Watanabe, T.; Fiorani, A.; Valenti, G.; Paolucci, F.; Einaga, Y. (2016). "Co-reactant-on-Demand ECL: Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence by the in Situ Production of S2O82− at Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes". Faraday Discuss. 138 (48): 15636–15641. doi:10.1021/jacs.6b09020. PMID 27934028.
  5. ^ Heard, D. M.; Lennox, A.J.J. (2020-07-06). "Electrode Materials in Modern Organic Electrochemistry". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 59 (43): 18866–18884. doi:10.1002/anie.202005745. PMID 32633073.

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