This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows 9x family of operating systems. It is the successor to Windows 95, and was released to manufacturing on May 15, 1998, and to retail on June 25, 1998. Like its predecessor, it is a hybrid 16-bit and 32-bit monolithic product with the boot stage based on MS-DOS.
|A version of the Windows 9x operating system|
|Source model||Closed source|
|Released to |
|May 15, 1998|
|June 25, 1998|
|Latest release||Second Edition (4.10.2222 A) / May 5, 1999|
|Kernel type||Monolithic kernel|
|Preceded by||Windows 95 (1995)|
|Succeeded by||Windows Me (2000)|
|Mainstream support ended on June 30, 2002|
Extended support ended on July 11, 2006
Windows 98 is a heavily web-integrated operating system that bears numerous similarities to its predecessor, with most of the improvements being cosmetic or designed to improve the user experience, but there are a handful of features that enhance system functionality and capabilities. These include improved USB support and accessibility, as well as support for hardware advancements such as DVD players. It was the first Windows operating system to adopt the Windows Driver Model. It also introduced features that would become standard in future generations of Windows, such as Disk Cleanup, Windows Update, multi-monitor support, and Internet Connection Sharing.
Upon release, Windows 98 was generally well received for its web-integrated interface, ease of use, and addressing issues that had been present in Windows 95, though users had pointed out that it was not significantly more stable than its predecessor. It saw one major update called Windows 98 Second Edition (SE) on May 5, 1999, and it was succeeded by Windows Me on September 14, 2000. Microsoft ended mainstream support for both Windows 98 and 98 SE on June 30, 2002, and extended support on July 11, 2006.
- 1 Development
- 2 New and updated features
- 2.1 Web integration and shell enhancements
- 2.2 Improvements to hardware support
- 2.3 Networking enhancements
- 2.4 Improvements to the system and built-in utilities
- 3 Removed features
- 4 Windows 98 Second Edition
- 5 Upgradeability
- 6 System requirements
- 7 Support lifecycle
- 8 Reception
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Following the success of Windows 95, development of Windows 98 began, initially under the development codename Memphis. The first test version, Windows Memphis Developer Release, was released on June 16, 1996. A pre-beta of Windows 98, it was basically Windows 95 with small changes.
Memphis first entered beta as Windows Memphis Beta 1, released on June 30, 1997. It was followed by Windows 98 Beta 2, which dropped the Memphis name and was released later that year. Microsoft had planned a full release of Windows 98 for the first quarter of 1998, along with a Windows 98 upgrade pack for Windows 95, but it also had a similar upgrade for Windows 3.x operating systems planned for the second quarter. Stacey Breyfogle, a product manager for Microsoft, explained that the later release of the upgrade for Windows 3 was because the upgrade required more testing than that for Windows 95 due to the presence of more compatibility issues, and without user objections, Microsoft merged the two upgrade packs into one and set all of their release dates to the second quarter.
Near its completion, Windows 98 was released as Windows 98 Release Candidate on April 3, 1998, which expired on December 31, 1998. This coincided with a notable press demonstration at COMDEX that month. Microsoft CEO Bill Gates was highlighting the operating system's ease of use and enhanced support for Plug and Play (PnP). However, when presentation assistant Chris Capossela hot plugged a USB scanner in, the operating system crashed, displaying a Blue Screen of Death. Bill Gates remarked after derisive applause and cheering from the audience, "That must be why we're not shipping Windows 98 yet." Video footage of this event became a popular Internet phenomenon.
Microsoft had quietly marketed the operating system as a "tune-up" to Windows 95. It was compiled as Windows 98 on May 11, 1998, before being fully released to manufacturing on May 15. The company was facing pending legal action for allowing free downloads of, and planning to ship Windows licenses with, Internet Explorer 4.0 in an alleged effort to expand its software monopoly. Microsoft's critics believed the lawsuit would further delay Windows 98's public release; it did not, and the operating system was released on June 25, 1998.
A second major version of the operating system called Windows 98 Second Edition was later unveiled in March 1999. Microsoft compiled the final build on April 23, 1999, before publicly releasing it on May 5, 1999.
New and updated featuresEdit
Web integration and shell enhancementsEdit
Windows 98 includes Internet Explorer 4.01 in First Edition and 5.0 in Second Edition. Besides Internet Explorer, many other Internet companion applications are included such as Outlook Express, Windows Address Book, FrontPage Express, Microsoft Chat, Personal Web Server and a Web Publishing Wizard, and NetShow. NetMeeting allows multiple users to hold conference calls and work with each other on a document.
The Windows 98 shell is web-integrated; it contains deskbands, Active Desktop, Channels, ability to minimize foreground windows by clicking their button on the taskbar, single-click launching, Back and Forward navigation buttons, favorites, and address bar in Windows Explorer, image thumbnails, folder infotips and Web view in folders, and folder customization through HTML-based templates. The taskbar supports customizable toolbars designed to speed up access to the Web or the user's desktop; these toolbars include an Address Bar and Quick Launch. With the Address Bar, the user accesses the Web by typing in a URL, and Quick Launch contains shortcuts or buttons that perform system functions such as switching between windows and the desktop with the Show Desktop button. Another feature of this new shell is that dialog boxes show up in the Alt-Tab sequence.
Windows 98 also integrates shell enhancements, themes and other features from Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95 such as DriveSpace 3, Compression Agent, Dial-Up Networking Server, Dial-Up Scripting Tool and Task Scheduler. 3D Pinball Space Cadet is included on the CD-ROM, but not installed by default. Windows 98 had its own separately purchasable Plus! pack, called Plus! 98.
Title bars of windows and dialog boxes support two-color gradients. Windows menus and tooltips support slide animation. Windows Explorer in Windows 98, like Windows 95, converts all uppercase filenames to sentence case for readability purposes; however, it also provides an option Allow all uppercase names to display them in their original case. Windows Explorer includes support for compressed CAB files. The Quick Res and Telephony Location Manager Windows 95 PowerToys are integrated into the core operating system.
Improvements to hardware supportEdit
Windows Driver ModelEdit
Windows 98 was the first operating system to use the Windows Driver Model (WDM). This fact was not well-publicized when Windows 98 was released, and most hardware producers continued to develop drivers for the older VxD driver standard, which Windows 98 supported for compatibility's sake. The WDM standard only achieved widespread adoption years later, mostly through Windows 2000 and Windows XP, as they were not compatible with the older VxD standard. With the Windows Driver Model, developers could write drivers that were compatible with other versions of Windows. Device driver access in WDM is actually implemented through a VxD device driver, NTKERN.VXD which implements several Windows NT-specific kernel support functions. NTKERN creates IRPs and sends them to WDM drivers.
Support for WDM audio enables digital mixing, routing and processing of simultaneous audio streams and kernel streaming with high quality sample rate conversion on Windows 98. WDM Audio allows for software emulation of legacy hardware to support MS-DOS games, DirectSound support and MIDI wavetable synthesis. The Windows 95 11-device limitation for MIDI devices is eliminated. A Microsoft GS Wavetable Synthesizer licensed from Roland shipped with Windows 98 for WDM audio drivers. Windows 98 supports digital playback of audio CDs, and the Second Edition improves WDM audio support by adding DirectSound hardware mixing and DirectSound 3D hardware abstraction, DirectMusic kernel support, KMixer sample-rate conversion for capture streams and multichannel audio support. All audio is sampled by the Kernel Mixer to a fixed sampling rate which may result in some audio getting upsampled or downsampled and having a high latency, except when using Kernel Streaming or third-party audio paths like ASIO which allow unmixed audio streams and lower latency. Windows 98 also includes a WDM streaming class driver (Stream.sys) to address real time multimedia data stream processing requirements and a WDM kernel-mode video transport for enhanced video playback and capture.
Windows Driver Model also includes Broadcast Driver Architecture, the backbone for TV technologies support in Windows. WebTV for Windows utilized BDA to allow viewing television on the computer if a compatible TV tuner card is installed. TV listings could be updated from the Internet and WaveTop Data Broadcasting allowed extra data about broadcasts to be received via regular television signals using an antenna or cable, by embedding data streams into the vertical blanking interval portion of existing broadcast television signals.
Other device support improvementsEdit
Windows 98 had more robust USB support than Windows 95, which only had support in OEM versions OSR2.1 and later. Windows 98 supports USB hubs, USB scanners and imaging class devices. Windows 98 also introduces built-in support for some USB Human Interface Device class (USB HID) and PID class devices such as USB mice, keyboards, force feedback joysticks etc. including additional keyboard functions through a certain number of Consumer Page HID controls.[permanent dead link]
Windows 98 introduced ACPI 1.0 support which enabled Standby and Hibernate states. However, hibernation support was extremely limited, and vendor-specific. Hibernation was only available if compatible (PnP) hardware and BIOS are present, and the hardware manufacturer or OEM supplied compatible WDM drivers, non-VxD drivers. However, there are hibernation issues with the FAT32 file system, making hibernation problematic and unreliable.
Windows 98, in general, provides improved — and a broader range of — support for IDE and SCSI drives and drive controllers, floppy drive controllers and all other classes of hardware than Windows 95. There is integrated Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) support (although the USB Supplement to Windows 95 OSR2 and later releases of Windows 95 did have AGP support). Windows 98 has built-in DVD support and UDF 1.02 read support. The Still imaging architecture (STI) with TWAIN support was introduced for scanners and cameras and Image Color Management 2.0 for devices to perform color space transformations. Multiple monitor support allows using up to nine multiple monitors on a single PC, with the feature requiring one PCI graphics adapter per monitor. Windows 98 shipped with DirectX 5.2, which notably included DirectShow. Windows 98 Second Edition shipped with DirectX 6.1.
Windows 98 networking enhancements to TCP/IP include built-in support for Winsock 2, SMB signing, a new IP Helper API, Automatic Private IP Addressing (also known as link-local addressing), IP multicasting (including IGMPv2 support and ICMP Router Discovery – RFC 1256), and performance enhancements for high-speed high bandwidth networks (TCP large windows and time stamps – RFC 1323, Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) – RFC 2018, TCP Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery). Multihoming support with TCP/IP is improved and includes RIP listener support.
The DHCP client has been enhanced to include address assignment conflict detection and longer timeout intervals. NetBT configuration in the WINS client has been improved to continue persistently querying multiple WINS servers if it failed to establish the initial session until all of the WINS servers specified have been queried or a connection is established.
Network Driver Interface Specification 5 support means Windows 98 can support a wide range of network media, including Ethernet, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), token ring, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), ISDN, wide area networks, X.25, and Frame Relay. Additional features include NDIS power management, support for QoS, Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) and support for a single INF file format across all Windows versions.
Windows 98 Dial-Up Networking supports PPTP tunneling, support for ISDN adapters, multilink support, and connection-time scripting to automate non-standard login connections. Multilink channel aggregation enables users to combine all available dial-up lines to achieve higher transfer speeds. PPP connection logs can show actual packets being passed and Windows 98 allows PPP logging per connection. The Dial-Up Networking improvements are also available in Windows 95 OSR2 and are downloadable for earlier Windows 95 releases.
For networked computers that have user profiles enabled, Windows 98 introduces Microsoft Family Logon which lists all users that have been configured for that computer, enabling users to simply select their names from a list rather than having to type it in.
Windows 98 supports IrDA 3.0 that specifies both Serial Infrared Devices and Fast Infrared devices, which are capable of sending and receiving data at 4 Mbit/s. Infrared Recipient, a new application for transferring files through an infrared connection is included. The IrDA stack in Windows 98 supports networking profiles over the IrCOMM kernel-mode driver. Windows 98 also has built-in support for browsing DFS trees on SMB shares.
UPnP and NAT traversal APIs can be installed on Windows 98 by installing the Windows XP Network Setup Wizard. An L2TP/IPsec VPN client can also be downloaded. By installing Active Directory Client Extensions, Windows 98 can take advantage of several Windows 2000 Active Directory features.
Improvements to the system and built-in utilitiesEdit
Windows 95 introduced the 32-bit, protected-mode cache driver VCACHE, replacing SMARTDrv to cache the most recently accessed information from the hard drive in memory, divided into chunks. However, the cache parameters needed manual tuning as it degraded performance by consuming too much memory and not releasing it quickly enough, forcing paging to occur far too early. The Windows 98 VCACHE cache size management for disk and network access, CD-ROM access and paging is more dynamic compared to Windows 95, resulting in no tuning being required for cache parameters. On the FAT32 file system, Windows 98 has a performance feature called MapCache that can run applications from the disk cache itself if the code pages of executable files are aligned/mapped on 4K boundaries, instead of copying them to virtual memory. This results in more memory being available to run applications, and lesser usage of the swap file.
Windows 98 registry handling is more robust than Windows 95 to avoid corruption and there are several enhancements to eliminate limitations and improve registry performance. The Windows 95 registry key size limitation of 64 KB is gone. The registry uses less memory and has better caching.
WinAlign (Walign.exe and Winalign.exe) are tools designed to optimize the performance of executable code (binaries). WinAlign aligns binary sections along 4 KB boundaries, aligning the executable sections with the memory pages. This allows the Windows 98 MapCache feature to map directly to sections in cache. Walign.exe is included in Windows 98 for automatically optimizing Microsoft Office programs. Winalign.exe is included in the Windows 98 Resource Kit to optimize other programs.
Windows 98 also supports a Fast Shutdown feature that initiates shutdown without uninitializing device drivers. Windows 98 supports write-behind caching for removable disk drives. A utility for converting FAT16 partitions to FAT32 without formatting the partition is also included.
Other system toolsEdit
A number of improvements are made to various other system tools and accessories in Windows 98. Microsoft Backup supports differential backup and SCSI tape devices in Windows 98. Disk Cleanup, a new tool, enables users to clear their disks of unnecessary files. Cleanup locations are extensible through Disk Cleanup handlers. Disk Cleanup can be automated for regular silent cleanups.
Scanreg (DOS) and ScanRegW are Registry Checker tools used to back up, restore or optimize the Windows registry. ScanRegW tests the registry's integrity and saves a backup copy each time Windows successfully boots. The maximum number of copies could be customized by the user through "scanreg.ini" file. The restoration of a registry that causes Windows to fail to boot can only be done from DOS mode using ScanReg.
System Configuration Utility is a new system utility used to disable programs and services that are not required to run the computer. A Maintenance Wizard is included that schedules and automates ScanDisk, Disk Defragmenter and Disk Cleanup. Windows Script Host, with VBScript and JScript engines is built-in and upgradeable to version 5.6. System File Checker checks installed versions of system files to ensure they were the same version as the one installed with Windows 98 or newer. Corrupt or older versions are replaced by the correct versions. This tool was introduced to resolve the DLL hell issue and was replaced in Windows Me by System File Protection.
The Windows 98 Startup Disk contains generic, real-mode ATAPI and SCSI CD-ROM drivers and has been preconfigured to automatically start MS-DOS mode with CD-ROM support enabled. For computers without an operating system and that do not support booting from optical drives, the Startup disk can be used to boot into MS-DOS and automatically start Windows 98 setup from the CD.
The system could be updated using Windows Update. A utility to automatically notify of critical updates was later released.
Windows 98 includes an improved version of the Dr. Watson utility that collects and lists comprehensive information such as running tasks, startup programs with their command line switches, system patches, kernel driver, user drivers, DOS drivers and 16-bit modules. With Dr. Watson loaded in the system tray, whenever a software fault occurs (general protection fault, hang, etc.), Dr. Watson will intercept it and indicate what software crashed and its cause. All of the collected information is logged to the \Windows\DrWatson folder.
Windows Report Tool takes a snapshot of system configuration and lets users submit a manual problem report along with system information to technicians. It has e-mail confirmation for submitted reports.
Windows 98 includes Microsoft Magnifier, Accessibility Wizard and Microsoft Active Accessibility 1.1 API upgradeable to MSAA 2.0. A new HTML Help system with 15 Troubleshooting Wizards was introduced to replace WinHelp.
Users can configure the font in Notepad. Microsoft Paint supports GIF transparency. HyperTerminal supports a TCP/IP connection method, which allows it to be used as a Telnet client. Imaging for Windows is updated. System Monitor supports output to a log file.
- Telephony API (TAPI) 2.1
- DCOM version 1.2
- Ability to list fonts by similarity determined using PANOSE information.
- Tools to automate setup such as Batch 98 and INFInst.exe support error-checking, gathering information automatically to create an INF file directly from the registry of the machine, customizing IE4, shell and desktop settings and adding custom drivers.
- Several other Resource Kit tools are included on the Windows 98 CD.
- Windows 98 has new system event sounds for low battery alarm and critical battery alarm. The new startup sound for Windows 98 was composed by Microsoft sound engineer Ken Kato, who considered it to be a "tough act to follow".
- Windows 98 shipped with Flash Player and Shockwave Player preinstalled.
Windows 98 Second Edition Edit
Windows 98 Second Edition (often shortened to Windows 98 SE and sometimes to Win98 SE) is an updated release of Windows 98, released on May 5, 1999. It includes many bug fixes, improved WDM audio and modem support, improved USB support, the replacement of Internet Explorer 4.0 with Internet Explorer 5.0, Web Folders (WebDAV namespace extension for Windows Explorer), and related shell updates. Also included is basic OHCI-compliant FireWire DV camcorder support (MSDV class driver) and SBP-2 support for mass storage class devices. Wake-On-LAN reenables suspended networked computers due to network activity, and Internet Connection Sharing allows multiple networked client computers to share an Internet connection via a single host computer. Other features in the update include DirectX 6.1 which introduced major improvements to DirectSound and the introduction of DirectMusic, improvements to Asynchronous Transfer Mode support (IP/ATM, PPP/ATM and WinSock 2/ATM support), Windows Media Player 6.1 replacing the older Media Player, Microsoft NetMeeting 3.0, MDAC 2.1 and WMI. A memory overflow issue was resolved which in the older version of Windows 98 would crash most systems if left running for 49.7 days (equal to 232 milliseconds). Windows 98 SE could be obtained as retail upgrade and full version packages, as well as OEM and a Second Edition Updates Disc for existing Windows 98 users. USB audio device class support is present from Windows 98 SE onwards. Windows 98 Second Edition improved WDM support in general for all devices, and it introduced support for WDM for modems (and therefore USB modems and virtual COM ports). Microsoft driver support for both USB printers, and for USB mass-storage device class is not available for Windows 98.
Several components of both Windows 98 and Windows 98 Second Edition can be updated to newer versions. These include:
- Internet Explorer 6 SP1 and Outlook Express 6 SP1
- Windows Media Format Runtime and Windows Media Player 9 Series on Windows 98 Second Edition and Windows Media Player 7.1 on Windows 98 original release.
- Windows Media Encoder 7.1 and Windows Media 8 Encoding Utility
- DirectX 9.0c (the latest compatible runtime is from October 2007.)
- MSN Messenger 7.0
- Significant features from newer Microsoft operating systems can be installed on Windows 98. Chief among them are .NET Framework versions 1.0, 1.1 and 2.0, the Visual C++ 2005 runtime, Windows Installer 2.0, the GDI+ redistributable library, Remote Desktop Connection client 5.2 and the Text Services Framework.
- Several other components such as MSXML 3.0 SP7, Microsoft Agent 2.0, NetMeeting 3.01, MSAA 2.0, ActiveSync 3.8, WSH 5.6, Microsoft Data Access Components 2.81 SP1, WMI 1.5 and Speech API 4.0.
- Office XP is the last version of Microsoft Office to be compatible with Windows 98.
- Although Windows 98 does not fully support Unicode, certain Unicode applications can run by installing the Microsoft Layer for Unicode.
The two major versions of Windows 98 have minimum requirements needed to be run.
|Windows 98||Second Edition|
|Processor||Intel 80486 66 MHz or higher||Pentium processor recommended|
|RAM||16 MB||24 MB||24 MB recommended; it is possible to run on 8 MB machines with /nm option used during the installation process|
||The amount of space required depends on the installation method and the components selected, but virtual memory and system utilities as well as drivers should be taken into consideration.|
|Display||VGA or higher resolution monitor (640×480)|
|Media drive||CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive||Floppy install is possible but slow|
|Input||Microsoft Mouse or compatible pointing device|
Users can bypass hardware requirement checks with the undocumented /NM setup switch. This allows installation on computers with processors as old as the 16 MHz 80486SX.
Both Windows 98 and Windows 98 Second Edition have problems running on hard drives bigger than 32 GB and certain Phoenix BIOS settings. A software update fixed this shortcoming. In addition, until Windows XP with Service Pack 1, Windows was unable to handle hard drives that are over 137 GB in size with the default drivers, because of missing 48-bit Logical Block Addressing support. While Microsoft never officially fixed this issue, unofficial patches are available to fix this shortcoming in Windows 9x, although the author stated that data corruption is possible and did not guarantee that it would work as expected.
Microsoft planned to stop its support for Windows 98 on January 16, 2004. However, because of the continued popularity of the operating system (27% of Google's page views were on Windows 98 systems during October–November 2003), Microsoft decided to maintain support until July 11, 2006. Support for Windows Me also ended on this date. Under minimized software support now the Windows 98 (SE) market share as published by hitslink had diminished slowly to 2.7%. Windows 98 is no longer available in any form due to the terms of Java-related settlements Microsoft made with Sun Microsystems. In 2011, Microsoft removed the update websites for Windows 98 and Windows 98 SE.
Windows 98 was released to generally favorable reviews, with praise directed to its improved graphical user interface and customizability, ease of use,:30–31 and addressing complaints users and critics had with Windows 95. Michael Sweet of Smart Computing characterized it as heavily integrating features of the Internet browser, and found file and folder navigation easier.:30–31 Ed Bott of PC Computing lauded the bug fixes, easier troubleshooting, and support for hardware advances such as DVD players and the USB. However, he also found the operating system to crash only slightly less frequently, and criticized the high upgrade price and system requirements. He rated it four stars out of five.
Windows 98 sold 530,000 licenses in its first four days of availability, overtaking Windows 95's 510,000. It later sold a total of 580,000 and 350,000 licenses in the first and second months of availability, respectively.
By a year since its release, Windows 98 sold a total of 15 million licenses, 2 million more than its predecessor. However, International Data Corporation estimated that of the roughly 89 million shipped computers in the desktop market, the operating system had a market share of 17.2 percent, compared to Windows 95's 57.4 percent. Meanwhile, the two operating systems continued to observe a trend whereby Windows 98 improved in sales performance, whereas Windows 95 dwindled.
- "Microsoft Windows 98 Second Edition Released to Manufacturing". Microsoft. May 5, 1999. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
- Microsoft. "Microsoft Support Lifecycle". Support. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Microsoft (November 15, 2006). "How 16-Bit and 32-Bit Programs Multitask in Windows 95". Support. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Microsoft. "Windows 95 Architecture Components". TechNet. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Microsoft (May 5, 1999). "Microsoft Windows 98 Second Edition Released to Manufacturing". News Center. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Microsoft (June 19, 2000). "Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition Released to Manufacturing". News Center. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Lash, Alex (July 23, 1997). "Memphis is Windows 98". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Lash, Alex (June 30, 1997). "Next Windows goes into full beta". CNET. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Jacobs, April (September 22, 1997). "Users unfazed by Windows 98 delay". Computerworld. Vol. 31 no. 38. p. 3.
- "Microsoft releases Windows 98 Beta 3". Windows IT Pro. December 15, 1997. Archived from the original on September 12, 2013. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Thurrott, Paul (June 25, 1998). "Windows 98 Review". Paul Thurrott's SuperSite for Windows. Archived from the original on July 12, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
- Lefevre, Greg (April 21, 1998). "CNN - Computer users on Windows 98: It's not revolutionary - April 21, 1998". CNN. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
- Mossberg, Walter S. (May 14, 1998). "Windows 98 Offers Users Useful, Not Vital, Features". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
- "General information about Windows 98 and Windows 98 Second Edition hotfixes". Support. Microsoft.
- Paul Thurrott (March 11, 1998). "Windows 98 release date set: June 25". WinInfo. Archived from the original on January 31, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
- John G. Spooner; Mary Jo Foley (March 16, 1999). "Windows 98 second edition?". ZDNet. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
- Stephanie Miles (March 18, 1999). "Windows 98 to be relaunched with new IE". CNET. Archived from the original on August 23, 2000. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
- "Microsoft Windows 98 Second Edition Released to Manufacturing - Stories". May 5, 1999.
- Getting Started: Microsoft Windows 98 1998, p. 21
- Getting Started: Microsoft Windows 98 1998, p. 13
- Getting Started: Microsoft Windows 98 1998, p. 17
- Getting Started: Microsoft Windows 98 1998, p. 20
- Getting Started: Microsoft Windows 98 1998, p. 12
- Smart Computing, June 2000, p. 133
- Getting Started: Microsoft Windows 98 1998, p. 9
- PC Magazine, August 1998, p. 116
- Getting Started: Microsoft Windows 98 1998, p. 55
- Getting Started: Microsoft Windows 98 1998, p. 14
- PC Magazine, August 1998, p. 427
- "Windows 'Prettified' Filenames". microsoft.com. Microsoft.
- "Chapter 28 - Windows 98 Architecture". Microsoft. February 19, 2014. Archived from the original on March 2, 2019. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
- PC Magazine, August 1998, p. 325
- "How to troubleshoot unknown devices that are listed in Device Manager in Windows 2000". Microsoft Support. Microsoft. May 7, 2007. Archived from the original on July 17, 2007.
- PC Magazine, August 1998, p. 328
- "PC Solutions For MIDI Musicians". soundonsound.com.
- "Availability of Universal Serial Bus Support in Windows 95". Microsoft Support. Microsoft. November 15, 2006. Archived from the original on March 4, 2007.
- "Human Interface Devices Design Guide". microsoft.com. Microsoft.
- "Chapter 10 - Disks and File Systems". Microsoft Docs. Microsoft. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
- Getting Started: Microsoft Windows 98 1998, p. 75
- "SLI Odd Couples". Maximum PC. 4 (1): 75. January 1999. ISSN 1522-4279. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
- J. D. Biersdorfer (August 12, 1999). "Q & A: Windows 98, 2d Edition". The New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
- "Overview of Server Message Block signing". microsoft.com. Microsoft.
- PC Magazine, August 1998, p. 135
- "Network Setup Wizard Down Level Setup". Microsoft Developer Network. Microsoft. April 14, 2010. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
- "Chapter 26 - Performance Tuning". Microsoft Technet. Microsoft. February 20, 2014. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
- "Chapter 31 - Windows 98 Registry". microsoft.com. Microsoft.
- "Description of the Walign.exe and Winalign.exe Tools". Microsoft Support. Microsoft. January 23, 2007. Archived from the original on March 18, 2009. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Introducing Windows 98, Second edition.
- "How to Disable Fast Shutdown in Windows 98". Microsoft Support. Microsoft. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009.
- PC Magazine, August 1998, p. 123
- Smart Computing, June 2000, p. 44
- PC Magazine, August 1998, p. 342
- Getting Started: Microsoft Windows 98 1998, p. 79
- PC Magazine, August 1998, p. 131
- Smart Computing, June 2000, p. 31
- "Tools Included with the Microsoft Windows 98 Resource Kit". Microsoft Support. Microsoft. Archived from the original on September 15, 2017. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
- "Interview: 343 Industries Audio Manager – Ken Kato". SpeakHertz. February 19, 2014. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
- "Macromedia Shockwave(TM) and Flash(TM) Players Incorporated Into Windows 98". Free Online Library. Archived from the original on May 20, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
- Sems, Marty (September 1999). "Windows 98 Second Edition". Smart Computing. Vol. 10 no. 9. p. 14. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Mendelson, Edward (May 25, 1999). "Windows 98 Second Edition". PC Magazine. Vol. 18 no. 10. p. 35. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- "Overview of Web Folders in Internet Explorer 5". microsoft.com. Microsoft.
- "The IEEE 1394 Driver Stack". microsoft.com. Microsoft.
- Smart Computing, June 2000, p. 38
- Miles, Stephanie. "Windows may crash after 49.7 days – CNET News". News.cnet.com. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- "DirectX 9.0c End-User Runtime". Microsoft Download Center. October 17, 2007. Retrieved May 11, 2019.
- "System Requirements". Office Support. Microsoft. May 30, 2001. Archived from the original on December 1, 2002. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
- Getting Started: Microsoft Windows 98 1998, p. 26
- Smart Computing, June 2000, p. 30
- "Err Msg: Windows 98 Requires a Computer with a Math Coprocessor". Microsoft Support. January 23, 2007. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
- "Computer May Reboot Continuously with More Than 1.5 GB of RAM". Microsoft Support. Microsoft. Archived from the original on June 2, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
- "Windows 98 Large IDE Update". Microsoft Windows Update. Microsoft. December 28, 1999. Archived from the original on December 5, 2000. Retrieved August 30, 2006.
- "How to enable 48-bit Logical Block Addressing support for ATAPI disk drives in Windows XP". Microsoft Support. Microsoft. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
- "Zeitgeist". Google Press Center. Google. October–November 2003. Retrieved April 22, 2006.
- Ward, Mark (July 11, 2006). "Microsoft shuts down Windows 98". BBC News Online. BBC News. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- "July 2006 market share by Hitslink". marketshare.hitslink.com. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- "What products are included with MSDN subscriptions?". Microsoft Developer Network. Microsoft. Archived from the original on August 29, 2017. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
- "Smart Computing". Vol. 9 no. 8. Sandhills Publishing. August 1998. Cite magazine requires
- Bott, Ed (July 1998). "Windows 98: Worth the Wait?". PC Computing. pp. 80–81.
- Lohr, Steve (July 1, 1998). "Microsoft's Windows 98 Sells Much Better Than Expected". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
- "Windows XP sales lag". CNET. January 31, 2002. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
- "Windows 95 remains most popular operating system". CNET. July 20, 1999. Archived from the original on July 23, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
- "PC Magazine". Vol. 17 no. 14. August 1998. Retrieved October 9, 2019. Cite magazine requires
- "Smart Computing". Vol. 6 no. 6. June 2000. Retrieved October 10, 2019. Cite magazine requires
- Getting Started: Microsoft Windows 98. Microsoft. 1998. Retrieved October 11, 2019.