The Williamsburg Bridge is a suspension bridge in New York City across the East River connecting the Lower East Side of Manhattan at Delancey Street with the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn at Broadway near the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (Interstate 278). Completed in 1903, it was the longest suspension bridge span in the world until 1924.
Seen in May 2007
|Carries||8 lanes of roadway,|
2 tracks of the trains of the New York City Subway,
pedestrians, and bicycles
|Locale||Manhattan and Brooklyn, in New York City|
|Maintained by||New York City Department of Transportation|
|Design||Suspension bridge and truss causeways|
|Total length||7,308 feet (2,227 m)|
|Width||118 feet (36 m)|
|Longest span||1,600 feet (490 m)|
|Clearance above||10 feet 6 inches (3.2 m) (inner roadways only)|
|Clearance below||135 feet (41 m) at mean high water|
|Designer||Leffert L. Buck|
|Opened||December 19, 1903|
|Daily traffic||105,465 (2016)|
Location within New York City
The bridge is one of four toll-free crossings between Manhattan and Long Island. The others are the Queensboro, Manhattan, and Brooklyn Bridges. The Williamsburg Bridge once carried New York State Route 27A and was planned to carry Interstate 78, though the planned I-78 designation was aborted by the cancellation of the Lower Manhattan Expressway and Bushwick Expressway.
Construction on the "East River Bridge", the second across the East River, began in 1896 after approval by the Governor of New York on May 27, 1895. The new bridge was to be built north of the Grand Street Ferry, terminating at Delancey and Clinton Streets on the Manhattan side and at South Fifth Street and Driggs Avenue on the Brooklyn side. Leffert L. Buck was the chief engineer, Henry Hornbostel was the architect, and Holton D. Robinson was the assistant engineer.
Engineers first constructed caissons on either side to support the future bridge. The caisson on the Manhattan side was completed in May 1897, upon which time the caisson on the Brooklyn side was launched. The caissons were manufactured in a shipyard in Williamsburg. In January 1898, Mayor Robert Anderson Van Wyck removed the members of the East River Bridge Commission due to "charges of extravagance". A commission of six people appointed by the state was proposed, but the bill was rejected.
As part of the Williamsburg Bridge's construction, the section of Delancey Street between the bridge's western end and the Bowery was widened. The portion of Spring Street between the Bowery and Lafayette Street was also expanded. This was the third plan for the bridge's western approaches that was publicly announced. Public opposition had caused the cancellation of previous proposals, which included a wide street extending from the end of the bridge to either Cooper Square or the intersection of Houston Street and Second Avenue. To accommodate the bridge's approaches, 600 houses were demolished in total, including 330 on the Manhattan side and 270 on the Brooklyn side. More than 10,000 people were evicted from these houses during construction.
The bridge's supporting wires were ready to be installed by February 1901. The first temporary wires between the East River Bridge's two towers was strung on April 9, 1901. They were to be replaced later with permanent, thicker main cables on both sides of the bridge's deck. The main cables were each 18.75 inches (47.6 cm) thick and made up of 7,696 smaller cables twisted together. These cables had been fully strung by April 16, and work on the bridge's pedestrian deck begun soon afterward. The pedestrian path on the East River Bridge was completed in June 1901. Afterward, construction progressed at a fast pace, owing to the ease of manufacturing the steel. Ornamental lights were also placed on the bridge. The East River Bridge was renamed the "Williamsburg Bridge", after its Brooklyn terminus, in 1902.
There were several deaths during construction. They included a worker who fell from the Manhattan approach in May 1900; the main steelwork engineer, who fell from the Brooklyn approach in September 1900; and a foreman who drowned in March 1902. Additionally, a fire occurred on the Brooklyn side's tower in November 1902, which nearly severed the bridge's cables.
The bridge opened on December 19, 1903, at a cost of $24.2 million ($624 million in 2016). At the time it was constructed, the Williamsburg Bridge set the record for the longest suspension bridge span in the world. The record stood until 1924, when the Bear Mountain Bridge was completed.
Originally, the Williamsburg Bridge was used mainly by trolley lines and railways (see § Rail tracks). In January 1932, it was agreed to convert the pair of trolley tracks on the south side of the bridge to an 18-foot-wide (5.5 m) roadway. These trolley tracks were closed because they were deemed "unsafe". Three more concrete roadways were added in 1941 as part of a Works Progress Administration project.
Decades of deferred maintenance caused the Williamsburg Bridge to deteriorate significantly. This was worsened by a design flaw during construction: instead of galvanizing the main cables to prevent their corrosion, workers placed a mixture of "slushing oil" as a cost-saving measure. By 1912, some of the smaller cables in the bridge's anchorages had already snapped. In 1922, a galvanized sheath was placed around each of the main cables. However, damage still occurred, and in 1934, water in the main cables caused the wires to rust. In 1944 and again in 1963, workers poured oil treatments onto the cables in attempts to prevent the corrosion. Workers later added several support towers on either side of the main span to supplement the suspension towers. In 1969, inspectors found varying degrees of corrosion under the bridge's outer roadways. A 1978 study of the Williamsburg Bridge, as well as of five other bridges in New York City, found that there were varying degrees of corrosion on the main cables' individual strands. Cracks were also found in the bridge structure itself. Out of the six bridges examined in 1978, the Williamsburg Bridge was the only crossing that was found to have corroded suspension cables.
A subsequent study concluded that the bridge needed either new cables or a replacement. It was decided to replace the cables because that was cheaper than a wholesale replacement. However, engineers also considered the option of replacing the bridge if the cable replacement project became too expensive. The cable replacement was also complex, since the process had to occur while the bridge was still in operation.
The bridge continued to decay: in May 1987, two support bars fell from the outer roadway. By January 1988, it was determined that the four main suspension cables were only two-thirds as strong as they were supposed to be. Without any maintenance, the main cables would only be able to hold up the span until 1995. The New York State Department of Transportation applied for funding to rebuild the bridge, which was projected to cost $250 million and take ten years. Every third rope in the suspension had already been replaced in 1985. However, more than 200 cables in the suspension had snapped, and pieces of concrete were falling from the bridge. The bridge's structural integrity was rated as 1.6 out of a scale of 1 to 7.
Inspectors were appointed to monitor the bridge's status and make temporary bridge closures based on the amount of stress placed on the bridge. The bridge was closed to motor vehicle traffic and subway trains on April 11, 1988, after a painter noticed a large hole in a girder; upon further review, inspectors also discovered severe corrosion in a floor beam. An inspection in May 1988 found 290 "flag conditions" where the steelwork of the bridge could malfunction, potentially causing the bridge to collapse. Most of these "flags" were limited to the approaches, but one flag condition was found in the elevated subway structure within the suspension span. The Williamsburg Bridge was partially reopened at the end of May, in time for the Memorial Day holiday. Mayor Ed Koch decided that it would be cheaper to rebuild the bridge rather than replace it. To alleviate the loads on the bridge, it was reopened in three phases: first to cars, then to subways, and finally to trucks.
The bridge was rebuilt through much of the 1990s and 2000s. The cast iron stairway on the Manhattan side, and the steep ramp from Driggs Avenue on the Williamsburg side, were replaced to allow handicapped access per the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. A decrepit walkway on the Williamsburg Bridge was closed in June 1991, and it reopened as a bike path in March 1992. Since the new bike path opened, the bridge has become the most heavily bicycled span in North America. Cable replacement started in April 1992. The subway tracks along the bridge were closed in April 1999 to allow the reconstruction of the subway structure. The tracks reopened in September of that year. Also in 1999, Gandhi Engineering designed and rebuilt the other pedestrian pathway along the Williamsburg Bridge. The rebuilt walkways carried both pedestrian and bike traffic because the pathways were only 12 feet (3.7 m) wide, and were too narrow to carry segregated traffic. The final two vehicular lanes on the renovated span were reopened in 2002.
A celebration was held on June 22, 2003, to mark the 100th anniversary of the bridge, and the area surrounding Continental Army Plaza was filled with musical performers, exhibits on the history of the bridge, and street vendors. Dignitaries marched across the bridge carrying the 45-star American flag used in a game of capture the flag played by workers after the placement of the final cable in June 1902. A truck-sized birthday cake was specially made for the event by Domino Sugar, which had a factory on the East River waterfront near the bridge. The ornamental lights on the bridge were re-lighted in November of that year after being turned off for eight months due to a lack of funds.
In 2016, a local resident launched a campaign to rename the bridge for jazz musician Sonny Rollins, who practiced on the bridge almost every day from 1959 to 1961, while he was living on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. His 1962 album The Bridge, produced on his return from his 3-year sabbatical, was named after the bridge.
In 2017, it was announced that between April 2019 and June 2020, during the 14th Street Tunnel shutdown, traffic restrictions would be implemented on the Williamsburg Bridge during the daytime. The restrictions would take place seven days a week between 5 a.m. and 10 p.m. The bridge would be restricted to buses, trucks, and vehicles with more than 3 passengers during these times. The peak-hour high-occupancy vehicle restriction would allow the Williamsburg Bridge to accommodate three Select Bus Service bus rapid transit routes between Brooklyn and Manhattan. It was projected that during the shutdown, 70 buses in each direction would travel across the Williamsburg Bridge every hour. This was later revised upward to 80 buses per hour.:38 However, in January 2019, it was announced that the 14th Street Tunnel would not completely shut down. As a result, New York City Transit Authority head Andy Byford stated that the Williamsburg Bridge's HOV lanes were no longer needed.
The Williamsburg Bridge has an unconventional structure among suspension bridges; though the main span hangs from cables in the usual manner, the side spans leading to the approaches are supported by trusswork, drawing no support from the cables above. The main span of the bridge is 1,600 feet (490 m) long. The entire bridge is 7,308 feet (2,227 m) long, including approaches, and the deck is 118 feet (36 m) wide. The height at the center of the bridge is 135 feet (41 m) and each tower is 310 feet (94 m), with these measurements being taken from the river's surface at high-water mark.
The Brooklyn landing is between Grand Street and Broadway, which both had ferries prior to the bridge's construction. The five ferry routes operated from the landings went out of business by 1908.
In reference to the area’s large Yiddish-speaking population, a sign on the westbound approach to the bridge reads, "Leaving Brooklyn: Oy Vey!" Another sign says "Leaving Brooklyn, Fuhgeddaboudit!" The two signs were proposed by former Brooklyn borough president Marty Markowitz in the early 2000s.
The 1928 Edward Hopper painting From Williamsburg Bridge (https://www.wikiart.org/en/edward-hopper/from-williamsburg-bridge-1928)depicts a building as seen from the bridge's walkway. The building has since been demolished, and the walkway has been reconstructed.
In 1996, artist Chris Doyle gilded the steps to the pedestrian walkway of the bridge. The project, known as "Commutable", was sponsored by the Public Art Fund, and transformed the decrepit and dangerous stairway into a monument to the thousands of everyday bicycle and walking commuters.
The Williamsburg and Manhattan bridges are the only suspension bridges in New York City that still carry both automobile and rail traffic. On the Williamsburg Bridge, there were once two sets of trolley tracks (four tracks in total), in addition to the two subway tracks currently on the bridge that connect the New York City Subway's BMT Nassau Street Line and BMT Jamaica Line.
- Williamsburg Bridge Local, 1904–1948
- Nostrand Avenue Line, 1904–1923 and 1931–1948
- Ralph Avenue Line, 1905–1908; Ralph and Rockaway Avenues Line, 1908–1923 and 1931–1948
- Tompkins Avenue Line, 1906–1923 and 1931–1947
- Reid Avenue Line, 1904–1923 and 1931–1937
- Broadway Line, 1904–1923
- Franklin Avenue Line, 1904–1923
- Grand Street Line, 1904–1923
- Sumner Avenue Line, 1904–1923
- Wilson Avenue Line, 1904–1923
- Bushwick Avenue Line, 1904–1921
- Nostrand-Culver Line and Nostrand-Prospect Line, 1906–1919
Two north-side tracks carried Manhattan streetcars:
- Grand Street Line, 1904–1932
- Post Office Line, 1919-1932
- Seventh Avenue-Brooklyn Line, 1911-1919
- 8th Street Crosstown Line, 1904–1911
- 14th Street-Williamsburg Bridge Line, 1904–1911
- Fourth Avenue and Williamsburg Bridge Line, 1904–1911
The rapid transit tracks in the center of the bridge were initially used by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT) elevated railroad. Today, the New York City Subway's J, M, and Z trains, successors to the BRT/BMT lines, use these tracks at the following times:
|All times except late nights|
|Rush hours in peak direction|
At the foot of the bridge in Williamsburg between South 5th Place and Havemeyer Street in Brooklyn are three public areas that, collectively, comprise the Williamsburg Bridge Plaza, also known as Washington Plaza or George Washington Monument Park. It contains Continental Army Plaza and LaGuardia Playground, both operated by the Parks Department, as well as the Williamsburg Bridge Plaza Bus Terminal, which serves numerous bus lines to Brooklyn and Queens. The plaza is named after the large statue of George Washington in Continental Army Plaza erected in 1906.
In popular cultureEdit
- The 1928 Edward Hopper painting "From Williamsburg Bridge" depicts a long-gone building as seen from the bridge's since remodeled walkway.
- The bridge appears in both The Crew and its 2018 sequel as a driveable bridge.
- The Williamsburg Bridge appears in the films Fighting Death (1914); a lost film, City for Conquest (1940), A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (1945), The Naked City (1948), The French Connection (1971), Serpico and Live and Let Die (both 1973), Once Upon a Time in America (1984), Johnny Suede (1991), Scent of a Woman (1992), American Gangster (2007), The Siege (1998), Léon (1994), The Naked Brothers Band: The Movie (2005), and The Dark Knight Rises and The Amazing Spider-Man (both 2012).
- The bridge is mentioned several times in the novel A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (1943) by Betty Smith. It is also referenced in the novels The Alienist (1994) by Caleb Carr and City of Bones, the first book of The Mortal Instruments. A scene in the book The Last Olympian takes place on the bridge.
- In the 1990 movie “Jacob’s Ladder”, actor Tim Robbins walks under the bridge at the intersection of Driggs and Broadway then enters the walkway where he is subsequently chased by a phantom vehicle
- It is mentioned in several songs as well. East Bay rockers Black Cat Music have a song titled "Williamsburg Bridge Song". The song "True Dreams of Wichita", by Soul Coughing, includes the lyric "And you can stand on the arms of the Williamsburg Bridge crying 'Hey man, well this is Babylon'" The area by the bridge was the location for Depeche Mode's 1990 single "Policy Of Truth". It was also used as cover art for their following song "World In My Eyes". The Korean group BIGBANG filmed their "Bad Boy" music video on and around the bridge in 2012. Finally, Grammy-winning singer-songwriter Susan McKeown's 2012 album Belong opens with a duet with fellow Irish singer-songwriter Declan O'Rourke entitled "On The Bridge to Williamsburg".
- From 1959-61, during a sabbatical from performing, American jazz saxophonist Sonny Rollins would go to the Williamsburg Bridge for practice sessions in order to spare a neighboring expectant mother the noise. His 1962 album The Bridge, produced on his return from retirement, was titled after the bridge.
- In 1996, artist Chris Doyle gilded the steps to the pedestrian walkway of the bridge. The project, known as "Commutable", was sponsored by the Public Art Fund, and transformed the decrepit and dangerous stairway into a monument to the thousands of everyday bicycle and walking commuters.
- Aerialist Seanna Sharpe used the top of the bridge to stage an acrobatic performance on July 12, 2011.
- The video for "The Story Is..." by London based Folk-Punk band Skinny Lister uses footage of an urban explorer climbing one of the suspension towers of the bridge.
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- "EAST RIVER BRIDGE TOWER IN FLAMES; Great Cables of Williamsburg Structure Endangered. PASSING CRAFT IN PERIL Rain of Fiery Bolts from Blazing Shanties Over 300 Feet in the Air. Fireman Struck by White Hot Iron Bolt -- Two Companies of Fire Fighters Cut Off Part Way Up Manhattan Tower -- Man Reported Missing" (PDF). The New York Times. November 11, 1902. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "TWO MEN FALL SEVENTY FEET.; One Killed, Other Terribly Injured at New East River Bridge Anchorage" (PDF). The New York Times. May 12, 1900. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "FELL 85 FEET TO DEATH; Chief Engineer C.E. Bedell Slips Off New Bridge Span. Ambulance Surgeon Refused to Take the Dying Man to Hospital Unless Paid $5" (PDF). The New York Times. September 29, 1900. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "WORKMAN DROPS 168 FEET FROM EAST RIVER BRIDGE.; George Shauer Is Drowned Before Boats Reach Him -- Foreman Says Police Patrol Boat Had No Guard" (PDF). The New York Times. March 25, 1902. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "NEW BRIDGE IN A GLORY OF FIRE; Wind-Up of Opening Ceremonies a Brilliant Scene. BIG FLEET IN PARADE Daylight Dedication Ceremonies and Night Spectacle Witnessed by Immense Crowds -- Enthusiasm on Both Sides of the River" (PDF). The New York Times. December 20, 1903. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "BEST TELLS HOW CARS WILL CROSS BRIDGE; Commissioner Says Traffic Will Be Handled "Reasonably." 3-CENT FARE ON BRIDGE CARS Underground Trolleys to Have Two Tracks -- Brooklyn System to Get Another Pair" (PDF). The New York Times. June 4, 1904. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "AUTO ROAD PLANNED OR EAST RIVER SPAN; City Moves to Convert Two Abandoned Trolley Lines Into Traffic Lanes. MANY AWAIT OLD CARS But B.M.T. Runs Extra Trolleys Across Williamsburg Bridge to Care for Rush" (PDF). The New York Times. January 22, 1932. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- "BANS TROLLEY LINES ON EAST RIVER SPAN; Transit Board Orders Service Across Williamsburg Bridge Discontinued Today. TRACKS ARE HELD UNSAFE B.M.T. Is Ordered to Provide Ex- tra Trains for 5,000 Using the Two Abandoned Routs Daily" (PDF). The New York Times. 1932. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- "NEW BRIDGE LANES OPENED; Williamsburg Span Traffic Using Three Extra Roadways" (PDF). The New York Times. July 11, 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
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