This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Motto||Mens Sana In Corpore Sano|
(Sound Mind in Sound Body)
|Established||1821, Preparatory school |
|Endowment||$73 million (2012)|
|President||Julie E. Wollman|
|Undergraduates||3,204 (2,790 day, 414 evening)|
|Postgraduates||3,260 (1,598 law students)|
|Campus||Urban, 108 acres (.44 km²)|
|Colors||Widener Blueand Gold|
|Athletics||20 varsity teams, Division III (MAC)|
|Nickname||Pride (introduced in 2006), formerly the Pioneers and the Cadets (when PMC)|
Founded as The Bullock School for Boys in 1821, the school was established in Wilmington, Delaware. It became The Alsop School for Boys from 1846 to 1853, and then Hyatt's Select School for Boys from 1853 to 1859. Military instruction was introduced in 1858, and the school changed its name in 1859 to Delaware Military Academy. It moved to Pennsylvania in 1862 and became Chester County Military Academy. It was known as Pennsylvania Military College after 1892 and adopted the Widener name in 1972.
About 3,300 undergraduates and 3,300 graduate students attend Widener in eight degree-granting schools. The university offers associate's, baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral degrees in areas ranging from traditional liberal arts to professional programs. The Carnegie Foundation classifies Widener as a Doctoral/Research University and a Community Engagement Institution.
Widener University was founded in 1821 as the Bullock School for Boys preparatory school in Wilmington, Delaware, by John Bullock. Bullock operated the school until 1846, when it was sold to Samuel Alsop and renamed the Alsop School for Boys. In 1853, the school was sold to Theodore Hyatt and renamed the Hyatt's Select School for Boys, and again in 1859 to the Delaware Military Academy. In 1862, the school moved to West Chester, Pennsylvania. By act of assembly on April 8, 1862, the Pennsylvania legislature incorporated the school as a university under the name of Chester County Military Academy. In 1865, the school moved to Chester, Pennsylvania, and occupied the building which would become the Old Main building of the Crozer Theological Seminary. By 1868, the school outgrew the Crozer Old Main building and relocated to its current location.
From 1892 to 1972, the school was known as Pennsylvania Military College (PMC) and was under the direction of General Charles Hyatt. In 1869, Pennsylvania Military College was the first school to have a U.S. Army detail stationed at the school and to receive federal arms for training. In 1904, the school was recognized on the first list of distinguished institutions published by the U.S. War Department. In 1923, "American March King" John Philip Sousa wrote and dedicated "The Dauntless Battalion" march to PMC's President (Colonel Charles E. Hyatt), the faculty and the cadets of PMC. Sousa had been presented with an honorary doctor of music degree by the college in 1920, and he was impressed by the cadet cavalry horsemen.
In 1966, the school changed its name again to PMC Colleges, which incorporated Pennsylvania Military College as well as Penn Morton College, which had a non-military, co-educational curriculum. The school expanded the Chester campus from 25 acres to 90 acres. Graduate programs were introduced in 1966, and female students were first enrolled in 1967.
In 1972, the institution was renamed Widener College to honor the memory of Eleanor Elkins Widener, the maternal grandmother of Fitz Eugene Dixon Jr., a generous supporter of the organization over four decades and a member of the prominent Widener family of Philadelphia. The Corps of Cadets disbanded, although an Army ROTC program was retained. The School of Law was acquired in 1975, which was split in 2015 to become two separate law schools: one on the Delaware campus and another in Harrisburg. In recognition of its comprehensive offerings, Widener College became Widener University in 1979. Today, Widener is a four-campus university offering more than 80 programs of study.
The Manor House was designed and built by Jonathan Edwards Woodbridge in 1888 at 14th and Potter Street. It was a wedding gift to his wife, Louise Deshong, and was originally named "The Louise". It was modeled after the late 19th-century English country manor style and is unique for its hand-made brick construction.
The house was given to the city of Chester as a home for young women. In 1976, Widener University purchased the home for use as a student residence. It later became home to the Phi Sigma Sigma sorority. The home is currently used by Widener University as a student dormitory.
Throughout its long history, the university has undergone several name changes. The following table details the various names Widener has held over the years as well as any significant organizational changes that occurred during each period.
|1821–1846||The Bullock School for Boys, founded by John Bullock in Wilmington, Delaware|
|1846–1853||The Alsop School for Boys|
|1853–1859||Hyatt's Select School for Boys
|1859–1862||Delaware Military Academy|
|1862–1892||Pennsylvania Military Academy|
|1892–1966||Pennsylvania Military College (also known as PMC)|
|1966–1972||PMC Colleges (for Pennsylvania Military College and Penn Morton College, the civilian component)
Widener consists of four campuses, the Main Campus in Chester, Pennsylvania, plus campuses in Wilmington, Delaware, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and Exton, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1866 after the school moved to Chester, the 108-acre (0.44 km2) main campus consists of over 100 buildings and serves all undergraduate day students as well as Continuing Studies, Osher Lifelong Learning Institute (OLLI) students, and graduate students. Widener's graduate programs include business, education, engineering, nursing, social work, physical therapy, and clinical psychology.
The School of Law, which opened in 1976 on the Delaware Campus, consists of 16 buildings across 40 acres (160,000 m2) and is 12 miles (19 km) from the Main Campus. It contains the School of Law (shared with the Harrisburg Campus) as well as the Legal Education Institute. Some classes for Continuing Studies students and graduate business students are also held here. The 21-acre (85,000 m2) Harrisburg Campus, opening in 1989, contains the School of Law (shared with the Delaware Campus) and has graduate programs in nursing and social work held there. In July 2015, Widener School of Law, which used to be one school sitting on the Delaware and Harrisburg campuses, split to become Delaware Law School in Wilmington and Widener Law Commonwealth in Harrisburg.
Starting in 2004, the Exton Campus was added to Widener's growing institution. It is located in a business park 25 miles (40 km) from the Main Campus. It primarily serves Continuing Studies students and contains Widener's Osher Lifelong Learning Institute (OLLI), which provides continuing education programs for retired adults.
Widener's comprehensive offerings range from liberal arts to professional programs and include over 50 undergraduate majors, 40 minors, and more than 30 graduate programs of study. In particular, programs in engineering, computer science, business, nursing, and hospitality management have generated the most praise from students according to a survey conducted by The Princeton Review. Widener offers a variety of majors and minors. Widener has an undergraduate student to faculty ratio of 12:1 with 90% of the full-time faculty having doctorates or the highest degree in their field. In addition, class sizes are kept small with 60% of all classes containing less than 20 students.
All undergraduate students enrolled in Widener University have the opportunity to earn a Leadership Certificate by attending 18 one-hour workshops and writing a brief reflection on the experience. Once these workshops are completed the student must then present their own leadership philosophy based on the ideals they learned through attending these workshops. Each workshop can be attended by up to 25 students and is led by a member of the Oskin Leadership Institute or a student who has obtained their Certificate. The program began in fall 2013, and since then nearly 1,000 students and staff alike have attended at least one workshop. This Oskin Leadership Institute is a way to build student's character, make them better and more involved citizens, and help them create positive change in their community or in the people around them.
Libraries and museumsEdit
The Wolfgram Memorial Library contains 242,000 volumes, 175,000 microfilms, 12,000 audio-visual materials and 1,960 serial subscriptions.
In 1979, Widener University leased and restored the Deshong Art Museum located on Edgemont Avenue in Chester. The Deshong Art Museum was built in 1914 after the death of the art collector and wealthy industrialist Alfred O. Deshong left his trust and land to the city of Chester. Deshong donated over 300 pieces of art to the museum including carved Japanese ivory figures, Chinese carved hard stone vessels and 19th century American and European paintings.
Over the years, the museum fell into disrepair and in July 1984 the trustees that managed the art museum dissolved the trust. The Asian and impressionistic art collection were given to Widener University and are displayed in their permanent collection.
The PMC Museum highlights the legacy of the Pennsylvania Military Academy of Cadets with exhibits of sabres, uniforms, scrapbooks, newspapers and yearbooks.
Rankings and classificationsEdit
In 2010, Washington Monthly magazine ranked Widener 56th out of all national universities in the country. These rankings are based on how well a university benefits the country including such factors as promoting social mobility, scientific and humanistic research, and service, including ROTC and the Peace Corps.
In 2013, Widener was named a finalist for the President's Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll Presidential award - one of only 14 institutions in the nation to receive that honor. The university has made the honor roll every year since its inception in 2006. The 2018 Best Colleges list from U.S. News and World Report ranked Widener as tied for 192nd among 311 national universities, with a score of 32 out of 100. It also ranks Widener's undergraduate engineering program 103rd among all 200 programs whose highest engineering degree is a bachelor's or master's. Out of the 262 national universities ranked, Widener is 55th in the category "Highest Proportion of Classes Under 20 Students". The U.S. News and World Report's 2008 Best Graduate Schools ranks several of Widener's graduate programs: clinical psychology → #145, health care management → #49, nursing → #141, physical therapy → #173, and social work → #140.
The Carnegie Foundation classifies Widener as a Doctoral/Research University whose undergraduate population is highly residential and selective. It also one of 76 institutions classified as a Community Engagement Institution; only 2 other schools in the Philadelphia region share this classification, University of Pennsylvania and Bryn Mawr College.
Widener has 22 varsity teams (11 for men and 11 for women) participating in Division III within the MAC Commonwealth of the Middle Atlantic Conferences (MAC). Formerly known as the Pioneers, their nickname changed to the Pride in the Fall of 2006 after a student poll. Widener sports teams include:
- Men's and Women's varsity: basketball, cross country, lacrosse, soccer, swimming, indoor track and field, outdoor track and field, volleyball and golf.
- Men's varsity: baseball and football
- Women's varsity: field hockey and softball
- Club sports: men's ice hockey, men's rugby union, women's rugby, and cheerleading
The football team has had recent success winning the MAC championship in 2012 and an "Elite 8" appearance in the Division III Playoffs, the ECAC Southwest Bowl in 2011, and the ECAC South Atlantic Bowl in 2005. Its greatest success has been winning the NCAA Division III National Championship in 1977 and 1981 under long-time coach Bill Manlove and reaching the semi-finals in 1979, 1980, and 2000. Widener also reached the quarterfinals of the tournament in 2012 before losing to eventual NCAA D-III National Champion, Mount Union, by a lopsided 72-17 score. In 2014, the team again won the MAC championship and eventually lost in the NCAA Division III tournament in the "Elite Eight" to Linfield by a score of 45-7. Additionally, Widener football has won 17 MAC championships, the most of any team in the conference. Billy "White Shoes" Johnson played for Widener in the early 70s. He went on to be an all-pro NFL player and was selected to the NFL 75th Anniversary All-Time Team as well as the College Football Hall of Fame.
The men's basketball team has won 15 MAC titles and appeared in the NCAA Division III Tournament 17 times, advancing to the "Sweet 16" in 1987 and 2006, the "Final 4" in 1985, and the championship game in 1978. The men's lacrosse team has appeared in the NCAA Tournament 8 times since 2000 and has won 12 MAC titles since 1996. The men's swimming team has won 12 MAC titles since 1994.
The Schwartz Athletic Center is home to basketball, swimming, indoor track, and volleyball. It houses a newly renovated 25-yard (23 m) by 25 meter 10-lane competition swimming pool, squash/racquetball courts, and administrative offices for the athletic department. Schwartz is also home to the new Wellness Center, opened in April 2006 to provide the faculty, staff, and students with additional recreational and fitness opportunities. In addition to exercise equipment, the Wellness Center provides fitness classes and a 24-foot (7.3 m) rock climbing wall.
Opening in 1994, Leslie C. Quick Jr. Stadium seats over 4,000 people and has a turf playing field surrounded by an 8-lane track. The stadium houses the football, soccer, men's lacrosse, and outdoor track & field teams. In addition, Edith R. Dixon Field, opening in 2005, houses the women's field hockey and lacrosse teams. It sports an artificial turf, lighting, and a scoreboard. The field is also used for the intramural teams.
The Philadelphia Eagles held their summer training camp on Widener's campus between 1973 and 1979. The 2006 movie Invincible depicts the campus during the Eagles' 1976 summer training camp. Since 2006, the Philadelphia Soul have held practices at Widener as well.
Widener enrolls approximately 6,300 total students including 3,600 undergraduate, 1,700 graduate students, and 1,000 law school students. Among full-time undergraduate students, the male/female ratio is about 0.8:1 (44% male, 56% female). 48% of undergraduates choose to live on the Main Campus while the remaining students live off-campus or commute. Approximately 54% of all full-time undergraduates are from Pennsylvania with 45% coming from the rest of the country (predominantly Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Virginia), and 1% of students originating from outside the U.S. The acceptance rate for undergraduate applicants in fall 2013 was 65.5%.
Student clubs and eventsEdit
The university has over 100 student clubs including honor societies, religious organizations, media groups, and special interest clubs. Greek Week, Spring Carnival, and Homecoming are among the popular events on campus. Graduate students are currently not allowed to participate in club sports activities.
Media is big on Widener's campus. The Blue&Gold: Widener University's Student Media Site was established in spring 2013. This outlet for student reporting has been growing ever since, telling the news and giving students a voice on campus. TV Club is Widener's student-run television program. WDNR is the student-run campus radio station that plays a variety of music including hip-hop, rock, metal, and punk.
Fraternity and sorority lifeEdit
Widener is one of only 22 colleges that is a member of Project Pericles, an organization promoting social responsibility and addressing civic apathy among students. It is also one of only 76 institutions classified as a Community Engagement Institution by The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Only two other schools in the Philadelphia region share this classification - University of Pennsylvania and Bryn Mawr College.
Widener has several initiatives aimed at benefiting the surrounding community. These include:
- Pennsylvania Small Business Development Center — The school opened the center in 2006 to provide consulting and educational programs to local small businesses and entrepreneurs. It is one of only 18 in the state and one of 3 in the Philadelphia region (with Temple University and University of Pennsylvania).
- Philadelphia Speakers Series — Since 2004, Widener has sponsored this series which has had such notable speakers as Steve Wozniak, Henry Kissinger, Walter Cronkite and Dave Barry.
- University Technology Park — A joint project started in 1999 between the university and Crozer-Keystone Health System to foster small business opportunities focusing on health care, science and technology. It currently consists of two buildings (with three more planned) on 20 acres (81,000 m2) and is located directly in between the Main Campus and Crozer-Keystone Medical Center.
- Widener University Observatory — The observatory has free public telescope viewings throughout the school year hosted by the physics and astronomy department.
In 2006, the university established a new charter school near the Chester campus to serve local residents from kindergarten to grade 5. Named the Widener Partnership Charter School, the school utilizes the university's programs in education, social work, nursing, and clinical psychology. This collaboration involves the participation of Widener faculty and students to not only provide educational support but also provide additional assistance outside of school through counseling and health services.
Classes in the charter school started in September 2006, enrolling 50 students in both kindergarten and grade 1. The school continued to add a new grade each year until grade 8 had been reached, surpassing the initial expectations of the project.
Chester revitalization projectEdit
A $50 million revitalization project was started in 2007. The project, named University Crossings, included the addition of a hotel, bookstore, coffee shop, restaurant, and apartments. The project is expected to have an overall economic impact of $1 million to Chester, as well as creating 100 new jobs.
In 2017, Widener University purchased the Taylor Memorial Arboretum in Nether Providence Township about 1 mile north of the Chester campus. The University purchased the site from BNY Mellon bank and plans to use the nature reserve for research and hands-on learning opportunities for citizen science projects.
Notable alumni or attendeesEdit
As of 2011, there are 59,018 total living alumni.
- Benjamin P. Ablao, Jr., independent filmmaker and actor
- Dawn Marie Addiego, New Jersey state senator
- Richard Alloway, Pennsylvania state senator from 2006
- Jesse Matlack Baker, Pennsylvania State Representative for Delaware County (1889-1892), Pennsylvania State Senator for the 9th district (1893-1897)
- Peter J. Barnes III, New Jersey Superior Court judge; former state senator
- Truxtun Beale, diplomat
- Aimee Belgard, New Jersey superior court judge
- Edward M. Bernstein, attorney, philanthropist, politician and television talk show host
- Dan Borislow, entrepreneur and sports team owner
- David J. Brightbill, Pennsylvania state senator from 1982 to 2006
- Chris A. Brown, New Jersey state senator
- Michael A. Brown, member of the Council of the District of Columbia
- Irving J. Carr, U.S. Army Major General
- John H. Carrington, North Carolina state senator
- Frederick J. Chiaventone, US Army '73, Lieutenant Colonel, historian, award-winning novelist, screenwriter
- Mark B. Cohen, longest serving current member, Pennsylvania General Assembly
- Clarence C. Combs, Jr., polo player
- Carolyn Comitta, member of Pennsylvania House of Representatives and first female Mayor of West Chester, Pennsylvania
- Drew Crompton, political consultant
- William J. Crow, member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives
- Bryan Cutler, member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives
- Tom Deery, College Football Hall of Fame inductee (1998)
- Joseph DeFelice, former chair of the Philadelphia Republican Party and Trump appointee
- Cecil B. DeMille, legendary Hollywood director
- Joe Fields, New York Jets all-pro center
- John Lance "Jack" Geoghegan, 1963, Vietnam War hero, recipient of the Bronze Star, Silver Star
- Billy "White Shoes" Johnson, 1974, NFL 75th Anniversary All-Time Team, College Football Hall of Fame inductee (1996)
- Jamarr Johnson, basketballer
- Brendan Kehoe, author of Zen and the Art of the Internet: A Beginner's Guide and software developer
- Benjamin Ralph Kimlau, Chinese American World War II hero (1938–1942)
- Walter Francis Layer, Pennsylvania State Representative for Delaware County (1947-1948), Marine Corps Colonel
- Phil Martelli, St. Joseph's University head basketball coach
- Don McGahn, White House Counsel
- Matthew McGrory, world's tallest actor
- Sylvanus Morley, archaeologist
- Patrick J. Murphy, U.S. Congressman from Pennsylvania
- Burt Mustin, actor, Gus the Fireman on Leave it to Beaver
- D. Lane Powers 1915, represented New Jersey's 4th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1933 to 1945.
- Charles F. B. Price, Lieutenant General of the United States Marines, Legion of Merit awardee
- Leslie C. Quick Jr., founder Quick & Reilly Inc.
- Pat Quinn, former NHL Coach and General Manager
- Barbara Bohannan-Sheppard, Mayor of Chester, Pennsylvania
- Gerald J. Spitz, Pennsylvania State Representative for the 162nd district (1977-1984)
- Brent Staples, 1973, New York Times editorial writer and author of Parallel Time
- Bill Stern, newsreel and sports commentator
- Brian Tierney, publisher of The Philadelphia Inquirer and the Philadelphia Daily News
- John H. Tilelli, Jr., 1963, United States Army four-star general
- William John Wolfgram, 1943, World War II hero, recipient of the Bronze Star
- Dan Yemin, musician
- Frederic E. Humphreys, first American military pilot
- As of June 30, 2012. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2012 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2011 to FY 2012" (PDF). 2012 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-12.
- "Quick Facts". Widener University. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-11-09.
- "Our History". www.pennsylvaniamilitary.college.org. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- American Universities and Colleges, 19th Edition. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger. 2010. p. 1182. ISBN 978-0-313-36609-3. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- Ashmeade, Henry Graham (1884). History of Delaware County, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: L.H. Everts & Co. p. 350. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
- Jordan, John W. (1914). A History of Delaware County, Pennsylvania, and Its People. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. p. 465. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
- "Pennsylvania Military College - or how Widener became Widener". www.phillyhistoryphotos.com. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "National Historic Landmarks & National Register of Historic Places in Pennsylvania" (Searchable database). CRGIS: Cultural Resources Geographic Information System. Note: This includes Thomas Carnwath and Nancy M. Steele (October 1977). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form: Old Main and Chemistry Building" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-06.
- Coulter, John A. (2017). Cadets on Campus: History of Military Schools of the United States. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 9781623495213. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "Old Main and Annex". www.hcap.artstor.org. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- "Deshong Family". www.widener.edu. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
- "The Manor House". www.widener.edu. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
- Brown, Katie O'Halloran. "Conspicuous Cadet at New Market - The life and legacy of VMI's Jonathan E. Woodbridge". www.militaryimages.atavist.com. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09.
- "Widener University: What Widener Students Say About Academics". The Princeton Review. Archived from the original on March 18, 2005. Retrieved 2007-03-10.
- "America Best Colleges 2010: National Universities: Highest Proportion of Class Under 20". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
- Widener University students complete Leadership Certificate program" Archived 2016-09-23 at the Wayback Machine The Daily Times News, January 9, 2016, retrieved September 22, 2016,
- Schaefer, Mari A. "Pieces from Deshong collection go on display at Widener". www.philly.com. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- Waltzer, Jim. "The Fight to Bring Chester Back From the Brink". www.mainlinetoday.com. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- "Permanent Collection". www.widener.edu. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- "PMC Museum". www.widener.edu. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- "The Washington Monthly 2010 College Guide". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on 2011-05-01. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
- "Best Colleges 2018: National Universities". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
- "Best Colleges 2018: Best Undergraduate Engineering Programs". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
- "America Best Graduate Schools 2008: Health: Clinical Psychology". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 2007-03-30.
- "America Best Graduate Schools 2008: Health: Healthcare Management (Master's)". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 2007-03-30.
- "America Best Graduate Schools 2008: Health: Nursing (Master's)". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 2007-03-30.
- "America Best Graduate Schools 2008: Health: Physical Therapy". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 2007-03-30.
- "America Best Graduate Schools 2008: Health: Social Work (Master's)". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 2007-03-30.
- "Institutions:Widener University-Main Campus". The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved 2007-03-31.
- "Carnegie Selects Colleges and Universities for New Elective Community Engagement Classification". The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Archived from the original on 2007-02-04. Retrieved 2007-03-10.
- "Widener University Announces New Mascot". Widener University. Archived from the original on 2007-10-01. Retrieved 2007-03-31.
- "Widener Tallies 14-7 Victory for Southwest Championship". Eastern College Athletic Conference. Retrieved 2007-03-10.[dead link]
- "Widener Wins ECAC South Atlantic Championship Bowl". Eastern College Athletic Conference. Retrieved 2007-03-10.[dead link]
- "Conference Champs and Postseason Appearances". Widener University. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Season Ends For No. 10 Football With 45-7 Loss to Linfield in the Elite Eight". www.widenerpride.com. Retrieved 2016-09-22.
- "Reel deal for these longtime Iggles fans". Delaware County Daily Times. Archived from the original on 2007-04-28. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
- "Widener University: Student Body". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 2012-05-07.
- "Rankings". colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved 2019-05-15.
- "Widener University: Extracurriculars". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 2007-04-24.
- "Widener University – Greek Life". Retrieved 2014-10-09.
- "Economic Development". www.widener.edu. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Babay, Emily. "Widener University take over Taylor Memorial Arboretum". www.philly.com. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
- David Lane Powers, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 9, 2007.