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Walter Winchell (April 7, 1897 – February 20, 1972) was a syndicated American newspaper gossip columnist and radio news commentator. Originally a vaudeville performer, Winchell began his newspaper career as a Broadway reporter, critic and columnist for New York tabloids. He rose to national celebrity in the 1930s with Hearst newspaper chain syndication and a popular radio program. He was known for an innovative style of gossipy staccato news briefs, jokes and Jazz Age slang. Biographer Neal Gabler credited his popularity and influence meant “He turned journalism into a form of entertainment.”
Winchell in 1960
April 7, 1897
New York City, U.S.
|Died||February 20, 1972 (aged 74)|
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Resting place||Greenwood/Memory Lawn Mortuary & Cemetery|
(m. 1919; div. 1928)
He uncovered both hard news and embarrassing stories about famous people by exploiting his exceptionally wide circle of contacts, first in the entertainment world and the Prohibition era underworld, then in law enforcement and politics. He was known for trading gossip, sometimes in return for his silence. His outspoken style made him both feared and admired. Novels and movies were based on his wisecracking gossip columnist persona, as early as the play and film Blessed Event in 1932. As World War II approached in the 1930s, he attacked the appeasers of Nazism, then in the 1950s he aligned with Joseph McCarthy in his campaign against communists. He damaged the reputations of Charles Lindbergh and Josephine Baker as well as other individuals who had earned his enmity. However, the McCarthy connection in time made him unfashionable, and his style did not adapt well to television news.
He did return to television in 1959 as narrator of the 1920s-set crime drama series The Untouchables. Over the years he appeared in more than two dozen films and television productions as an actor, sometimes playing himself.
Winchell was born in New York City, the son of Jennie (Bakst) and Jacob Winchell, a cantor and salesman; they were Russian Jewish immigrants. He left school in the sixth grade and started performing in Gus Edwards's vaudeville troupe known as the "Newsboys Sextet", which also featured Eddie Cantor and George Jessel. During this time, Winchell performed as a tap dancer. Winchell served in the U.S. Navy during World War I, reaching the rank of lieutenant commander.
He began his career in journalism by posting notes about his acting troupe on backstage bulletin boards. He joined the Vaudeville News in 1920, then left the paper for the Evening Graphic in 1924, where his column was named Mainly About Mainstreeters. He was hired on June 10, 1929, by the New York Daily Mirror, where he became the author of the first syndicated gossip column, entitled On-Broadway. The column was syndicated by King Features Syndicate.
He made his radio debut over WABC in New York, a CBS affiliate, on May 12, 1930. The show, titled Saks on Broadway, was a 15-minute feature that provided business news about Broadway. He switched to WJZ (later renamed WABC) and the NBC Blue (later ABC Radio) in 1932 for the Jergens Journal.
By the 1930s, Winchell was "an intimate friend of Owney Madden, New York's no. 1 gang leader of the prohibition era", but in 1932 Winchell's intimacy with criminals caused him to fear he would be murdered. He fled to California and "returned weeks later with a new enthusiasm for law, G-men, Uncle Sam, [and] Old Glory". His coverage of the Lindbergh kidnapping and subsequent trial received national attention. Within two years, he befriended J. Edgar Hoover, the no. 1 G-man of the repeal era. He was responsible for turning Louis "Lepke" Buchalter of Murder, Inc. over to Hoover. His newspaper column was syndicated in over 2,000 newspapers worldwide, and he was read by 50 million people per day from the 1920s until the early 1960s. His Sunday night radio broadcast was heard by another 20 million people from 1930 to the late 1950s. In 1948, Winchell had the top-rated radio show when he surpassed Fred Allen and Jack Benny. One example of his profile at his professional peak was being mentioned in Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart's 1937 song "The Lady Is a Tramp": "I follow Winchell and read every line."
Winchell was Jewish and was one of the first commentators in America to attack Adolf Hitler and American pro-fascist and pro-Nazi organizations such as the German-American Bund, especially its leader Fritz Julius Kuhn. He was a staunch supporter of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal throughout the Depression era, and frequently served as the Roosevelt Administration's mouthpiece in favor of interventionism as the European war crisis loomed in the late 1930s. Early on, he denounced American isolationists as favoring appeasement of Hitler, and was explicit in his attacks on such prominent isolationists as Charles Lindbergh, whom he dubbed "The Lone Ostrich", and Gerald L.K. Smith, whom he denounced as "Gerald Lucifer KKKodfish Smith". Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, Winchell was also an outspoken supporter of civil rights for African Americans, and frequently attacked the Ku Klux Klan and other racist groups as supporting un-American, pro-German goals.
During World War II, he attacked the National Maritime Union, the labor organization for the civilian United States Merchant Marine, which he said was run by Communists, instancing West Coast labour leader Harry Bridges. In 1948 and 1949, he and influential leftist columnist Drew Pearson "inaccurately and maliciously assaulted Secretary of Defense James Forrestal in columns and radio broadcasts."
Subsequently, Winchell began to denounce Communism as the main threat facing America.
During the 1950s, Winchell supported Senator Joseph McCarthy's quest to identify Communists in the entertainment industry, but his popularity and influence began to decline as the public turned against McCarthy. His weekly radio broadcast was simulcast on ABC television until he ended that association because of a dispute with ABC executives in 1955. He starred in The Walter Winchell File, a television crime drama series that initially aired from 1957 to 1958, dramatizing cases from the New York City Police Department that were covered in the New York Daily Mirror. In 1956, he signed with NBC to host a variety program called The Walter Winchell Show, which was canceled after only 13 weeks—a particularly bitter failure in view of the success of his longtime rival Ed Sullivan in a similar format with The Ed Sullivan Show. ABC re-hired him in 1959 to narrate The Untouchables for four seasons. In 1960, a revival of the 1955 television simulcast of Winchell's radio broadcast was cancelled after six weeks.
In the early 1960s, a public dispute with Jack Paar effectively ended Winchell's career—already in decline due to a shift in power from print to television. Winchell had angered Paar several years earlier when he refused to retract an item alleging that Paar was having marital difficulties. Biographer Neal Gabler described the exchange on Paar's show in 1961:
Hostess Elsa Maxwell appeared on the program and began gibing at Walter, accusing him of hypocrisy for waving the flag while never having voted [which, incidentally, wasn't true; the show later issued a retraction]. Paar joined in. He said Walter's column was "written by a fly" and that his voice was so high because he wears "too-tight underwear" … [H]e also told the story of the mistaken item about his marriage, and cracked that Walter had a "hole in his soul".
On subsequent programs, Paar called Winchell a "silly old man" and cited other examples of his underhanded tactics. No one had previously dared to criticize Winchell publicly, but by then his influence had eroded to the point that he could not effectively respond. The New York Daily Mirror, his flagship newspaper for 34 years, closed in 1963; his readership dropped steadily, and he faded from the public eye.
Winchell became known for his attempts to destroy the careers of his political and personal enemies as his own career progressed, especially after World War II. Favorite tactics were allegations of having ties to Communist organizations and accusations of sexual impropriety. He was not above name-calling; for example, he described New York radio host Barry Gray as "Borey Pink" and a "disk jerk". Winchell heard that Marlen Edwin Pew of the trade journal Editor & Publisher had criticized him as a bad influence on calling him "Marlen Pee-you".
For most of his career, his contracts with newspaper and radio employers required them to hold him harmless from any damages resulting from lawsuits for slander or libel. He unapologetically would publish material told to him in confidence by friends; when confronted over such betrayals, he typically responded, "I know—I'm just a son of a bitch." By the mid-1950s, he was widely seen as arrogant, cruel, and ruthless.
While on an American tour in 1951, Josephine Baker, who would never perform before segregated audiences, criticized the Stork Club's unwritten policy of discouraging black patrons, then scolded Winchell, an old ally, for not rising to her defense. Winchell responded swiftly with a series of harsh public rebukes, including accusations of Communist sympathies. He spurned any attempts by friends to mitigate the heated rhetoric. The ensuing publicity resulted in the termination of Baker's work visa, forcing her to cancel all her engagements and return to France. It was almost a decade before U.S. officials allowed her back into the country. The adverse publicity of this, and similar incidents, undercut his credibility and power.
Many other columnists began to write gossip soon after Winchell's initial success, such as Ed Sullivan, who succeeded him at the New York Evening Graphic, and Louella Parsons in Los Angeles. He wrote in a style filled with slang and incomplete sentences. Winchell's casual writing style famously earned him the ire of mobster Dutch Schultz, who confronted him at New York's Cotton Club and publicly lambasted him for using the phrase "pushover" to describe Schultz's penchant for blonde women. Winchell's best known aphorisms include: "Nothing recedes like success", and "I usually get my stuff from people who promised somebody else that they would keep it a secret".
Herman Klurfeld, a ghostwriter for Winchell for almost three decades, began writing four newspaper columns per week for Winchell in 1936 and worked for him for 29 years. He also wrote many of the signature one-liners, called "lasties", that Mr. Winchell used at the end of his Sunday evening radio broadcasts. One of Klurfeld's quips was "She's been on more laps than a napkin". In 1952, the New York Post revealed Mr. Klurfeld as Mr. Winchell's ghostwriter. Klurfeld later wrote a biography of Winchell entitled Walter Winchell: His Life and Times, which was the basis for the movie Winchell (1998).
Winchell opened his radio broadcasts by pressing randomly on a telegraph key, a sound that created a sense of urgency and importance, and using the catchphrase "Good evening, Mr. and Mrs. America from border to border and coast to coast and all the ships at sea. Let's go to press." He would then read each of his stories with a staccato delivery (up to a rate of 197 words per minute, though he claimed a speed of well over 200 words per minute in an interview in 1967), noticeably faster than the typical pace of American speech. His diction also can be heard in his breathless narration of The Untouchables television series as well as in several Hollywood films.
On August 11, 1919, Winchell married Rita Greene, one of his onstage partners. The couple separated a few years later, and he moved in with Elizabeth June Magee, who had already adopted daughter Gloria and given birth to her and Winchell's first child Walda in 1927. Winchell eventually divorced Greene in 1928, but he never married Magee, although they lived as a married couple for the rest of their lives.
Winchell and Magee had three children: two daughters, Gloria (whom the couple adopted), Walda and a son, Walter Jr. Gloria died of pneumonia at the age of nine and Walda spent time in psychiatric hospitals. Walter Jr. died by suicide in the family garage on Christmas night of 1968. Having spent the previous two years on welfare, Walter Jr. had last been employed as a dishwasher in Santa Ana, California but listed himself as a freelancer who, for a time, wrote a column in the Los Angeles Free Press, an alternative newspaper published from 1964 to 1978.
In the 1960s, Winchell wrote some columns for the film magazine Photoplay. He announced his retirement on February 5, 1969, citing his son's suicide as a major reason as well as the delicate health of his companion, June Magee. Exactly one year after his retirement, Magee died at a hospital in Phoenix, Arizona, while undergoing treatment for a heart condition.
He was so sad. You know what Winchell was doing at the end? Typing out mimeographed sheets with his column, handing them out on the corner. That's how sad he got. When he died, only one person came to his funeral: his daughter.
Several of Winchell's former co-workers had expressed a willingness to go but were turned back by his daughter Walda.
|1930||The Bard on Broadway (Short)||Himself||Film debut|
|1933||Beauty on Broadway (Short)||Himself|
|Broadway Thru a Keyhole||Himself||Also writer|
|1937||Wake Up and Live||Himself|
|Love and Hisses||Himself|
|1949||Sorrowful Jones||Himself||Voice, uncredited|
|1955||There's No Business Like Show Business||Himself||Voice, uncredited|
|1956||The Walter Winchell Show||Himself||3 episodes|
|1957||A Face in the Crowd||Himself|
|The Helen Morgan Story||Himself|
|Telephone Time||Himself||1 episode|
|1957-1959||The Walter Winchell File||Himself/Host/'Two Gun' Crowley|
|1959||Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse||Narrator||Voice, 3 episodes|
|1959-1963||The Untouchables||Narrator||Voice, 119 episodes|
|1960||The Bellboy||Narrator||Voice, uncredited|
|1964||Valentine's Day||Radio Announcer||Voice, 1 episode|
|1966||The Lucy Show||Narrator||Voice|
|1967||The Kraft Music Hall||Himself|
|1968||Single Room Furnished||Himself||Uncredited|
|Wild in the Streets||Himself||Final film, uncredited|
Even during Winchell's lifetime, journalists were critical of his effect on the media. In 1940, St. Clair McKelway, who had earlier written a series of articles about him in The New Yorker, wrote in Time:
the effect of Winchellism on the standards of the press... When Winchell began gossiping in 1924 for the late scatological tabloid Evening Graphic, no U.S. paper hawked rumors about the marital relations of public figures until they turned up in divorce courts. For 16 years, gossip columns spread until even the staid New York Times whispered that it heard from friends of a son of the President that he was going to be divorced. In its first year, The Graphic would have considered this news not fit to print... Gossip-writing is at present like a spirochete in the body of journalism... Newspapers... have never been held in less esteem by their readers or exercised less influence on the political and ethical thought of the times.
Winchell responded to McKelway saying, "Oh stop! You talk like a high-school student of journalism."
Despite the controversy surrounding Winchell, his popularity allowed him to leverage support for causes that he valued. In 1946, following the death from cancer of his close friend and fellow writer Damon Runyon, Winchell appealed to his radio audience for contributions to fight the disease. The response led Winchell to establish the Damon Runyon Cancer Memorial Fund, since renamed the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation. He led the charity with the support of celebrities, including Marlene Dietrich, Bob Hope, Milton Berle, Marilyn Monroe, and Joe DiMaggio, until his death from cancer in 1972.
In 1950, Ernest Lehman, a former publicity writer for Irving Hoffman of The Hollywood Reporter, wrote a story for Cosmopolitan titled "Tell Me About It Tomorrow". The piece is about a ruthless journalist, J.J. Hunsecker, and is generally thought to be a thinly veiled commentary on the power wielded by Winchell at the height of his influence. It was made into the film Sweet Smell of Success (1957), with the screenplay written by Lehman and Clifford Odets.
In his 1961 novel Stranger in a Strange Land, Robert A. Heinlein introduced the term "winchell" into the American vocabulary as a term for a politically intrusive gossip columnist, in reference to the character Ben Caxton. He contrasted Winchell with Walter Lippmann, another well-known journalist, whose forte was politics rather than celebrity gossip.
Winchellism and WinchelleseEdit
Winchell's colorful and widely imitated language inspired the term "Winchellism" (no longer current), meaning "any word or phrase brought to the fore by the columnist Walter Winchell" or his imitators. An etymologist of his day said, "there are plenty of ... expressions which he has fathered and which are now current among his readers and imitators and constitute a flash language which has been called Winchellese. Through a newspaper column which has nation-wide circulation, Winchell has achieved the position of dictator of contemporary slang." His use of slang, innuendo and invented euphemisms also protected him from libel accusations.
Winchell invented his own phrases that were viewed as slightly racy at the time. Some of the expressions for falling in love used by Winchell were: "pashing it", "sizzle for", "that way", "go for each other", "garbo-ing it", "uh-huh"; and in a similar vein, "new Garbo, trouser-crease-eraser", and "pash". Some Winchellisms for marriage are: "middle-aisle it", "altar it", "handcuffed", "Mendelssohn March", "Lohengrin it", and "merged".
In popular cultureEdit
- Buddy Greco in 1960 recorded an updated version of the 1937 Rodgers and Hart song "The Lady is a Tramp" to include several 1950s cultural references. Among the lady’s peculiar habits and attitudes listed in the lyrics, Greco adds “Why, she even reads Walter Winchell and understands every line. That’s why the lady is a tramp.”
- Lee Tracy starred in the 1932 movie “Blessed Event” as a thinly-disguised version of Winchell. The movie's title refers to Winchell's way of describing a pregnancy/birth on his radio broadcast.
- Groucho Marx did a Winchell parody in the Marx Brothers movie “Horsefeathers” (1932). It included burlesques of Winchell's use of the phrase ‘blessed event’, his radio sign-off of “O.K., America!”, and his use of a toy siren whistle on the program to punctuate items.
- Winchell starred as himself in the movie Wake Up and Live (1937) and its follow-up, Love and Hisses (1937).
- Waldo Winchester, newspaper scribe, was a recurring figure in Damon Runyon's fiction.
- In the film Sweet Smell of Success (1957), Burt Lancaster plays J. J. Hunsecker, a tyrannical gossip columnist widely understood by audiences at the time to be based on Winchell.
- In Robert Heinlein's 1961 novel Stranger in a Strange Land, characters refer to syndicated columnist Ben Caxton as a "winchell", the lower case indicating that in the future world of the novel, "winchell" has become a common noun.
- He was caricatured as a bird in the Warner Brothers' cartoons The Coo-Coo Nut Grove and The Woods Are Full of Cuckoos in 1936 and 1937 respectively.
- Long time San Francisco gossip columnist Herb Caen used Winchell for a model, calling the style ‘three dot journalism’. Caen made a point of being well connected and on top of all the news, but unlike Winchell, Caen was ethical, did not smear, and was universally respected in his area.
- Winchell is listed in the first verse (concerning the 1950s) of Billy Joel's 1989 song, "We Didn't Start the Fire", between South Pacific and Joe DiMaggio.
- In 1991, Winchell was portrayed by Craig T. Nelson in the HBO biopic The Josephine Baker Story
- The HBO biopic entitled Winchell (1998), cast Stanley Tucci in the title role and Paul Giamatti as Herman Klurfeld, his sidekick and ghostwriter.
- Walter Winchell has a major role in Philip Roth's The Plot Against America (2004, adapted as miniseries 2020), an alternate history novel which depicts Charles Lindbergh winning the 1940 presidential election. A fictionalized Winchell becomes the principal voice against President Lindbergh and the rise of fascism in America.
- In Oscar (1991 film), Sylvester Stallone's character asks, "Why don't you phone it in to Walter Winchell?", after soon-to-be son-in-law blabs within earshot of other guests that their daughter is 'having the chauffeur's baby'".
- In Fargo (TV series), season two (2015) Betsy Solverson tells her husband "Good night, Mr Solverson" and Lou replies "Good night, Mrs. Solverson - and all the ships at sea," paraphrasing how Winchell introduced his radio broadcasts.
- In October 2020 Winchell's life and times of his career, connections, and controversy was profiled on Walter Winchell: The Power Of Gossip an episode of American Masters on PBS
- "Walter Winchell, American journalist". Encyclopædia Britannica. February 14, 2018. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Robinson, Jennifer (October 19, 2020). "American Masters: Walter Winchell: The Power Of Gossip". PBS. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
- "Walter Winchell". IMDb.
- Leonard, Thomas C. (January 1999). Winchell, Walter. American National Biography Online. doi:10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.1602802. ISBN 9780198606697. Retrieved March 11, 2018.
- Gottfried, Gilbert, host. “Howard Storm and Steve Soltair” Gilbert Gottfried’s Amazing Colossal Podcast, Starburn, 3 Feb. 2020, http://traffic.megaphone.fm/STA9864432424.mp3
- 70 years ago: Orson Welles’ patriotism, military service made headlines. wellesnet.com. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
- Walter Winchell at Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
- Gardner, Ralph D. (2001). "The Age of Winchell". Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- [archives.nypl.org/the/21480 Walter Winchell papers, 1920-1967], New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
- Dunning, John (1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio (Revised ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 708–710. ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
Walter Winchell's Jergens Journal, news and gossip.
- Obituary Variety, February 23, 1972, page 71.
- "Columny". TIME. September 23, 1940. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- Thomas, Bob (1971). Winchell. Doubleday.
His ranking among the most listened-to radio programs climbed higher and higher until in 1948 his audience was the biggest in radio.
- Mary Martin - Topic (November 7, 2014). "The Lady Is a Tramp" – via YouTube.
- "Liberty Ships" 1995 Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) documentary
- CBS's Don Hollenbeck: An Honest Reporter in the Age of McCarthyism, Loren Ghiglione, 2008, Chapter 16
- Gabler, N. Winchell: Gossip, Power and the Culture of Celebrity. Knopf (1994), pp. 434-5.ISBN 0679417516
- Pioneers of Television: "Late Night" episode (2008 PBS mini-series)
Paar's feud with newspaper columnist Walter Winchell marked a major turning point in American media power. No one had ever dared criticize Winchell because a few lines in his column could destroy a career, but when Winchell disparaged Paar in print, Paar fought back and mocked Winchell repeatedly on the air. Paar's criticisms effectively ended Winchell's career. The tables had turned, now TV had the power."
- Gabler (1994), pp. 362-3.
- Gabler (1994), p. 364.
- Gabler (1994), pp. 420-35.
- Winchell: Gossip, Power and the Culture of Celebrity, Neal Gabler, 1994, chap 8–9.
- "The Press: Feud Days". Time. December 8, 1952. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
- Winchell: Gossip, Power and the Culture of Celebrity, Neal Gabler, 1994, noted in several places in the book.
- Winchell: Gossip, Power and the Culture of Celebrity, Neal Gabler, 1994, chap 8–10.
- Hinckley, David (9 November 2004). "Firestorm Incident at The Stork Club, 1951". New York Daily News. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- Sann, Paul. "Kill the Dutchman!"
- "Herman Klurfeld, 90, Dies; Wrote Winchell Columns and Quips". The New York Times. December 25, 2006. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
- Wallace, David (2011). Capital Of The World. Guildford, CN: Lyons Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-7627-7010-6.
- Gabler, Neal (1994). Walter Winchell: Gossip, Power and the Culture of Celebrity. New York: Knopf. pp. 98–99. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
- Weinraub, Bernard (November 18, 1998). "He Turned Gossip Into Tawdry Power; Walter Winchell, Who Climbed High and Fell Far, Still Scintillates". The New York Times. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- "Winchell's son suicide victim". Terre Haute Tribune. December 26, 1968. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Milestones". Time Magazine. January 3, 1969. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "Photoplay". June 1963 – via Internet Archive.
- "Mrs. Winchell dies; services set Monday". The Arizona Republic. February 7, 1970. p. 85. Retrieved February 5, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Wallace, David (2012). Capital of the World: A Portrait of New York City in the Roaring Twenties. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-762-76819-6.
- Garvin, Glenn (January 25, 2007). "King reflects on his 50 years in broadcasting". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
- Neal Gabler, Winchell: Gossip, Power, and the Culture of Celebrity (Vintage, 1995), p. 3.
- "Mrs. Winchell's Little Boy". Time Magazine. March 26, 1972. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- "Ernest Lehman Chronology". www.hrc.utexas.edu.
- Winchell, Walter (May 19, 1953). "Howz about calling the Russians our Frienemies?". Nevada State Journal.
- Cavendish, Lucy (January 17, 2011). "The best of frenemies". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Kuethe, J. Louis (June 1932). "John Hopkins Jargon". American Speech. 7 (5): 327–338. doi:10.2307/452954. JSTOR 452954.
- Beath, Paul Robert (October 1931). "Winchellese". American Speech. 7 (1): 44–46. doi:10.2307/451313. JSTOR 451313.
- "Walter Winchell". Los Angeles Times. February 21, 1971. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
- Heinlein, Robert (2016). Stranger in a Strange Land. Penguin (original 1961 publisher Putman's). p. 190. ISBN 9780143111627. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Brooks, Tim and Marsh, Earle, The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows.
- Dunning, John (May 7, 1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195076788.
- Gabler, Neal (1995). Winchell: Gossip, Power, and the Culture of Celebrity. Vintage. ISBN 0679764399.
- Klurfeld, Herman (1976). Walter Winchell: His Life and Times. Praeger. ISBN 0275337200.
- Mosedale, John (1981). The Men Who Invented Broadway: Damon Runyon, Walter Winchell & Their World. New York: Richard Marek Publishers. ISBN 0399900853.
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