Vladimir Nikolayevich Voinovich, also spelled Voynovich (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Войно́вич, 26 September 1932 – 27 July 2018), was a Russian writer and former Soviet dissident. Among his most well-known works are the satirical epic The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin and the dystopian Moscow 2042. He was forced into exile and stripped of his citizenship by Soviet authorities in 1980 but later rehabilitated and moved back to Moscow in 1990. After the fall of the Soviet Union, he continued to be an outspoken critic of Russian politics under the rule of Vladimir Putin.
Voinovich in June 2018
Владимир Николаевич Войнович
|Born||Vladimir Nikolayevich Voinovich|
26 September 1932
Stalinabad, Tajik SSR, USSR
(present-day Dushanbe, Tajikistan)
|Died||27 July 2018 (aged 85)|
|Notable works||The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin (1969–2007)|
Moscow 2042 (1986)
Monumental Propaganda (2000)
|Notable awards||Andrei Sakharov Prize For Writer's Civic Courage, State Prize of the Russian Federation|
Voinovich was born in Stalinabad, Tajik SSR, Soviet Union. According to himself, his father was of Serbian descent and a translator of Serbian literature, and his mother was of Jewish descent. Vladimir Voinovich claimed that his father belonged to the Serbian Vojnović noble family, although this is solely based on his surname and the book by the Yugoslavian writer Vidak Vujnovic Vojinovici i Vujinovici od srednjeg veka do danas (1985) which he received as a gift from the author during his stay in Germany.
Voinovich began his studies in Moscow and tried to enter the Maxim Gorky Literature Institute. After a failed attempt he entered the Moscow Krupskaya Pedagogical Institute, the faculty of history. According to his autobiography, he spent some time in Kazakhstan, "seeking inspiration", and on his return to Moscow started working on his first novel.
Literary debut and dissidenceEdit
His earliest published books were We Live Here and I Want To Be Honest. In 1969 he published the first part of The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin, a satirical novel about a Russian soldier during World War II. It was followed two years later by a second part. At the outset of the Brezhnev stagnation period, Voinovich's writings stopped being published in the USSR, but continued publishing in samizdat and in the West. In 1974, the authorities began a systematic harassment of Voinovich due to his writing and his political attitude. Voinovich was excluded from the Soviet Writers' Union the same year. His telephone line was cut off in 1976 and he and his family were forced to emigrate in 1980, being stripped of his citizenship. He settled in Munich, West Germany after being invited by the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich and for a while worked for Radio Liberty. Voinovich helped publish Vasily Grossman's famous novel Life and Fate by smuggling photo films secretly taken by Andrei Sakharov. In 1987, he published the second of his arguably most well-known works, Moscow 2042. Mikhail Gorbachev restored his Soviet citizenship in 1990 and he subsequently moved back to Russia.
Public activism in RussiaEdit
Voinovich continued to voice his political convictions also after the fall of the Soviet Union.
In 2001 Voinovich signed an open letter expressing support to the NTV channel, and in 2003 — a letter against the Second Chechen War. On February 25, 2015 he published an "Open Letter from Vladimir Voinovich to the President of Russia" in which he asked Putin to release the Ukrainian pilot Nadiya Savchenko who went on a hunger strike. He stated that her death might have an even greater effect on the world's opinion than the annexation of Crimea and the war on Donbass. In a 2015 interview with The Daily Beast, Voinovich said that "In some ways, it is worse today" than during the Soviet era and that "the freedoms we have are just leftovers." In an interview with Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty in 2017, Voinovich also voiced criticism of President Putin, saying that Putin had turned the country in a more conservative direction at the expense of politics "oriented toward the future." He repeated his opinion that the political situation in Russia today is comparable to the 1970s in the Soviet union. "They are breaking up demonstrations. They are throwing people in prison on basically the same charges. True, they aren't giving seven-year sentences, but rather two. And now they have begun driving people out of the country", he noted.
Voinovich was married three times. Between 1957 and 1964 he was married to Valentina Vasilievna Boltushkina (1929—1988), together they had two children: daughter Marina Voinovich (1958—2006) and son Pavel Voinovich (born 1962), also a Russian writer and publicist, author of historical novels. His second wife was Irina Danilovna Braude (1938—2004). They had one daughter Olga Voinovich (born 1973), a German writer. Following Irina's death in 2004 Voinovich married Svetlana Yakovlevna Kolesnichenko (née Lianozova), an entrepreneur, also a widow of the Russian journalist Tomas Kolesnichenko. They lived in Moscow.
The first and second parts of his epic magnum opus The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin ("Жизнь и необычайные приключения солдата Ивана Чонкина") are set in the Red Army during World War II, satirically exposing the daily absurdities of the totalitarian regime. "Chonkin" is now a widely known figure in Russian popular culture and the book was also made into a film by the Czech director Jiří Menzel. Many have pointed out the similarities between the story about Chonkin and The Good Soldier Švejk. The third part of the novel was published in 2007. Not as well known so far as the previous two parts, it portrays the post-War life of the characters until the present, including Chonkin's involuntary emigration to the USA. Much attention is also paid to the figures of Lavrentiy Beria and Joseph Stalin, the latter being mockingly depicted as a son of Nikolai Przhevalsky and a Przewalski's horse. According to the author, the writing of the whole novel took him almost fifty years. The novel has been described as a Soviet Catch-22.
In 1986 he wrote a dystopian novel, Moscow 2042 (published 1987). In this novel, Voinovich portrayed a Russia ruled by the "Communist Party of State Security" combining the KGB, the Russian Orthodox Church and the Communist party. This party is led by a KGB general Bukashev (the name means "the bug") who meets the main character of the novel in Germany. A Slavophile, Sim Karnavalov (apparently inspired by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn), eventually overthrows the Party and enters Moscow on a white horse. The similarities between the plot of the book and the actual political developments in Russian following the fall of the Soviet Union have been noted by several observers.
Voinovich's other novels have also won acclaim. His The Ivankiad concerns a writer trying to get an apartment in the bureaucratic clog of the Soviet system. The Fur Hat, is a satire alluding to Gogol's Overcoat. His Monumental Propaganda is a stinging critique of post-Communist Russia, a story that shows the author's opinion that Russians haven't changed much since the days of Joseph Stalin. Monumental Propaganda has been described as "an illuminating comment on the persistence of false idols and historical delusions".
In 2002 he published a controversial book of memoirs A Portrait Against the Background of a Myth highly critical of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. Voinovich accused him of creating a cult around himself, of poor writing skills and his alleged antisemitism, among other things. The book received a mixed reaction. Yuri Semenov supported the point regarding "Solzhenitsyn's continuous degradation" as a writer, but also criticized Voinovich for simultaneously "glorifying himself and his books". Liza Novikova of Kommersant compared the book to performance art, suggesting that "the author only helps creating the very same myth by trying to prove that Solzhenitsyn doesn't match the rank of a great writer". The book was widely seen as a reaction to Solzhenitsyn's two-volume historical work Two Hundred Years Together that was published in 2001-2002 and dedicated to the history of Jews in Russia and frequently regarded as antisemitic. Voinovich, however, said that he had started the work on his book before Two Hundred Years Together was even published and that he didn't have patience to read it till the end.
He published his memoirs in 2010.
Awards and honorsEdit
Voinovich was awarded the State Prize of the Russian Federation for 2000, for his book "Monumental propaganda" about Soviet Neo-Stalinist legacy sitting in the subconscious of almost every citizen of the "free Russia". He also received Andrei Sakharov Prize For Writer's Civic Courage (2002).
Stories and novelsEdit
- "Мы здесь живём (повесть)" [We Lives Here (story)]. Novy Mir (in Russian) (1). 1961.
- "Хочу быть честным (повесть)" [I Want to Be Honest (story)]. Novy Mir (in Russian) (2). 1963.
- "Расстояние в полкилометра (рассказ)" [A Distance of Half a Kilometer (short story)]. Novy Mir (in Russian) (2). 1963.
- Мы здесь живём (повесть) [We Lives Here (story)] (in Russian). Moscow: Soviet writer. 1963.
- "Два товарища (повесть)" [Two Comrades (story)]. Novy Mir (No. 2) (in Russian). 1963.
- "Два товарища (повесть)" [Two Comrades (story)]. Novy Mir (No. 1) (in Russian). 1967.
- Мы здесь живём. Два товарища. Владычица (повести) [We Lives Here. Two Comrades. Mistress (stories)] (in Russian). Moscow: Soviet writer. 1972.
- Степень доверия. Повесть о Вере Фигнер [A Degree of Trust. The Story about Vera Figner] (in Russian). Moscow: Politizdat. 1972.
- "Жизнь и необычайные приключения солдата Ивана Чонкина (часть 1)" [The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin (part 1)]. Grani (in Russian) (72). 1969.
- "Путем взаимной переписки (повесть)" [By Means of Mutual Correspondence (story)]. Grani (in Russian) (87–88). 1973.
- "Происшествие в "Метрополе"" [Incident in "Metropol"]. Kontinent (in Russian) (5). 1975.
- Жизнь и необычайные приключения солдата Ивана Чонкина [The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin] (in Russian). Paris: YMCA-Press. 1975.
- Иванькиада, или Рассказ о вселении писателя Войновича в новую квартиру [The Ivankiad: or, The tale of the writer Voinovich's installation in his new apartment] (in Russian). Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ardis Publishing. 1976.
- The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin. Vintage/Ebury, Random House Group. 1977. ISBN 978-0224013284.
- Voinovich, Vladimir; Fiene, Donald M. (Autumn 1977). "A Distance of Half a Kilometer". Chicago Review. 29 (2): 5–21. doi:10.2307/25303676. JSTOR 25303676.
- Претендент на престол: Новые приключения солдата Ивана Чонкина [Pretender to the Throne: The Further Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin] (in Russian). Paris: YMCA-Press. 1979.
- Pretender to the Throne: The Further Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin. Northwestern University Press. 1981. ISBN 978-0810112445.
- "Etude". TriQuarterly (55): 130. Fall 1982.
- "Писатель в советском обществе" [Writer in Soviet Society]. Possew (in Russian) (9): 32. 1983.
- "Фиктивный брак (водевиль)" [Sham Marriage (vaudeville)]. Time and We (in Russian) (72). 1983.
- "Если враг не сдается…: Заметки о социалистическом реализме" [If Enemy Does not Surrender…: Notes of Socialist Realism]. Country and World (in Russian) (10). 1984.
- "Трибунал" [Tribunal] (in Russian). London. 1985.
- Антисоветский Советский Союз [The Anti-Soviet Soviet Union] (in Russian). Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ardis Publishing. 1985.
- Москва 2042 [Moscow 2042] (in Russian). Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ardis Publishing. 1986.
- Woinowitsch, Wladimir (1989) . Ihr seid auf dem richtigen Weg, Genossen [You are on the right way, comrades] (in German). Piper. ISBN 978-3492030045.
- Шапка [The Hat] (in Russian). London: Overseas Publications Interchange Limited. 1988. ISBN 978-1870128650.
- Дело № 34840 [The Case No 34840] (in Russian). Moscow: Text. 1994. ISBN 978-5871060957.
- The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin (reprint ed.). Northwestern University Press. 1995. ISBN 978-0810112438.
- Замысел [The Design] (in Russian). Moscow: Vagrius. 1995.
- Запах шоколада (повести и рассказы) [The Smell of Chocolate (stories and short stories)] (in Russian). Moscow: Vagrius. 1997.
- Монументальная пропаганда [Monumental Propaganda] (in Russian). Moscow: Izograf. 2000.
- Портрет на фоне мифа [A Portrait Against the Background of a Myth] (in Russian). Moscow: Eksmo-Press. 2002. ISBN 978-5040102532.
- Перемещённое лицо [A Displaced Person] (in Russian). Moscow: Eksmo. 2007. ISBN 978-5699237432.
- Автопортрет: роман моей жизни [Self-portrait: Novel of My Life] (in Russian). Moscow: Eksmo. 2007. ISBN 978-5699390021.
- Два плюс один в одном флаконе [Two Plus One Rolled into One] (in Russian). Moscow: Eksmo. 2010. ISBN 978-5699417629.
- A Displaced Person: The Later Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan Chonkin. Northwestern University Press. 2012. ISBN 978-0810126626.
- Малое собрание сочинений в 5-ти томах [A small collection of works in 5 volumes] (in Russian). Moscow: Fabula. 1993–1995.
Articles and interviewsEdit
- Voinovich, Vladimir (June 1975). "I am a realist". Index on Censorship. 4 (2): 49–57. doi:10.1080/03064227508532424.
- Voinovich, Vladimir (20 June 1976). "Oh, for a room of my own". The New York Times Magazine (20).
- Voinovich, Vladimir; Hosking, Geoffrey (August 1980). "Profile". Index on Censorship. 9 (4): 19–22. doi:10.1080/03064228008533088.
- Phillips, William; Shragin, Boris; Aleshkovsky, Yuz; Kott, Jan; Siniavski, Andrei; Aksyonov, Vassily; Litvinov, Pavel; Dovlatov, Sergei; Nekrassov, Viktor; Etkind, Efim; Voinovich, Vladimir; Kohak, Erazim; Loebl, Eugen (Winter 1984). "Writers in exile III: a conference of Soviet and East European dissidents". The Partisan Review. 51 (1): 11–44.
- Voinovich, Vladimir (October 1985). "The life and fate of Vasily Grossman". Index on Censorship. 14 (5): 9–10. doi:10.1080/03064228508533943.
- Voinovich, Vladimir (Spring 1985). "The life and fate of Vasily Grossman and his novel". Survey: A Journal of East and West Studies. 29 (1): 186–189.
- Voinovich, Vladimir (19 July 1987). "Where glasnost has its limits". The New York Times Magazine: 31.
- Voinovich, Vladimir; Heim, Michael (Autumn 1990). "An exile's dilemma". The Wilson Quarterly. 14 (4): 114–120. JSTOR 40258529.
- Voinovich, Vladimir (January 1996). "The gang of four". Index on Censorship. 25 (1): 62–70. doi:10.1177/030642209602500116.
- Voinovich, Vladimir; Jamieson, John (2003). "Stream of consciousness". New Zealand Slavonic Journal: 165–169. JSTOR 40922151.
- Копылова, Вера (23 August 2007). "Один в поле Войнович. Папа Чонкина: "В закрытом обществе писатель был гораздо нужнее, чем теперь"" [One man in the field is Voinovich. Chonkin's father: "In a closed society writer was much more needed than now"]. Moskovskij Komsomolets (in Russian).
- Тимофеева, Ольга (15 January 2016). "Владимир Войнович: "У вождей с либеральными намерениями, но диктаторским характером ум требует одного, а натура другого"" [Vladimir Voinovich: "Leaders with liberal intentions but dictatorial nature have mind that requires one thing and nature that requires another thing"]. Novaya Gazeta (in Russian) (3).
- Золовкин, Сергей (22 March 2016). ""Простой таджикский рабочий, отягченный еврейской фамилией…" Владимир Войнович — за праздничным столом в Мюнхене в окружении русскоговорящих журналистов" ["A simple Tajik worker, weighed down by a Jewish surname…" Vladimir Voinovich round the festive board in Munich, surrounded by Russian-speaking journalists]. Novaya Gazeta (in Russian) (22).
- Galloway, David (2013) . "Voinovich, Vladimir Nikolaevich". In Smorodinskaya, Tatiana; Evans-Romaine, Karen; Goscilo, Helena (eds.). Encyclopedia of contemporary Russian culture. Routledge. pp. 666–667. ISBN 978-1136787850.
- Farmer, Rachel (1 January 1999). "Vladimir Voinovich–a stupid Galileo?". Canadian-American Slavic Studies. 33 (2–4): 279–291. doi:10.1163/221023999X00238.
- Hosking, Geoffrey (1984). "Vladimir Voinovich: Chonkin and after". In Matich, Olga; Heim, Michael (eds.). The third wave: Russian literature in emigration. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ardis Publishing. p. 151. ISBN 978-0882337821.
- Hosking, Geoffrey (1980). "Vladimir Voinovich, Georgy Vladimov". Beyond socialist realism: Soviet fiction since Ivan Denisovich. London: Elek/Granada. pp. 136–161. ISBN 978-0236401734.
- Kasack, Wolfgang (1980). "Vladimir Voinovich and his undesirable satires". In Birnbaum, Henrik; Eekman, Thomas (eds.). Fiction and drama in Eastern and Southeastern Europe: evolution and experiment in the postwar period: proceedings of the 1978 UCLA Conference. Slavica Publishers. pp. 259–276. ISBN 978-0893570644.
- Lewis, Barry (1996). "Homunculi Sovietici: the Soviet 'writers' in Voinovich's Shapka". Australian Slavonic and East European Studies: Journal of the Australian and New Zealand Slavists' Association and of the Australasian Association for Study of the Socialist Countries. 10 (1): 17–28.
- Milivojevic, Dragan (Spring 1979). "The many voices of Vladimir Voinovich". Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature. 33 (2): 55–62. doi:10.2307/1346811. JSTOR 1346811.
- Nekrasov, Viktor (28 September 1962). "Индивидуальность таланта (о Владимире Войновиче)" [Individuality of talent (about Vladimir Voinovich)]. Литература и Жизнь (in Russian) (116). p. 3.
- Nekrasov, Viktor (9 October 1977). "Войновичиада: рецензия на книгу В. Войновича "Иванькиада"" [Voinovichiada: the review of V. Voinovich's book The Ivankiad]. Новое Русское Слово (in Russian).
- Olshanskaya, Natalia (October 2000). "Anti-utopian carnival: Vladimir Voinovich rewriting George Orwell". Forum for Modern Language Studies. XXXVI (4): 426–437. doi:10.1093/fmls/XXXVI.4.426.
- Olshanskaya, Natalia (2011). "Russian dystopia in exile: translating Zamiatin and Voinovich". In Baer, Brian (ed.). Contexts, subtexts and pretexts: literary translation in Eastern Europe and Russia. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 265–276. ISBN 978-9027287335.
- Petro, Peter (January 1980). "Hašek, Voinovich, and the tradition of anti-militarist satire". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 22 (1): 116–121. doi:10.1080/00085006.1980.11091615.
- Porter, Robert (July 1987). "Animal magic in Solzhenitsyn, Rasputin, and Voynovich". The Modern Language Review. 82 (3): 675–684. doi:10.2307/3730425. JSTOR 3730425.
- Porter, Robert (April 1980). "Vladimir Voinovich and the comedy of innocence". Forum for Modern Language Studies. XVI (2): 97–108. doi:10.1093/fmls/XVI.2.97.
- Rancour-Laferriere, Daniel (Spring 1991). "From incompetence to satire: Voinovich's image of Stalin as castrated leader of the Soviet Union in 1941". Slavic Review. 50 (1): 36–47. doi:10.2307/2500597. JSTOR 2500597.
- Sazonchik, Ol'ga (15 November 2009). "О копрофагии у В. Войновича" [On coprophagy in V. Voinovich]. Russian Literature (in Russian). 66 (4): 423–441. doi:10.1016/j.ruslit.2009.11.003.
- Vasilyev, Yuri (27 September 2012). "The post-Soviet optimistic pessimism of Vladimir Voinovich". The Atlantic.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vladimir Voinovich.|
- "Russian Author, Former Soviet Dissident Voinovich Dies At 85". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 28 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- Remnick, David (3 June 1987). "VOINOVICH TAKING AIM AT THE ABSURD". Washington Post. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- Vladimir Voinovich. Parents, childhood, Khujand, father returned (in Russian). From the autobiography Self-portrait: Novel of My Life, ISBN 5699390022
- Vladimir Voinovich. Seizure of Moscow (in Russian). From the autobiography Self-portrait: Novel of My Life, ISBN 5699390022
- Vladimir Voinovich. At the Virgin Land (in Russian). From the autobiography Self-portrait: Novel of My Life, ISBN 5699390022
- Paton Walsh, Nick (6 July 2002). "Comrades fall out in Russia's battle of the dissidents". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- "Останутся наши следы Ушел Владимир Войнович" (in Russian). Novaya Gazeta. 28 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- A letter of prominent members of science, culture and politics in defence of NTV at NEWSru, 28 March 2001 (in Russian)
- Let's stop the Chechen War together at Novaya Gazeta № 20 March 2003 (in Russian)
- "Voinovich in an open letter to Putin: After Savchenko's death you'd better not appear in Western countries". Gordonua.com. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- Young, Cathy (22 June 2015). "The Man Who Predicted Putin". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- Rykovtseva, Yelena; Coalson, Robert (9 August 2017). "Nearing 85, Writer Voinovich Urges Russia To Stop Looking Backward". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- Voinovich Pavel Vladimirovich at the Eksmo official website (in Russian)
- Interview with Vladimir and Olga Voinovich at Echo of Moscow, September 23, 2012 (in Russian)
- Vladimir Voinovich interview to Dmitry Gordon, May 27, 2016 (in Russian)
- Board of trustees at the official Vera site (in Russian)
- "Умер Владимир Войнович" (in Russian). Lenta.ru. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- Petro, Peter (January 1980). "Hašek, Voinovich, and the tradition of anti-militarist satire". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 22 (1): 116–121. doi:10.1080/00085006.1980.11091615.
- Gross, John (2 June 1987). "Books of the times". The New York Times.
- Charles, Ron (18 August 2017). "A great Russian satirist sheds light on Trump's fondness for Confederate statues". Washington Post. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- Yuri Semenov. Ideological Fashion in Science and Skepticism article from Scepsis №2, Winter 2003 ISSN 1683-5573 (in Russian)
- Liza Novikova. This Week's Books article from Kommersant №90, 29 May 2002 (in Russian)
- Vladimir Voinovich. Solzhenitsyn Against the Background of Myths interview at Argumenty i Fakty № 28, 10 July 2002 (in Russian)