Vartan Gregorian

Vartan Gregorian[a] (born April 8, 1934) is an Armenian-American academic, educator, and historian. He has been serving as president of the Carnegie Corporation since 1997.

Vartan Gregorian
Vartan Gregorian cropped.jpg
Gregorian in 2010
12th President of the Carnegie Corporation
Assumed office
June 1997
Preceded byDavid A. Hamburg
16th President of Brown University
In office
April 1989 – June 1997
Preceded byHoward Swearer
Succeeded byE. Gordon Gee
9th President of the New York Public Library
In office
1981 – April 1989
Succeeded byTimothy S. Healy
23rd Provost of University of Pennsylvania
In office
January 1979 – October 1980
Preceded byEliot Stellar
Succeeded byBenjamin S. Shen (acting)
Personal details
Born (1934-04-08) April 8, 1934 (age 86)
Tabriz, Imperial State of Persia (Iran)
CitizenshipUnited States
NationalityArmenian[1][2]
ResidenceNew York
Alma materStanford University
ProfessionHistorian, educator and philanthropist[3]
AwardsNational Humanities Medal (1998)
Presidential Medal of Freedom (2004)

An Armenian born in Iran, Gregorian moved to the United States at 22. He graduated with dual PhD from Stanford University. He subsequently taught at several universities and his work as a historian focused mainly on the Muslim world. He went on to join the University of Pennsylvania faculty, then as its provost. From 1981 to 1989 he served as president of the New York Public Library during which he succeeded in financially stabilizing the institution and revitalizing its cultural importance. From 1989 to 1997 he served as the first foreign-born president of Brown University. Gregorian's work has been widely acknowledged. He has received dozens of honorary doctorates, the National Humanities Medal (1998) and the Presidential Medal of Freedom (2004).

Early life and educationEdit

Vartan Gregorian was born on April 8, 1934[4][5] in the city of Tabriz in northern Iran to Christian Armenian parents Samuel B. Gregorian and Shushanik (née Mirzaian).[4] His parents had high school education.[6] His father worked for the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in Abadan and was mostly absent.[7] His mother died of pneumonia at 26, when he was six[7] and his father later remarried.[8] Vartan and his younger sister, Ojik,[9] were raised by his maternal grandmother, Voski Mirzaian.[10][5] She came from a family of scribes,[7] but was an illiterate peasant and Gregorian described her as wise.[7] His grandfather owned an inn for camel caravans.[11] Regarding his family origins, he said that he could not determine if they were indigenous to the area, or settled there in the 15th, 16th, or 19th century, because "they were mostly from peasant villages that migrated to Tabriz."[7]

He first went to an Armenian elementary school in Tabriz, then a Russian one when northern Iran was under Soviet occupation. When Iran regained control of the area, he learned Persian.[6] He was told by Edgar Maloyan, the French vice-council in Tabriz of Armenian origin,[9] that he had to go to Beirut because he was "too smart to stay in Tabriz."[8] He followed his advice and continued his studies at the Collège Armenien (Jemaran) in Beirut, graduating in 1955.[4][12][13] Before moving to Beirut, he spoke Eastern Armenian, some Russian, Persian and Turkish.[7] He learned French within a year.[7] Among his teachers there was Simon Vratsian, the last prime minister of the First Republic of Armenia (1918–20).[6] He was one of Vratsian's unofficial secretaries.[9] Gregorian described him as both his mentor and his benevolent benefactor.[10] He also briefly worked as a reporter in Beirut before emigrating to the United States in 1956.[1][4] Gregorian came to the US with the initial intention to return to Beirut[14] to teach Armenian history in a high school.[8] In another interview, Gregorian said he studied Portuguese so he could become the principal/director of an Armenian high school in São Paulo, Brazil.[6][7] In 1956 He enrolled at Stanford University and completed his BA in history and humanities in just two years, graduating with honors in 1958.[12][13][5]

Teaching careerEdit

Gregorian earned a dual PhD in history and humanities (art history, philosophy, Romance languages, religion, classics)[6] from Stanford University in 1964.[13] His dissertation was titled "Traditionalism and Modernism in Islam."[15][12] He began his teaching career at University of California, Berkeley where he was briefly instructor in Armenian history and culture in 1960.[4] He taught European and Middle Eastern history[13] at San Francisco State University (then college) between 1962 and 1968. He was initially instructor, then in 1964 he was named assistant professor and, in 1966, associate professor of history.[4] He was a visiting associate professor of history at University of California, Los Angeles in 1968, before moving to University of Texas at Austin as associate professor in 1968-70 and professor of history in 1970-72.[4]

Gregorian joined the University of Pennsylvania faculty in 1972 as Tarzian Professor of Armenian and Caucasian History and Professor of South Asian history.[13][12] In 1974 he became the founding dean of UPenn's Faculty of Arts and Sciences until 1978.[4][13] He subsequently served as the 23rd provost of UPenn from January 1979 to October 1980.[16][13] In 1980 Gregorian was widely considered to be the most probable candidate for president of the University of Pennsylvania[11] as he had the "resounding support of most of the deans, the Faculty Senate, and the Undergraduate Assembly." Gregorian was seen as a charismatic leader and one with "flamboyant style and ever-present brilliance." However, the university trustees chose Sheldon Hackney instead.[17][11]

In 1984–89 Gregorian was professor of history and Near Eastern studies at New York University and at the New School for Social Research (The New School).[4] He taught European intellectual history at the New School.[8]

New York Public LibraryEdit

From 1981 to 1989 Gregorian served as president of the New York Public Library (NYPL), a network that contained four research libraries and 83 circulating libraries.[13][4] He was highly successful in the position, primarily as a fundraiser. He nearly doubled its budget[4] and by the end of his tenure, he had secured $327[18] to $400[1] million for the NYPL from individuals, foundations and corporations.[19] He has been credited with restoring the "crumbling landmark to a vibrant cultural nexus"[18] and rescuing one of America's "known public institutions from financial and cultural crisis and thereby restor[ing] the stature of public libraries nationwide."[12] According to Michael Gorman Gregorian is one of the few "shining exceptions" of academics running libraries well. He notes that as the head of the NYPL Gregorian "can fairly be said to have rescued that venerable and valuable institution from pauperism."[20]

During Gregorian tenure, the Main Branch in Manhattan was restored with $42 million.[4] He also succeeded in getting approval from city planning authorities to restore the nearby Bryant Park.[21] Upon his departure, The New York Times wrote that as president of the NYPL, Gregorian "revived an empire of learning that is more than ever a national treasure."[21] Barlow Der Mugrdechian noted that Gregorian "transformed what was then a decaying and underfinanced institution into a center of New York cultural life."[1] His tenure at the NYPL made Gregorian a reputable institutional leader.[12][5] In May 1999 a hall of the Main Branch was named after Gregorian.[22]

 
Gregorian in 2008

Brown UniversityEdit

Brown University awarded Gregorian an honorary doctorate in 1984 for his work at the NYPL.[23] Four years later, in August 1988 Gregorian was chosen to become its 16th and first foreign-born president.[11][23][24] He was officially inaugurated as president in April 1989.[25] When he took over, Brown had the lowest endowment ($370 million) in the Ivy League.[25] He served in that position for eight years, until June 1997.[13] In his eight-year tenure, Gregorian raised around $535 million,[4][18] raising the total to $850 million.[1] He was also credited with strengthening Brown's reputation and "enhancing its traditional emphasis on undergraduate education."[26] During his presidency, the university "Gregorian hired 270 new faculty members, expanded the library, and established eleven new departments."[12] The university also underwent increasing internationalization.[27]

At Brown, Gregorian continued teaching a freshman seminar and a senior seminar and a course on Alexis de Tocqueville with Stephen Graubard.[8]

Carnegie CorporationEdit

In January 1997 Gregorian was chosen as the president of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, at the time the 16th largest foundation in the US, known for its advocacy of education and peace.[28] He assumuted the position in June 1997 and became the 12th president[13] and the first outsider—not from within the foundation—to head it.[28] At Carnegie Corporation, Gregorian has switched from his usual fundraiser role to one of a fund granter. He commented on it: "People think that giving away money is an easy job. Actually, it's harder than raising money, as you well know, because you have so many excellent projects that compete for funding. The issue is, I tell our staff: Are we going to be an incubator or an oxygen tank?"[8] He has advocated "initiatives in teacher education, international peace, and cooperative efforts with other foundations."[1] Commenting on his work at Carnegie Corporation, he said that his main aim is "teaching ideas and values. But most importantly, also, preparation of new citizens. One of our great programs, which I’m very proud of at Carnegie is strengthening US democracy."[14]

Armenian causesEdit

 
Gregorian and Mihran Agbabian at the American University of Armenia, 2014

Gregorian has been involved in projects in the Armenian American community and Armenia.[1] Barlow Der Mugrdechian described him as a "highly visible model for Armenians."[1] He is a "much-sought-after" keynote speaker at Armenian events,[1] for which he does not take money: "I’ve never accepted one penny from any Armenian source for the past 30 years."[6]

Gregorian has been outspoken about the importance of education in Armenia. He stated in a 2009 interview: "The first thing that Armenia has to invest in, like the Scandinavian countries, is education. Even in the Armenian army, they should teach computer science, mathematics, other sciences."[6] He also called on the Armenian church to invest in education.[6] He is on the Board of Governors of UWC Dilijan, the first international boarding school in Armenia founded in 2014.[29] He has donated 1,500 books to the school[30] and a learning centre is named after him.[31] Gregorian donated hundreds of books to the American University of Armenia in 2010–14.[32][33]

In 2016 Gregorian co-founded the Aurora Prize for Awakening Humanity with Ruben Vardanyan and Noubar Afeyan. It honors individuals for humanitarian work on behalf of the survivors of the Armenian Genocide.[34] Armenia's Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan called it the "Armenian Nobel Peace Prize."[35]

Gregorian has been honored by the Armenian government, the Armenian Church and diaspora organizations. In 1999 he received the St. Gregory the Illuminator Medal, the Armenian Church's highest secular award, from Catholicos Karekin I.[1] The National Academy of Sciences of Armenia named him an Honorary Doctor in 2001[36] and elected him as a Foreign Member in 2008.[37] President of Armenia Serzh Sargsyan awarded him the Mkhitar Gosh Medal in 2013[38] and the Order of Honor in 2017.[39][40] He has met President of Armenia Armen Sarkissian on several occasions.[41][42]

In October 2016 Gregorian joined other prominent Armenians on calling the government of Armenia to adopt "new development strategies based on inclusiveness and collective action" and to create "an opportunity for the Armenian world to pivot toward a future of prosperity, to transform the post-Soviet Armenian Republic into a vibrant, modern, secure, peaceful and progressive homeland for a global nation."[43]

The National Association for Armenian Studies and Research (NAASR) headquarters in Belmont, Massachusetts was officially renamed to NAASR Vartan Gregorian Building in January 2019.[44]

ViewsEdit

Gregorian has been described as a public intellectual,[20] who often comments on educational and political matters. He has been a life-long advocate for education. "He has become increasingly worried about America's deemphasizing studies in the humanities, which has been replaced by the desire to learn marketable skills, and he is concerned by the failure of high schools to prepare students for college so that they often spend the first two years at universities trying to catch up to where they should be."[4]

Gregorian has a reputation of a "visionary educator."[28] In 1988 Bill Moyers described him as "an evangelist for education."[45] He has advised Walter Annenberg and the Annenberg Foundation on school reform.[28] Gregorian believes that the sole function of education is to provide an "introduction to learning."[45] Gregorian believes that "we can produce an educated, cultured person" in four years that would include "all the possible elements of professionalism, and know-how, and a career, and also a vocation."[45] Commenting on the rise of college tuition, Gregorian believes that a special tax is needed: "Five percent of the tax Californians pay should go to universities."[6]

Gregorian has called teachers, journalists and librarians the most important jobs for the United States.[14] According to him, without "educated journalists and free press [...] you're going to have an Orwellian society which we always dreaded."[14] Gregorian opined in 1988 that because there is an explosion of information, which is not equal the explosion of knowledge, there are "great possibilities of manipulating our society by inundating us with undigested information." He elaborated: "So instead of 1984, Orwell saying deny information, now one other way of paralyzing people is by inundating with trivia, as well as a major way of paralyzing our choices, by giving so much that we cannot possible digest it."[45]

PoliticsEdit

 
Gregorian and Lionel Barber, 2010

Nancy Levit called Gregorian "politically liberal" in 1998.[46] Gregorian has said in an interview that in his autobiography he tried to be "as apolitical as possible because I want to [...] present the facts rather than try to camouflage opinions as facts." In the 1960 Democratic Party presidential primaries he collected signatures for Adlai Stevenson II and then for John F. Kennedy. He stated that he was "just enchanted and transformed by [Kennedy's] rhetoric and his vision and youthfulness, and so forth, about an idealistic America where everybody had to chip in."[7] In 1966 he served as faculty adviser to the Maoist Progressive Labor Party at the San Francisco State University.[7][47]

Gregorian is "known for his commitment to human rights and interest in foreign affairs, especially conflict resolution and intellectual freedom."[28] In his 1989 speech as president of Brown University, Gregorian called for a "value-oriented, moral sense of politics" as Patrick Garry describes it. Gregorian stated that a democratic society needs freedom and choice, but also a moral center and not a moral enclosure. Garry wrote that Gregorian strove to "inject moral passion into an increasingly listless liberalism. He advocates a moral sense, but not as defined by conservative beliefs." Instead, the "moral center should come from a public moral discourse and from the choices of individuals regarding moral values and social ideas."[48] "We need Linda Greenhouses, we need individuals who would be challenging the system. We need a Bill Buckley … new Bill Buckleys. We need new I. F. Stones from the Left and the Right who could challenge, who could create a kind of dialogue, rather than monologue," he said in 2009.[14]

He has said that it is more important to integrate immigrants into the American society than assimilate them. "America is about citizenship, about rights, about privileges, about responsibilities, knowledge of America’s past, engagement in its future and so a part of being both individualist, as well as part of the organic community, which is the United States," he said.[14]

In a 2003 interview, Gregorian stated that he made "nondiscrimination on the basis of sexual orientation an official policy at both the University of Pennsylvania and at Brown."[8]

In April 2009 Gregorian joined Václav Havel, Prince Hassan bin Talal, Desmond Tutu, and Yōhei Sasakawa on calling China to rescind the decision to execute Tibetan activists involved in the 2008 Tibetan unrest and "provide them with an opportunity to be re-tried in a judicial process that is more in keeping with the international standards that China says that it adheres to."[49]

In May 2009 Gregorian proposed U.S. President Barack Obama to send a message to the Iranian authorities: Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad that "mixes Obama's characteristic emphasis on respect and cultural sensitivity with any apology for Mossadegh's overthrow, thanks for Iranian condemnation of 9/11, and a conciliatory tone in asking for the abandonment of nuclear enrichment."[50]

In June 2009 President Obama appointed Gregorian as a White House Fellow.[51][52]

In 2009 Richard Heffner suggested that Gregorian would be great as a successor to Hillary Clinton as a Senator from New York.[14]

Personal lifeEdit

Gregorian speaks Armenian, French and English. He understands Persian and Arabic.[7] He did not speak English when he arrived to the US in 1956.[23] He speaks English with a "soft Middle Eastern accent."[53] New York Times journalist Sydney Schanberg reported that Gregorian faced housing discrimination because of his Armenian origins when he moved to New York City in 1981.[54]

Gregorian married Clare (née Russell) on March 25, 1960.[4] They met at Stanford.[7][1] She died on April 28, 2018 at the age of 80. She was a "community and volunteer leader in several states and cities." She was an advocate of women’s rights, literacy and the arts and was described as a "driving force behind the establishment" of Rhode Island Public Radio. Janet L. Robinson stated that her "unwavering support of organizations such as Rhode Island Public Radio, Providence Public Library and Planned Parenthood proved to be a critical factor in the success of these organizations."[55] They had three sons: Vahé, Raffi, Dareh Ardashes.[10][1][4] As of 2003, Vahe was chief sportswriter at St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Raffi was working at the State Department, while Dareh was covering the civil courts for The New York Post.[7]

Gregorian had a surgery for kidney removal in October 1999.[8]

Gregorian's interests include chess and Armenian music.[4]

RecognitionEdit

Gregorian is one of America's "most respected and frequently honored educators and intellectuals."[56] Barlow Der Mugrdechian described him as "one of the most noted educators and leaders in higher education" in the US.[1] Hendrik Hertzberg wrote in The New Yorker in 2008: "The impossibly distinguished Vartan Gregorian is a one-man academy of arts, letters, and the humanities."[57] Peter Gay wrote in the New York Times in 2003: "If the word had not been so badly debased in our time, I would call him a civilian hero."[58] French Ambassador to the US Gérard Araud described Gregorian as a "visionary and a living example of the modern man of letters, for whom education and knowledge is the key to opportunity and peace."[59]

Gregorian has a reputation for his fundraising skills. Financial Times wrote in 2007 that he has been "hailed as a fund-raising genius."[18]

An elementary school in Fox Point, Providence, Rhode Island is named after Gregorian.[60] In 2009 he said that he takes great pride in that fact. "It has become a great school. I’ve helped them personally," he added.[6]

Awards and honorsEdit

Financial Times wrote in 2007 that Gregorian had received "39 awards, six international decorations, 14 civic honours and 16 prestigious medals."[18] These include:

Honorary degreesEdit

As of 2001, Gregorian had received around 50 honorary degrees,[72] 60 by 2007,[18] and "nearly seventy" by 2015.[5] These include from:

Honorary degrees awarded to Vartan Gregorian
School Year Degree
Boston University 1983 [4][73]
Brown University 1984 Doctor of Humane Letters (L.H.D.)[74][4]
Jewish Theological Seminary 1984 [4]
State University of New York 1985 [4]
Connecticut College 1985 [75]
SUNY Potsdam 1985 Doctor of Letters[76]
College of Mount Saint Vincent 1986 Doctor of Humane Letters[77]
Johns Hopkins University 1987 Doctor of Humane Letters (L.H.D.)[78][4]
New York University 1987 [4]
University of Pennsylvania 1988 [4]
Dartmouth College 1989 [79][4]
Rutgers University 1989 Doctor of Laws[80][4]
Dickinson College 1989 Doctor of Letters[81]
Wheaton College (Massachusetts) 1989 [82]
City University of New York 1990 [4]
University of Missouri 1991 Doctor of Literature[83]
Long Island University 1993 [84]
Tufts University 1994 L.H.D.[85][4]
University of Aberdeen 1999 LLD[86]
Muhlenberg College 2000 Doctor of Humanities[87]
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 2001 Doctor of Humane Letters[88]
Pennsylvania State University 2003 Doctor of Humane Letters[89]
Lafayette College 2003 [90]
Fordham University 2003 Doctor of Humane Letters[91]
California State University
San Francisco State University
2004 Doctor of Humane Letters[92][93]
American University of Beirut 2004 Doctor of Humane Letters[94]
College of Charleston 2004 Doctor of Humane Letters[95]
University of Notre Dame 2005 Doctor of Laws[96]
University of Southern California 2006 Doctor of Humane Letters[97]
Keio University 2008 Doctor of Philosophy[98]
University of Miami 2009 Doctor of Humane Letters[99]
University of St Andrews 2009 Doctor of Letters[100]
University of Edinburgh 2009-10 [101]
Northeastern University 2010 Doctor of Humane Letters[102]
Brandeis University 2013 Doctor of Humane Letters[103]
Pace University 2013 [104]
Adelphi University 2015 Doctor of Humane Letters[105]
University of South Carolina 2017 Doctor of Letters[106]

BibliographyEdit

  • (ed). Simon Vratzian, Hin Tghter Nor Patmutian Hamar [Old Papers for the New History (Beirut, 1962)
  • (ed). Simon Vratzian, Kianki Oughinerov [memoirs], Volume 5, (Beirut, 1966)
  • "Mahmud Tarzi and Saraj-ol-Akhbar: Ideology of Nationalism and Modernization in Afghanistan". Middle East Journal. 21 (3): 345–368. Summer 1967. JSTOR 4324163.
  • The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan: Politics of Reform and Modernization, 1880-1946 (Stanford University Press, 1969)
  • "Minorities of Isfahan: the Armenian community of Isfahan 1587-1722". Iranian Studies. 7 (3/4): 652–680. 1974. doi:10.1080/00210867408701483. JSTOR 4310181.
  • "The Book, the Library, Literacy". Public Library Quarterly. 6 (1): 13–16. 1985. doi:10.1300/J118v06n01_04.
  • (ed). Censorship: Five Hundred Years of Conflict (Oxford University Press, 1997)
  • The Road to Home: My Life and Times [memoir] (Simon & Schuster, 2003)
  • Islam: A Mosaic, Not a Monolith (Brookings Institution Press, 2003)
  • "Preventing Afghanistan from becoming a narco-state" (PDF). Carnegie Reporter. 6 (4): i, 49–51. Spring 2012. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  • "Built to last". Carnegie Reporter. 11 (1): 2–6. Winter 2019. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)

Critical studies and reviews of Gregorian's workEdit

The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan

Gregorian's first book, The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan: Politics of Reform and Modernization, 1880-1946, was published by Stanford University Press in 1969, "long before most Americans had any interest in or knowledge of that faraway country."[20] It covered the history of Afghanistan from the 19th century until the end of World War II. It was based on his PhD thesis and research of eight years.[107]

The book was widely praised by reviewers. Louis Dupree described it as "the best of its kind on Afghanistan [which] will be a basic source for years to come" and added, "In the past, all books written about Afghanistan had to be measured alongside Elphinstone's 1815 classic. We now have another yardstick: Gregorian, 1969."[108] M. E. Yapp called it a "comprehensive and informative study" and the best general presentation for the period covered.[109] Leon B. Poullada noted that "Until Gregorian came, Afghanistan has in some ways been a country in search of a scholar."[110] Ludwig W. Adamec opined that Gregorian has written a "valuable book; but much remains to be done by him and others before the definitive story of Afghanistan's modernization can be told."[111] Firuz Kazemzadeh noted that Gregorian "filled an enormous gap in our knowledge of the Middle East and has done it with exemplary diligence, intelligence, and verve. His book is far superior to any work on modern Afghanistan known to this reviewer."[112] M. Jamil Hanifi wrote that it is a "major scholarly work, which should be considered as a most imperative reference work by students of Afghanistan in particular, and those interested in the history of Asia in general."[107]

Islam: A Mosaic, Not a Monolith

Gregorian's 2003 book Islam: A Mosaic, Not a Monolith was written, according to himself, in order to promote for better understanding of Islam. "We have to see what we have in common, as well as what divides us," he said in a later interview.[18] Ebrahim Moosa noted that "it is an effort by a prominent American to coax decision-makers to take the complexity of religion seriously and a plea to avoid making flawed geopolitical analyses about Islam."[113] The book received mixed reviews. Michael B. Schub wrote in the Middle East Quarterly that it is "well intentioned and disheartening" and that Gregorian "is by training an Afghan specialist-not a specialist on Islam. Unfortunately, it shows."[114]

The Road to Home

Gregorian published his memoirs, entitled The Road to Home: My Life and Times, in 2003. In an interview, he noted that the book is a tribute to his grandmother and other people who played a crucial role in his life.[8] He narrates his life, which has been described as a "rags-to-riches" story.[4] He got the idea of the book when he was in hospital in 1999 and initially wanted to write about the "concept of an educated person, how it has changed from Renaissance to now."[7] Gordon S. Wood wrote in The New York Review of Books that Gregorian is "the traditional American success story, modeled on that of Benjamin Franklin-the bright young boy who read book after book and rose out of nowhere to become one of America's preeminent citizens."[115] Another reviewer called it "the quintessential American Success Story."[9]

ReferencesEdit

Notes
  1. ^ Armenian: Վարդան Գրիգորեան; Persian: وارتان گرگوریان
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Der Mugrdechian, Barlow (2001). "Gregorian, Vartan (1934—)". In Barkan, Elliott Robert (ed.). Making it in America: A Sourcebook on Eminent Ethnic Americans. ABC-CLIO. pp. 140-141. ISBN 9781576070987.
  2. ^ a b "80 Named as Recipients of Ellis Island Awards". The New York Times. October 16, 1986. Dr. Vartan Gregorian, Armenian, librarian.
  3. ^ "Vartan Gregorian". NPR. August 3, 2003. Archived from the original on 22 February 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "Gregorian, Vartan 1934-". Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series. Encyclopedia.com. 21 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Vartan Gregorian". ir.usembassy.gov. U.S. Virtual Embassy Iran. 1 January 2015. Archived from the original on 9 August 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Avakian, Florence (October 30, 2009). "INTERVIEW: Dr. Vartan Gregorian Discusses Education, Armenia". Asbarez. Archived from the original on 25 February 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lamb, Brian (May 19, 2003). "The Road to Home: My Life and Times". C-SPAN. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cole, Bruce (October 2003). "Foot Soldier of Civilization: A Conversation with Vartan Gregorian". Humanities. National Endowment for the Humanities: 4-7. Archived from the original on 2017-11-20.
  9. ^ a b c d Afeyan, Bedros (June 16, 2003). "Book Review: "The Road to Home" by Vartan Gregorian". Armenian News Network / Groong. University of Southern California. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020.
  10. ^ a b c Manoogian, Sylva Natalie (July 2004). "Reviewed Work: The Road to Home: My Life and Times by Vartan Gregorian". The Library Quarterly. 74 (3): 387–389. doi:10.1086/422784. JSTOR 10.1086/422784.
  11. ^ a b c d Berger, Joseph (September 1, 1988). "Gregorian Is Chosen as President of Brown University". The New York Times.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Gregorian, Vartan (b. 1934)". library.brown.edu. Brown University Office of the Curator. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Vartan Gregorian". carnegie.org. Carnegie Corporation of New York. Archived from the original on 6 December 2019.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Heffner, Richard (May 21, 2009). "As ever: a man for all intellectual seasons". The Open Mind. Archived from the original on 14 March 2015.
  15. ^ Mitchell, Martha (1993). "Gregorian, Vartan". Encyclopedia Brunoniana. Brown University. Archived from the original on 22 February 2020.
  16. ^ "LEADERS of the UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA: PROVOSTS". archives.upenn.edu. University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 23 April 2018.
  17. ^ Puckett, John L.; Lloyd, Mark Frazier (2015). Becoming Penn: The Pragmatic American University, 1950-2000. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 178-180. ISBN 9780812291087.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Ryckman, Pamela (December 15, 2007). "The philanthropists' maestro". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 9 June 2018.
  19. ^ Sherman, Scott (30 November 2011). "Upheaval at the New York Public Library". The Nation.
  20. ^ a b c Gorman, Michael (2005). Our Own Selves: More Meditations for Librarians. Chicago: American Library Association. p. 63-64. ISBN 9780838908969.
  21. ^ a b "New York Loses a Lion". The New York Times. September 3, 1988. p. 22.
  22. ^ "New York Public Library Hall Named After Gregorian". Asbarez. May 24, 1999. Archived from the original on 23 February 2020.
  23. ^ a b c "Sixteenth President: Vartan Gregorian". brown.edu. Brown University. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019.
  24. ^ "Brown University President Leaving For Carnegie Post". Orlando Sentinel. January 7, 1997. Archived from the original on 23 February 2020. ...Brown's first foreign-born president...
  25. ^ a b "New President of Brown Inaugurated". The New York Times. April 10, 1989.
  26. ^ Arenson, Karen W. (January 8, 1997). "Gregorian, Ending an 8-Year Tenure at Brown, Is Leaving 'a Hot College Even Hotter'". The New York Times.
  27. ^ "Vartan Gregorian, sixteenth president of Brown University". brown.edu. Brown University. January 7, 1997. Archived from the original on 24 June 2020.
  28. ^ a b c d e Miller, Judith (January 7, 1997). "Carnegie Corp. Picks a Chief In Gregorian". The New York Times.
  29. ^ "Board of Governors". uwcdilijan.org. UWC Dilijan. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  30. ^ "Vartan Gregorian donates 1500 books to College Library". uwcdilijan.org. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  31. ^ "Inauguration of the Vartan Gregorian Learning Centre". uwcdilijan.org. 4 June 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  32. ^ "Vartan Gregorian Donates Book Collection to AUA". Asbarez. October 23, 2014. Archived from the original on 7 November 2018.
  33. ^ "AUA Honors Vartan Gregorian for Donation of His Book Collection to AGBU Papazian Library". newsroom.aua.am. American University of Armenia. October 15, 2014. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016.
  34. ^ "Aurora Prize Honors Humanitarian Work". carnegie.org. Carnegie Corporation of New York. 28 April 2016. Archived from the original on 21 September 2019.
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