System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Late
Maastrichtian 66.0 72.1
Campanian 72.1 83.6
Santonian 83.6 86.3
Coniacian 86.3 89.8
Turonian 89.8 93.9
Cenomanian 93.9 100.5
Lower/
Early
Albian 100.5 ~113.0
Aptian ~113.0 ~125.0
Barremian ~125.0 ~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4 ~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9 ~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8 ~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the ICS, as of 2017.[1]

In the geologic timescale, the Valanginian is an age or stage of the Early or Lower Cretaceous. It spans between 139.8 ± 3.0 Ma and 132.9 ± 2.0 Ma (million years ago). The Valanginian stage succeeds the Berriasian stage of the Lower Cretaceous and precedes the Hauterivian stage of the Lower Cretaceous.[2]

Stratigraphic definitionsEdit

The Valanginian was first described and named by Édouard Desor in 1853. It is named after Valangin, a small town north of Neuchâtel in the Jura Mountains of Switzerland.

The base of the Valanginian is at the first appearance of calpionellid species Calpionellites darderi in the stratigraphic column. A global reference section (a GSSP) had in 2009 not yet been appointed.

The top of the Valanginian (the base of the Hauterivian) is at the first appearance of the ammonite genus Acanthodiscus.

SubdivisionEdit

The Valanginian is often subdivided in Lower and Upper substages. The Upper substage begins at the first appearance of ammonite species Saynoceras verrucosum and the major marine transgression Va3.

In the Tethys domain, the Valanginian stage contains five ammonite biozones:

PalaeontologyEdit

†AnkylosaursEdit

Ankylosauria of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Birds (avian theropods)Edit

Birds of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
France

CrocodylomorphsEdit

Crocodylomorphs of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images


†OrnithopodsEdit

Ornithopoda of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Australia May be a chimera based on multiple species of ornithopods.
Europe
Cape Province, South Africa Generally considered nomen dubium, it classified as a genus similar to Dryosaurus, i.e. an iguanodont.
Lanzhou, Gansu, China Notable for its "astonishingly huge teeth", among the largest for any herbivorous creature ever, which indicate it is an iguanodont. The mandible, longer than one meter, suggests very large size for the animal.
Isle of Wight, England; Niger, Africa A dryosaurid

†PterosaursEdit

Pterosaurs of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Berriasian-Albian UK
Lagarcito Formation, San Luis Province, Argentina; Chile
Sussex, England

†SauropodsEdit

Sauropods of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†StegosaursEdit

Stegosaurs of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†Theropods (non-avian)Edit

Non-Avian Theropods of the Valanginian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Berriasian-Barremian

Sao Khua Formation, Thailand

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Super User. "ICS - Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org.
  2. ^ See Gradstein et al. (2004) for a detailed geologic timescale
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Dating uncertain.
  4. ^ a b Only known from this stage.

LiteratureEdit

  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; (2004): A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.

External linksEdit