Vacuum energy
Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe.^{[citation needed]} This behavior is codified in Heisenberg's energy–time uncertainty principle. Still, the exact effect of such fleeting bits of energy is difficult to quantify. The vacuum energy is a special case of zeropoint energy that relates to the quantum vacuum.^{[1]}
Unsolved problem in physics: Why does the zeropoint energy of the vacuum not cause a large cosmological constant? What cancels it out? (more unsolved problems in physics)

The effects of vacuum energy can be experimentally observed in various phenomena such as spontaneous emission, the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift, and are thought to influence the behavior of the Universe on cosmological scales. Using the upper limit of the cosmological constant, the vacuum energy of free space has been estimated to be 10^{−9} joules (10^{−2} ergs) per cubic meter.^{[2]} However, in both quantum electrodynamics (QED) and stochastic electrodynamics (SED), consistency with the principle of Lorentz covariance and with the magnitude of the Planck constant suggest a much larger value of 10^{113} joules per cubic meter.^{[3]}^{[4]} This huge discrepancy is known as the cosmological constant problem.
OriginEdit
Quantum field theory states that all fundamental fields, such as the electromagnetic field, must be quantized at each and every point in space^{[citation needed]}. A field in physics may be envisioned as if space were filled with interconnected vibrating balls and springs, and the strength of the field is like the displacement of a ball from its rest position. The theory requires "vibrations" in, or more accurately changes in the strength of, such a field to propagate as per the appropriate wave equation for the particular field in question. The second quantization of quantum field theory requires that each such ball–spring combination be quantized, that is, that the strength of the field be quantized at each point in space. Canonically, if the field at each point in space is a simple harmonic oscillator, its quantization places a quantum harmonic oscillator at each point. Excitations of the field correspond to the elementary particles of particle physics. Thus, according to the theory, even the vacuum has a vastly complex structure and all calculations of quantum field theory must be made in relation to this model of the vacuum.
The theory considers vacuum to implicitly have the same properties as a particle, such as spin or polarization in the case of light, energy, and so on. According to the theory, most of these properties cancel out on average leaving the vacuum empty in the literal sense of the word. One important exception, however, is the vacuum energy or the vacuum expectation value of the energy. The quantization of a simple harmonic oscillator requires the lowest possible energy, or zeropoint energy of such an oscillator to be:
Summing over all possible oscillators at all points in space gives an infinite quantity. To remove this infinity, one may argue that only differences in energy are physically measurable, much as the concept of potential energy has been treated in classical mechanics for centuries. This argument is the underpinning of the theory of renormalization. In all practical calculations, this is how the infinity is handled.
Vacuum energy can also be thought of in terms of virtual particles (also known as vacuum fluctuations) which are created and destroyed out of the vacuum. These particles are always created out of the vacuum in particle–antiparticle pairs, which in most cases shortly annihilate each other and disappear. However, these particles and antiparticles may interact with others before disappearing, a process which can be mapped using Feynman diagrams. Note that this method of computing vacuum energy is mathematically equivalent to having a quantum harmonic oscillator at each point and, therefore, suffers the same renormalization problems.
Additional contributions to the vacuum energy come from spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field theory.
ImplicationsEdit
Vacuum energy has a number of consequences. In 1948, Dutch physicists Hendrik B. G. Casimir and Dirk Polder predicted the existence of a tiny attractive force between closely placed metal plates due to resonances in the vacuum energy in the space between them. This is now known as the Casimir effect and has since been extensively experimentally verified. It is therefore believed that the vacuum energy is "real" in the same sense that more familiar conceptual objects such as electrons, magnetic fields, etc., are real. However, alternative explanations for the Casimir effect have since been proposed.^{[5]}
Other predictions are harder to verify. Vacuum fluctuations are always created as particle–antiparticle pairs. The creation of these virtual particles near the event horizon of a black hole has been hypothesized by physicist Stephen Hawking to be a mechanism for the eventual "evaporation" of black holes.^{[6]} If one of the pair is pulled into the black hole before this, then the other particle becomes "real" and energy/mass is essentially radiated into space from the black hole. This loss is cumulative and could result in the black hole's disappearance over time. The time required is dependent on the mass of the black hole (the equations indicate that the smaller the black hole, the more rapidly it evaporates) but could be on the order of 10^{100} years for large solarmass black holes.^{[6]}
The vacuum energy also has important consequences for physical cosmology. General relativity predicts that energy is equivalent to mass, and therefore, if the vacuum energy is "really there", it should exert a gravitational force. Essentially, a nonzero vacuum energy is expected to contribute to the cosmological constant, which affects the expansion of the universe.^{[citation needed]} In the special case of vacuum energy, general relativity stipulates that the gravitational field is proportional to ρ + 3p (where ρ is the mass–energy density, and p is the pressure). Quantum theory of the vacuum further stipulates that the pressure of the zerostate vacuum energy is always negative and equal in magnitude to ρ. Thus, the total is ρ + 3p = ρ − 3ρ = −2ρ, a negative value. If indeed the vacuum ground state has nonzero energy, the calculation implies a repulsive gravitational field, giving rise to acceleration of the expansion of the universe,^{[citation needed]}. However, the vacuum energy is mathematically infinite without renormalization, which is based on the assumption that we can only measure energy in a relative sense, which is not true if we can observe it indirectly via the cosmological constant.^{[citation needed]}
The existence of vacuum energy is also sometimes used as theoretical justification for the possibility of freeenergy machines. It has been argued that due to the broken symmetry (in QED), free energy does not violate conservation of energy, since the laws of thermodynamics only apply to equilibrium systems. However, consensus amongst physicists is that this is unknown as the nature of vacuum energy remains an unsolved problem.^{[7]} In particular, the second law of thermodynamics is unaffected by the existence of vacuum energy.^{[citation needed]} However, in Stochastic Electrodynamics, the energy density is taken to be a classical random noise wave field which consists of real electromagnetic noise waves propagating isotropically in all directions. The energy in such a wave field would seem to be accessible, e.g., with nothing more complicated than a directional coupler.^{[citation needed]} The most obvious difficulty appears to be the spectral distribution of the energy, which compatibility with Lorentz invariance requires to take the form Kf^{3}, where K is a constant and f denotes frequency.^{[3]}^{[8]} It follows that the energy and momentum flux in this wave field only becomes significant at extremely short wavelengths where directional coupler technology is currently lacking.^{[citation needed]}
HistoryEdit
In 1934, Georges Lemaître used an unusual perfectfluid equation of state to interpret the cosmological constant as due to vacuum energy. In 1948, the Casimir effect provided an experimental method for a verification of the existence of vacuum energy; in 1955, however, Evgeny Lifshitz offered a different origin for the Casimir effect. In 1957, Lee and Yang proved the concepts of broken symmetry and parity violation, for which they won the Nobel prize. In 1973, Edward Tryon proposed the zeroenergy universe hypothesis: that the Universe may be a largescale quantummechanical vacuum fluctuation where positive mass–energy is balanced by negative gravitational potential energy. During the 1980s, there were many attempts to relate the fields that generate the vacuum energy to specific fields that were predicted by attempts at a Grand unification theory and to use observations of the Universe to confirm one or another version. However, the exact nature of the particles (or fields) that generate vacuum energy, with a density such as that required by inflation theory, remains a mystery.
Vacuum energy in fictionEdit
 The SciFi television series Stargate Atlantis postulates an energy source, which uses vacuum energy from a micro parallel universe. It's called Zero Point Module or ZPM.^{[9]}
 The book Star Trek: Deep Space Nine Technical Manual descriptes the operating principle of the so called Quantum torpedo. In this fictional weapon, an antimatter reaction is used to create a multidimensional membrane in a vacuum that releases at its decomposition more energy than was needed to produce it. The missing energy is removed from the vacuum. Usually about twice as much energy is released in the explosion, as would correspond to the initial antimatter matter annihilation.^{[10]}
See alsoEdit
NotesEdit
This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) 
 ^ Scientific American. 1997. FOLLOWUP: What is the 'zeropoint energy' (or 'vacuum energy') in quantum physics? Is it really possible that we could harness this energy? – Scientific American. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/followupwhatisthezer/. [Accessed 27 September 2016].
 ^ Sean Carroll, Sr Research Associate – Physics, California Institute of Technology, June 22, 2006CSPAN broadcast of Cosmology at Yearly Kos Science Panel, Part 1
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Peter W. Milonni – "The Quantum Vacuum"
 ^ de la Pena and Cetto "The Quantum Dice: An Introduction to Stochastic Electrodynamics"
 ^ R. L. Jaffe: The Casimir Effect and the Quantum Vacuum. In: Physical Review D. Band 72, 2005 [1]
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Page, Don N. (1976). "Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole". Physical Review D. 13 (2): 198–206. Bibcode:1976PhRvD..13..198P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.13.198.
 ^ IEEE Trans. Ed., 1996, p.7
 ^ de la Pena and Cetto "The Quantum Dice: An Introduction to Stochastic Electrodynamics"
 ^ Rising (Stargate Atlantis)
 ^ Zimmerman, Herman; Rick Sternbach; Doug Drexler. Star Trek: Deep Space Nine Technical Manual.
External articles and referencesEdit
 Free pdf copy of The Structured Vacuum – thinking about nothing by Johann Rafelski and Berndt Muller (1985) ISBN 3871448893.
 Saunders, S., & Brown, H. R. (1991). The Philosophy of Vacuum. Oxford [England]: Clarendon Press.
 Poincaré Seminar, Duplantier, B., & Rivasseau, V. (2003). "Poincaré Seminar 2002: vacuum energyrenormalization". Progress in mathematical physics, v. 30. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag.
 Futamase & Yoshida Possible measurement of vacuum energy
 Study of Vacuum Energy Physics for Breakthrough Propulsion 2004, NASA Glenn Technical Reports Server, (pdf, 57 pages, Retrieved 20130918).