User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/History

History, culture, persons, nations, societies

A note: don't mix the ethnicities, language groups, genetics of human populations, culture, and other concepts. These are different things and English/French/German/Russian/Chinese/Japanese/Turkish/etc. can mean: language, culture, ethnicity, genetics, etc. and these are (sometimes very) different topics. People learn languages, new cultures and have families with people from other languages, ethnicities, cultures, genetic backgrounds...

Historical revisionism: “History is a continuing dialogue between the present and the past. Interpretations of the past are subject to change in response to new evidence, new questions asked of the evidence, new perspectives gained by the passage of time. There is no single, eternal, and immutable "truth" about past events and their meaning. The unending quest of historians for understanding the past—that is, "revisionism"—is what makes history vital and meaningful.” historian James McPherson. E.g. change in notion of: The "Dark Ages", concept of "feudalism", alchemy as contributed to chemistry, ..., WWI, WWII (German guilt or no guilt)...

History of the worldEdit

{q.v.

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Palace economy: system of economic organization in which a substantial share of the wealth flows into the control of a centralized administration, the palace, and out from there to the general population, which may be allowed its own sources of income but relies heavily on the wealth redistributed by the palace.

EthnogenesisEdit

Germania (book) (98 AD): ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire by Gaius Cornelius Tacitus. Contents: they all have common physical characteristics, blue eyes (truces et caerulei oculi = "sky-coloured, azure, dark blue, dark green), reddish hair (rutilae comae = "red, golden-red, reddish yellow") and large bodies, vigorous at the first onset but not tolerant of exhausting labour, tolerant of hunger and cold but not of heat; government and leadership as somewhat merit-based and egalitarian, with leadership by example rather than authority and that punishments are carried out by the priests; opinions of women are given respect; form of folk assembly rather similar to the public Things recorded in later Germanic sources: in these public deliberations, the final decision rests with the men of the tribe as a whole; the Germanics are mainly content with one wife, except for a few political marriages, and specifically and explicitly compares this practice favorably to other barbarian cultures, perhaps since monogamy was a shared value between Roman and Germanic cultures. Ever since its discovery, treatment of the text regarding the culture of the early Germanic peoples in ancient Germany remains strong especially in German history, philology, and ethnology studies, and to a lesser degree in Scandinavian countries as well. Arnaldo Momigliano: Germania as "among the most dangerous books ever written" (1956); Christopher Krebs: Germania played a major role in the formation of the core concepts of Nazi ideology (2012).

PrehistoryEdit

Archaeological culture: recurring assemblage of artifacts from a specific time and place, which may constitute the material culture remains of a particular past human society. The connection between the artifacts is based on archaeologists' understanding and interpretation and does not necessarily relate to real groups of humans in the past.
Stone Age: broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface. The period lasted roughly 3.4 mln years, and ended between 8700 BCE and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking. Starting from about 4 mya a single biome established itself from South Africa through the rift, North Africa, and across Asia to modern China, which has been called "transcontinental 'savannahstan'" recently. Starting in the grasslands of the rift, Homo erectus, the predecessor of modern humans, found an ecological niche as a tool-maker and developed a dependence on it, becoming a "tool equipped savanna dweller." The transition from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age was a period during which modern people could smelt copper, but did not yet manufacture bronze, a time known as the Copper Age, or more technically the Chalcolithic, "copper-stone" age. The end of Oldowan in Africa was brought on by the appearance of Acheulean, or Mode 2, stone tools. The earliest known instances are in the 1.7–1.6 mya layer at Kokiselei, West Turkana, Kenya. At Sterkfontein, South Africa, they are in Member 5 West, 1.7–1.4 mya. In contrast to the Oldowan "small flake" tradition, Acheulean is "large flake:" "The primary technological distinction remaining between Oldowan and the Acheulean is the preference for large flakes (>10 cm) as blanks for making large cutting tools (handaxes and cleavers) in the Acheulean."
Movius Line: Movius had noticed that assemblages of palaeolithic stone tools from sites east of northern India never contained handaxes and tended to be characterised by less formal implements known as chopping tools. These were sometimes as extensively worked as the Acheulean tools from further west but could not be described as true handaxes. Movius then drew a line on a map of India to show where the difference occurred, dividing the tools of Africa, Europe and Western and Southern Asia from those of Eastern and South-eastern Asia.
Old Europe (archaeology): term coined by archaeologist Marija Gimbutas to describe what she perceived as a relatively homogeneous pre-Indo-European Neolithic culture in southeastern Europe located in the Danube River valley, also known as Danubian culture. Archaeologists and ethnographers working within her framework believe that the evidence points to later migrations and invasions of the peoples who spoke Indo-European languages at the beginning of the Bronze age (the Kurgan hypothesis).
Bond event: North Atlantic ice rafting events that are tentatively linked to climate fluctuations in the Holocene. Eight such events have been identified. Bond events were previously believed to exhibit a quasi c. 1,500-year cycle, but the primary period of variability is now put at c. 1,000 years.
8.2 kiloyear event: sudden decrease in global temperatures that occurred approximately 8,200 years before the present, or c. 6,200 BC, and which lasted for the next two to four centuries. During the event, atmospheric methane concentration decreased by 80 ppb, an emission reduction of 15%, by cooling and drying at a hemispheric scale.
5.9 kiloyear event: one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene. It occurred around 3900 BC (5900 years Before Present), ending the Neolithic Subpluvial. associated with the last round of the Sahara pump theory, and probably initiated the most recent desiccation of the Sahara, as well as a five century period of colder climate in more northerly latitudes. It triggered human migration to the Nile, which eventually led to the emergence of the first complex, highly organized, state-level societies in the 4th millennium BC. It may have contributed to the decline of Old Europe and the first Indo-European migrations into the Balkans from the Pontic–Caspian steppe.
4.2 kiloyear event: one of the most severe climatic events of the Holocene period. Starting in about 2200 BC, it probably lasted the entire 22nd century BC. It has been hypothesised to have caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt as well as the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, and the Liangzhu culture in the lower Yangtze River area. The drought may also have initiated the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization, and southeastward habitat tracking of its population, as well as the migration of Indo-European speaking people into India.
 
Central Greenland reconstructed temperature.
Ertebølle culture (5300 BC-3950 BC)
Funnelbeaker culture (c. 4300 BC–ca 2800 BC)
Corded Ware culture (c.2900–c.2350 BCE)
Terramare culture (1700-1150 BC): technology complex mainly of the central Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy.
Neolithic Revolution: Archaeological data indicates that various forms of plants and animal domestication evolved independently in six separate locations worldwide circa 10,000–7000 years BP (8,000–5,000 BC). Six locations: Fertile Crescent (11 kBP), Yangtze and Yellow River basins (9 kBP), New Guinea Highlands (9-6 kBP), Central Mexico (5-4 kBP), Northern South America (5-4 kBP), sub-Saharan Africa (5-4 kBP, exact location unknown), eastern USA (4-3 kBP).
Secondary products revolution (Andrew Sherratt's model): involved a widespread and broadly contemporaneous set of innovations in Old World farming. The use of domestic animals for primary carcass products (meat) was broadened from the 4th-3rd millennia BCE to include exploitation for renewable 'secondary' products: milk, wool, traction (the use of animals to drag ploughs in agriculture), riding and pack transport. The SPR model incorporates two key elements: 1) the discovery and diffusion of secondary products innovations, 2) their systematic application, leading to a transformation of Eurasian economy and society.
 
Diffusion of metallurgy.
Guns, Germs, and Steel (Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13,000 years; 1997): transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at UCLA. The book attempts to explain why Eurasian and North African civilizations have survived and conquered others, while arguing against the idea that Eurasian hegemony is due to any form of Eurasian intellectual, moral, or inherent genetic superiority. Diamond argues that the gaps in power and technology between human societies originate primarily in environmental differences, which are amplified by various positive feedback loops. Due to the Anna Karenina principle, surprisingly few animals are suitable for domestication. Diamond identifies six criteria including the animal being sufficiently docile, gregarious, willing to breed in captivity and having a social dominance hierarchy. Therefore, none of the many African mammals such as the zebra, antelope, cape buffalo, and African elephant were ever domesticated (although some can be tamed, they are not easily bred in captivity). The Holocene extinction event eliminated many of the megafauna that, had they survived, might have become candidate species, and Diamond argues that the pattern of extinction is more severe on continents where animals that had no prior experience of humans were exposed to humans who already possessed advanced hunting techniques (e.g. the Americas and Australia). Smaller domesticable animals such as dogs, cats, chickens, and guinea pigs may be valuable in various ways to an agricultural society, but will not be adequate in themselves to sustain large-scale agrarian society. An important example is the use of larger animals such as cattle and horses in plowing land, allowing for much greater crop productivity and the ability to farm a much wider variety of land and soil types than would be possible solely by human muscle power. Large domestic animals also have an important role in the transportation of goods and people over long distances, giving the societies that possess them considerable military and economic advantages. In the later context of the European colonization of the Americas, 95% of the indigenous populations are believed to have been killed off by diseases brought by the Europeans. Many were killed by infectious diseases such as smallpox and measles. Similar circumstances were observed in the History of Australia (1788-1850) and in History of South Africa. Aboriginal Australians and the Khoikhoi population were decimated by smallpox, measles, influenza and other diseases.

EuropeEdit

Pre-Indo-European languages
 
Europe in ca. 4000-3500 BC (Middle Neolithic).
 
Europe in ca. 3500 BC (Late Neolithic).
and
 
Europe in ca. 3500 BC
 
Corded Ware culture (also Battle-axe culture) 3200 - 2300 BC.
Celts: Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Europe identified by their use of Celtic languages and cultural similarities. The history of pre-Celtic Europe and the exact relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial. The exact geographic spread of the ancient Celts is disputed; in particular, the ways in which the Iron Age inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland should be regarded as Celts have become a subject of controversy. According to one theory, the common root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe, which flourished from around 1200 BC. According to a theory proposed in the 19th c., the first people to adopt cultural characteristics regarded as Celtic were the people of the Iron Age Hallstatt culture in central Europe (c. 800–450 BC), named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria. Thus this area is sometimes called the "Celtic homeland". By or during the later La Tène period (c. 450 BC to the Roman conquest), this Celtic culture was supposed to have expanded by trans-cultural diffusion or migration to the British Isles (Insular Celts), France and the Low Countries (Gauls), Bohemia, Poland and much of Central Europe, the Iberian Peninsula (Celtiberians, Celtici, Lusitanians and Gallaeci) and northern Italy (Golasecca culture and Cisalpine Gauls) and, following the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe beginning in 279 BC, as far east as central Anatolia (Galatians) in modern-day Turkey. The earliest undisputed direct examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th c. BC. By the mid-1st millennium, with the expansion of the Roman Empire and migrating Germanic tribes, Celtic culture and Insular Celtic languages had become restricted to Ireland, the western and northern parts of Great Britain (Wales, Scotland, and Cornwall), the Isle of Man, and Brittany. Names and terminology: Celt, Gaul, Gaulish, Celtic, Welsh; Continental Celts, Insular Celts. Expansion east and south. Romanisation. Warfare and weapons: Head hunting.

Ancient history (from first recorded/written events till 200-600)Edit

Category:Eastern Mediterranean
Category:Egypt
Category:Levant
Category:Near East
Category:Nile Delta
Category:Ancient libraries
 
Synthetized chronology of Mesopotamia.
Chronology of the ancient Near East: provides a framework of dates for various events, rulers and dynasties. Individual inscriptions and texts customarily record events in terms of a succession of officials or rulers, taking forms like "in the year X of king Y". Thus by piecing together many records a relative chronology is arrived at, relating dates in cities over a wide area. An inscription from the tenth year of Assyrian king Ashur-Dan III refers to an eclipse of the sun, and astronomical calculations among the range of possible dates identify the eclipse as having occurred 763.06.15 BCE. The date can be corroborated with other mentions of astronomical events and a secure absolute chronology established, that ties the relative chronologies into our calendar. For the first millennium BC, the relative chronology can be tied to actual calendar years by identifying significant astronomical events. For the third and second millennia, the correlation is not so fixed. A key document is the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, preserving record of astronomical observations of Venus, as preserved in numerous cuneiform tablets during the reign of the Babylonian king Ammisaduqa, known to be the fourth ruler after Hammurabi in the relative calendar. In the series, the conjunction of the rise of Venus with the new moon provides a fixed point, or rather three fixed points, for the conjunction is a periodic occurrence. Astronomical calculation can therefore fix, for example, the first dates of the reign of Hammurabi in this manner either as 1848, 1792, or 1736 BC, depending on whether the "high" (or "long"), "middle" or "low (or short) chronology" is followed. 1. Early Bronze Age: no absolute dates within a certainty better than a century can be assigned to this period; 2. Middle to Late Bronze Age: conventional middle chronology fixes the sack of Babylon at 1595 BC while the short chronology fixes it at 1531 BC; 3. The Bronze Age collapse: "Dark Age" begins with the fall of Babylonian Dynasty III (Kassite) around 1200 BC, the invasions of the Sea Peoples and the collapse of the Hittite Empire; 4. Early Iron Age: around 900 BC, historical data, written records become more numerous once more, with the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, enabling the certain assignment of absolute dates; Classical sources such as the Canon of Ptolemy, the works of Berossus and the Hebrew Bible provide chronological support and synchronisms; eclipse in 763 BC anchors the Assyrian list of imperial officials. Early twenty-first century dendrochronology has essentially disproved the short chronology. The chronologies of Mesopotamia, the Levant and Anatolia depend significantly on the chronology of Ancient Egypt. To the extent that there are problems in the Egyptian chronology, these issues will be inherited in chronologies based on synchronisms with Ancient Egypt. {q.v. Amarna letters} Dendrochronology. As in Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean, radiocarbon dates run one or two centuries earlier than the dates proposed by archaeologists; it is not at all clear which group is right, if either; mechanisms have been proposed for explaining why radiocarbon dates in the region might be skewed; equally logical arguments have been made suggesting that the archaeological dates are too late.
Sumerian King List
List of kings of Babylon
List of Assyrian kings
Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa (Enuma Anu Enlil Tablet 63): record of astronomical observations of Venus, as preserved in numerous cuneiform tablets dating from the first millennium BC. It is believed that this astronomical record was first compiled during the reign of King Ammisaduqa (or Ammizaduga), the fourth ruler after Hammurabi. Thus, the origins of this text should probably be dated to around the mid-seventeenth century BC. The earliest copy of this tablet to be published, a 7th-century BC cuneiform, part of the British Museum collections, was recovered from the library at Nineveh. Many uncertainties remain about the interpretation of the record of astronomical observations of Venus, as preserved in these surviving tablets. Some copying corruptions are probable.
Egyptian chronology: majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many details of the chronology of Ancient Egypt. This scholarly consensus is the so-called Conventional Egyptian chronology, which places the beginning of the Old Kingdom in the 27th c. BC, the beginning of the Middle Kingdom in the 21st c. BC and the beginning of the New Kingdom in the mid-16th c. BC. Despite this consensus, disagreements remain within the scholarly community, resulting in variant chronologies diverging by about 300 years for the Early Dynastic Period, up to 30 years in the New Kingdom, and a few years in the Late Period. "New Chronology", proposed in the 1990s, lowers New Kingdom dates by as much as 350 years, or "Glasgow Chronology" (proposed 1978–1982), which lowers New Kingdom dates by as much as 500 years.
Chronology of Ancient Egypt
Conventional Egyptian chronology
 
Migrations, invasions and destructions during the end of the Bronze Age (c. 1200 BC).
 
Map showing the Bronze Age collapse (conflicts and movements of people).
Late Bronze Age collapse: transition in the Aegean Region, Southwestern Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age that historians, such as Amos Nur and Leonard R. Palmer, believe was violent, sudden and culturally disruptive. Between 1206 and 1150 BC, the cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the New Kingdom of Egypt in Syria and Canaan interrupted trade routes and severely reduced literacy. In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Pylos and Gaza was violently destroyed, and many abandoned: examples include Hattusa, Mycenae, and Ugarit. Possible causes of collapse: Environmental (Climate change, Volcanoes (Hekla 3), Drought); Cultural (Ironworking, Changes in warfare); General systems collapse (population growth, soil degradation, drought, cast bronze weapon and iron production technologies, could have combined to push the relative price of weaponry to a level unsustainable for traditional warrior aristocracies).
Hekla 3 eruption (~1000 BC): considered the most severe eruption of Hekla during the Holocene.
 
Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East in 14th century (including Amarna period)
List of libraries in the ancient world: archives for empires, sanctuaries for sacred writings, and depositories of literature and chronicles.
Slavery in antiquity: from the earliest known recorded evidence in Sumer to the pre-medieval Antiquity Mediterranean cultures, comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war.
  • Slavery in ancient Egypt.
  • The Bible and slavery.
  • Slavery in ancient Greece: study of slavery in Ancient Greece remains a complex subject, in part because of the many different levels of servility, from traditional chattel slave through various forms of serfdom, such as Helots, Penestai, and several other classes of non-citizen. In Ancient Athens, about 30% of the population were slaves. Spartan serfs, Helots, could win freedom through bravery in battle.
  • Slavery in ancient Rome: Rome differed from Greek city-states in allowing freed slaves to become Roman citizens. After manumission, a slave who had belonged to a citizen enjoyed not only passive freedom from ownership, but active political freedom (libertas), including the right to vote, though he could not run for public office. During the Republic, Roman military expansion was a major source of slaves. Besides manual labor, slaves performed many domestic services, and might be employed at highly skilled jobs and professions. Teachers, accountants, and physicians were often slaves. Greek slaves in particular might be highly educated. Unskilled slaves, or those condemned to slavery as punishment, worked on farms, in mines, and at mills.
  • Ancient Persia (Slavery in Iran): Persepolis, the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Persians, was built with paid labor.
 
Europe, North Africa and part of the Near East in the year 301, shortly before the partition of the Antigonid Empire.

Ancient EgyptEdit

Category:Egyptian papyri
Template:Pharaohs
Template:Ancient Egyptian medicine

Population and genetics:

Ancient Egyptian race controversy: raised historically as a product of the scientific racism of the 18th and 19th centuries, and was linked to models of racial hierarchy based on skin color, facial features, hair texture, and genetic affiliations. Modern genetics: mummies and current population.
DNA history of Egypt
Population history of Egypt: geographical location at the crossroads of several major cultural areas: the Mediterranean, the Middle East, the Sahara and Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition Egypt has experienced several invasions during its long history, including by the Canaanites, the Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, the Kushites, the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans and the Arabs.

Written languages:

Hieratic (Protodynastic Period (3.2k-3k BC) - 3rd c. AD): provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt and Nubia that developed alongside the hieroglyphic system, to which it is intimately related.
Demotic (Egyptian) (c. 650 BC - 5th c. AD): either the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Delta, or the stage of the Egyptian language following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic.
Edwin Smith Papyrus: ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma. This document, which may have been a manual of military surgery, describes 48 cases of injuries, fractures, wounds, dislocations and tumors. It dates to Dynasties 16–17 of the Second Intermediate Period in ancient Egypt, c. 1600 BCE; contains the first known descriptions of the cranial structures, the meninges, the external surface of the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid, and the intracranial pulsations. Here, the word ‘brain’ appears for the first time in any language. The procedures of this papyrus demonstrate an Egyptian level of knowledge of medicines that surpassed that of Hippocrates, who lived 1000 years later. The relationship between the location of a cranial injury and the side of the body affected is also recorded, while crushing injuries of vertebrae were noted to impair motor and sensory functions. Due to its practical nature and the types of trauma investigated, it is believed that the papyrus served as a textbook for the trauma that resulted from military battles.
Egyptian pyramid construction techniques: seem to have developed over time; later pyramids were not constructed in the same way as earlier ones. Most of the construction hypotheses are based on the belief that huge stones were carved from quarries with copper chisels, and these blocks were then dragged and lifted into position. Disagreements chiefly concern the methods used to move and place the stones. Leveling the foundation may have been accomplished by use of water-filled trenches as suggested by Mark Lehner and I.E.S. Edwards or through the use of a crude square level and experienced surveyors.
Diary of Merer (Papyrus Jarf A and B): logbooks written over 4,500 years ago that record the daily activities of workers who took part in the building of the Great Pyramid of Giza. The text was found in 2013 by a French mission under the direction of Pierre Tallet of Sorbonne University in a cave in Wadi al-Jarf. The text is written with hieroglyphs and hieratic on papyrus. These papyri are the oldest ones with text ever found. The diary of Merer is from the 26th year of the reign of Pharaoh Khufu. The text describes several months of work with the transportation of limestone from Tora to Giza. The diary of Merer is the first historical reference that describes the daily life of the people who worked with the building of the great pyramid.
Prehistoric Egypt (from earliest human settlement till Narmer and unification ~3100 BC)Edit
Category:Predynastic Egypt
Naqada culture (ca. 4400–3000 BC)
Amratian culture (c. 4400 BC — c. 3500 BC)
Gerzeh culture (c. 3500 BC — c. 3200 BC)
Naqada III (3200 - 3000 BC; Dynasty 0, Protodynastic Period): last phase of the Naqada culture of ancient Egyptian prehistory
Deshret: from ancient Egyptian, was the formal name for the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and for the desert Red Land on either side of Kemet, the fertile Nile river basin.
Hedjet: formal name for the White Crown of pharaonic Upper Egypt. The symbol sometimes used for the Hedjet was the vulture goddess Nekhbet shown next to the head of the cobra goddess Wadjet, the Uraeus on the Pschent.
Pschent: was the name of the Double Crown of Ancient Egypt. It combined the Red Deshret Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Hedjet Crown of Upper Egypt. The Pschent represented the pharaoh's power over all of unified Egypt. It bore two animal emblems: An Egyptian cobra, known as the uraeus, ready to strike, which symbolized the Lower Egyptian goddess Wadjet, and an Egyptian vulture representing the Upper Egyptian tutelary goddess Nekhbet.
Uraeus: the stylized, upright form of an Egyptian cobra (asp, serpent, or snake), used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity, and divine authority in ancient Egypt.
Cosmetic palettes of middle to late predynastic Egypt are archaeological artefacts, originally used to grind and apply ingredients for facial or body cosmetics. The decorative palettes of the late 4th millennium BCE appear to have lost this function and became commemorative, ornamental, and possibly ceremonial. They were made almost exclusively out of siltstone with a few exceptions. The siltstone originated from quarries in the Wadi Hammamat.
Narmer Palette (~31st c. BC): significant Egyptian archeological find; earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found. The tablet is thought by some to depict the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the king Narmer. On one side, the king is depicted with the bulbed White Crown of Upper (southern) Egypt, and the other side depicts the king wearing the level Red Crown of Lower (northern) Egypt. Along with the Scorpion Macehead and the Narmer Maceheads, also found together in the Main Deposit at Nekhen, the Narmer Palette provides one of the earliest known depictions of an Egyptian king. Egyptologist Bob Brier has referred to the Narmer Palette as "the first historical document in the world".
Early Dynastic Period (from unification ~3150 - 2686 BC)Edit
Old Kingdom (2686 - 2181 BC)Edit
Palermo Stone (approx. 2392-2283 BC): one of seven surviving fragments of a stele known as the Royal Annals of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. The stele contained a list of the kings of Egypt from the First Dynasty through to the early part of the Fifth Dynasty and noted significant events in each year of their reigns. The original location of the stele is unknown and none of the surviving fragments have a secure archeological provenance. One fragment now in Cairo is said to have been found at an archaeological site at Memphis, while three other fragments now in Cairo were said to have been found in Middle Egypt. No find site for the Palermo Stone itself has been suggested.
1st Intermediate Period (2181 - 2055 BC)Edit
Middle Kingdom (2055 - 1650 BC)Edit
2nd Intermediate Period (1650 - 1550 BC)Edit
New Kingdom (~1550 - ~1077 BC)Edit
Karnak king list: list of early Egyptian kings engraved in stone, was located in the southwest corner of the Festival Hall of Thutmose III, in the middle of the Precinct of Amun-Re, in the Karnak Temple Complex, in modern Luxor, Egypt. Composed during the reign of Thutmose III, it listed sixty-one kings beginning with Sneferu from Egypt's Old Kingdom. Only the names of thirty-nine kings are still legible, and one is not written in a cartouche (a border used normally to surround the name of a king).
Abydos King List: list of the names of 76 kings of Ancient Egypt, found on a wall of the Temple of Seti I at Abydos, Egypt. The upper two rows contain names of the kings, while the third row merely repeats Seti I's throne name and praenomen. Besides providing the order of the Old Kingdom kings, it is the sole source to date of the names of many of the kings of the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties.
Turin King List (Turin Royal Canon): Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II. The papyrus was found by the Italian traveler Bernardino Drovetti in 1820 at Luxor (Thebes), Egypt and was acquired in 1824 by the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy and was designated Papyrus Number 1874. When the box in which it had been transported to Italy was unpacked, the list had disintegrated into small fragments. History puzzle solving. Despite attempts at reconstruction, approximately 50% of the papyrus remains missing. This papyrus as presently constituted is 1.7 m long and 0.41 m wide, broken into over 160 fragments. In 2009 previously unpublished fragments were discovered in the storage room of the Egyptian Museum of Turin, in good condition. A new edition of the papyrus is expected.
Saqqara Tablet: ancient stone engraving which features a list of Egyptian pharaohs surviving from the Ramesside Period. It was found during 1861 in Egypt in Saqqara, in the tomb of Tjenry (or Tjuneroy), an official ("chief lector priest" and "Overseer of Works on All Royal Monuments") of the pharaoh Ramesses II.
Amarna Period: era of Egyptian history during the latter half of the Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten ('Horizon of the Aten') in what is now Amarna. It was marked by the reign of Amenhotep IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten (1353–1336 BC) in order to reflect the dramatic change of Egypt's polytheistic religion into one where the sun disc Aten was worshipped over all other gods. Aten was not solely worshipped (the religion was not monotheistic), but the other gods were worshipped to a significantly lesser degree. The Egyptian pantheon of the equality of all gods and goddesses was restored under Akhenaten's successor, Tutankhamun.
Amarna letters (Amarna correspondence, Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA): archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom. The letters were found in Upper Egypt at Amarna, the modern name for the ancient Egyptian capital of Akhetaten (el-Amarna), founded by pharaoh Akhenaten (1350s – 1330s BC) during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. The Amarna letters are unusual in Egyptological research, because they are mostly written in Akkadian cuneiform, the writing system of ancient Mesopotamia, rather than that of ancient Egypt. The known tablets total 382: 24 tablets had been recovered since the Norwegian Assyriologist Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon's landmark edition of the Amarna letters, Die El-Amarna-Tafel, published in two volumes (1907 and 1915). The written correspondence spans a period of at most thirty years. Great significance for biblical studies as well as Semitic linguistics, since they shed light on the culture and language of the Canaanite peoples in pre-biblical times.
Ramesses III (20th Dynasty; 1186-1155 BC): second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and is considered to be the last great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt.
Judicial Papyrus of Turin: ancient Egyptian record of the trials held against conspirators plotting to assassinate Ramesses III in what is referred to as the "harem conspiracy". The papyrus contains mostly summaries of the accusations, convictions and punishments meted out.
Harem conspiracy
Sea Peoples: 7 Egyptian sources which refer to more than one of the nine peoples: ~1275 BC (Kadesh Inscription), ~1200 BC (Great Karnak Inscription), ~1200 BC (Athribis Stele), ~1150 BC (Medinet Habu), ~1150 BC (Papyrus Harris I), ~1150 BC (Rhetorical Stela to Ramesses III, Chapel C, Deir el-Medina), ~1000 BC (Onomasticon of Amenope). Attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty and especially during year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty.
Battle of the Delta: sea battle between Egypt and the Sea Peoples, circa 1175 BCE when the Egyptian pharaoh Ramesses III repulsed a major sea invasion. The conflict occurred somewhere at the shores of the eastern Nile Delta and partly on the borders of the Egyptian Empire in Syria, although their precise locations are unknown.
3rd Intermediate Period (1069 - 664 BC)Edit
Late Period (664 - 332 BC)Edit
Achaemenid Egypt (525 - 332 BC)Edit
Manetho: wrote one of the more authoritative books on history of Egypt Aegyptiaca (Ancient Greek Ἀιγυπτιακά, Aigyptiaka); Manetho's division of dynasties still used as a basis for all Egyptian discussions.
The rest of Egypt's historyEdit

{q.v.:

}

Since about Alexander (Greek), Egypt was ruled by foreigners till Independence from British Empire in 20th c.

Ancient Anatolia, Asia MinorEdit

Category:Ancient Anatolia
Anatolia (Asia Minor): Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Hittites (c. 1600 BC–c. 1178 BC): Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. Between the 15th and 13th c. BC the Hittite Empire came into conflict with the Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East. The Assyrians eventually emerged as the dominant power and annexed much of the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked by Phrygian newcomers to the region. After c. 1180 BC, during the Bronze Age collapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Hittite language was a distinct member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family, and along with the related Luwian language, is the oldest historically attested Indo-European language. They referred to their native land as Hatti. The conventional name "Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology.
Hattusa: capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. Its ruins lie near modern Boğazkale, Turkey, within the great loop of the Kızılırmak River.
Bogazköy Archive: collection of texts found on the site of the capital of the Hittite state, the city of Hattusas (now Bogazkoy in Turkey). During the excavations, archaeologists discovered over 14 thousand cuneiform texts on clay tablets of the 2nd millennium BC; one of the oldest state (royal) archives; gives the most complete ideas about the Hittite kingdom and its inhabitants.
Phrygia (Dominant kingdom in Asia Minor from c. 1200–700 BC): first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.

Ancient Mesopotamia, LevantEdit

Category:Mesopotamia
Category:Babylonia
Category:Eastern Mediterranean
Category:Levant
Category:Ancient Levant

Sumerians → Akkadian Empire → Third Dynasty of Ur → Assyrian Empire (Old, Middle, Neo-) & Babylonian Empire (Old, Middle, Neo) → Persian Empire (Achaemenid, Seleucid) → Greeks/Macedonian Empire → Roman Empire (Byzantine) & Parthian Empire (Sasanian)

Mesopotamia (from the Ancient Greek: Μεσοποταμία "[land] between rivers"; Arabic: بلاد الرافدين (bilād al-rāfidayn); Syriac: ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ (Beth Nahrain) "land of rivers"): name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria and to a much lesser extent southeastern Turkey and smaller parts of southwestern Iran. Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization in the West, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory of modern-day Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires. The indigenous Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.
Levant: approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean. In its narrowest sense it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the eastern Mediterranean with its islands, that is, it included all of the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean shores, extending from Greece to Cyrenaica.
Halaf culture (6100 BCE and 5100 BCE): period is a continuous development out of the earlier Pottery Neolithic and is located primarily in south-eastern Turkey, Syria, and northern Iraq, although Halaf-influenced material is found throughout Greater Mesopotamia.
Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period (ca. 5500/5400 to 5200/5000 BC): prehistoric period of Mesopotamia. It lies chronologically between the Halaf period and the Ubaid period. It is still a complex and rather poorly understood period. At the same time, recent efforts were made to study the gradual change from Halaf style pottery to Ubaid style pottery in various parts of North Mesopotamia.
Ubaid period (c. 6500 to 3800 BC): prehistoric period of Mesopotamia. The name derives from Tell al-`Ubaid where the earliest large excavation of Ubaid period material was conducted initially by Henry Hall and later by Leonard Woolley. In South Mesopotamia the period is the earliest known period on the alluvial plain although it is likely earlier periods exist obscured under the alluvium. In the south it has a very long duration between about 6500 and 3800 BC when it is replaced by the Uruk period. In North Mesopotamia the period runs only between about 5300 and 4300 BC. It is preceded by the Halaf period and the Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period and succeeded by the Late Chalcolithic period.
 
Map of the Uruk period archaeological sites in Upper Mesopotamia.
Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC): existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period. Named after the Sumerian city of Uruk, this period saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia. It was followed by the Sumerian civilization. The late Uruk period (34th to 32nd centuries) saw the gradual emergence of the cuneiform script and corresponds to the Early Bronze Age; it may also be called the Protoliterate period. It was during this period that pottery painting declined as copper started to become popular, along with cylinder seals.
Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia) (ED period; c. 2900-2350 BC acc. middle chronology): archaeological culture in Mesopotamia; preceded by the Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods. It saw the invention of writing and the formation of the first cities and states. The ED itself was characterized by the existence of multiple city-states: small states with a relatively simple structure that developed and solidified over time. This development ultimately led to the unification of much of Mesopotamia under the rule of Sargon, the first monarch of the Akkadian Empire. Despite this political fragmentation, the ED city-states shared a relatively homogeneous material culture. Sumerian cities such as Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Umma, and Nippur located in Lower Mesopotamia were very powerful and influential. To the north and west stretched states centered on cities such as Kish, Mari, Nagar, and Ebla. The ED I–III scheme is an archaeological division that does not reflect political developments, as is the case for the periods that follow it. The end of the ED is not defined archaeologically but rather politically. The conquests of Sargon and his successors upset the political equilibrium throughout Iraq, Syria, and Iran. The conquests lasted many years into the reign of Naram-Sin of Akkad and built on ongoing conquests during the ED. The transition is much harder to pinpoint within an archaeological context. It is virtually impossible to date a particular site as being that of either ED III or Akkadian period using ceramic or architectural evidence alone. Agriculture in Lower Mesopotamia relied on intensive irrigation. Cultivars included barley and date palms in combination with gardens and orchards. Animal husbandry was also practiced, focusing on sheep and goats. This agricultural system was probably the most productive in the entire ancient Near East. It allowed the development of a highly urbanized society. It has been suggested that, in some areas of Sumer, the population of the urban centers during ED III represented three-quarters of the entire population. Starting in 2700 BC and accelerating after 2500, the main urban sites grew considerably in size and were surrounded by towns and villages that fell inside their political sphere of influence. City-states: Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larsa, Sippar, Shuruppak; Kish, Uruk, Ur, Awan, Hamazi, Adab, Mari, Akshak; Lagash, Nippur, Umma; Ebla, Susa. The largest archives come from Lagash and Ebla. Smaller collections of clay tablets have been found at Ur, Tell Beydar, Tell Fara, Abu Salabikh, and Mari. They show that the Mesopotamian states were constantly involved in diplomatic contacts, leading to political and perhaps even religious alliances. Sometimes one state would gain hegemony over another, which foreshadows the rise of the Akkadian Empire. Culture: Sculpting; Sumerian metallurgy and goldsmithing were highly developed. This is all the more remarkable for a region where metals had to be imported. Known metals included gold, silver, copper, bronze, lead, electrum, and tin; Cylinder seals; Inlays; Music: Lyres of Ur.
 
First Eblaite Kingdom at its height c. 2340 BC.
 
Mari at the time of Iblul-il c. 2290 BCE.
 
Third Mari kingdom (Shakkanakku dynasty) 1764 BC. Qatna at its height, Yamhad (Halab (Aleppo)), Andariq (Andarig), Assyria (Nineveh), Eshnunna, Babylonia (many cities), Elam, Hurrians, Hittites
 
Yamhad at its greatest extent c. 1752 BC. Babylonian empire vassals not directly annexed: Subartu and Assyria.
 
Near East c. 1400 BC.
 
The Hittite Empire c. 1300 BC. Mycenae, Egypt, Assyria.
Akkadian Empire (c. 2334 – 2154 BC): first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad /ˈækæd/ and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible. The empire united Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian Empire exercised influence across Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia, sending military expeditions as far south as Dilmun and Magan (modern Bahrain and Oman) in the Arabian Peninsula. During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate). Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was briefly imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam and Gutium. After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the people of Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two major Akkadian-speaking nations: Assyria in the north, and, a few centuries later, Babylonia in the south. Scholars have documented some 7,000 texts from the Akkadian period, written in both Sumerian and Akkadian. Many later texts from the successor states of Assyria and Babylonia also deal with the Akkadian Empire. Understanding of the Akkadian Empire continues to be hampered by the fact that its capital Akkad has not yet been located, despite numerous attempts. Collapse: Drought: One theory associates regional decline at the end of the Akkadian period (and of the First Intermediary Period following the Old Kingdom in Ancient Egypt) was associated with rapidly increasing aridity, and failing rainfall in the region of the Ancient Near East, caused by a global centennial-scale drought. Government: Akkadian government formed a "classical standard" with which all future Mesopotamian states compared themselves; traditionally, the ensi was the highest functionary of the Sumerian city-states; in later traditions, one became an ensi by marrying the goddess Inanna, legitimising the rulership through divine consent; under Sargon, the ensis generally retained their positions, but were seen more as provincial governors. Economy: population of Akkad, like nearly all pre-modern states, was entirely dependent upon the agricultural systems of the region, which seem to have had two principal centres: the irrigated farmlands of southern Iraq that traditionally had a yield of 30 grains returned for each grain sown and the rain-fed agriculture of northern Iraq, known as the "Upper Country."
Sargon of Akkad (reign c. 2334–2284 BC (MC); Sargon the Great): first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd c. BC. He was the founder of the "Sargonic" or "Old Akkadian" dynasty, which ruled for about a century after his death, until the Gutian conquest of Sumer. His empire is thought to have included most of Mesopotamia, parts of the Levant, besides incursions into Hurrite and Elamite territory, ruling from his (archaeologically as yet unidentified) capital, Akkad (also Agade).
Code of Ur-Nammu (c. 2100–2050 BC): oldest known law code surviving today. It is from Mesopotamia and is written on tablets, in the Sumerian language. The laws are arranged in casuistic form of IF (crime) THEN (punishment) — a pattern followed in nearly all later codes. For the oldest extant law-code known to history, it is considered remarkably advanced because it institutes fines of monetary compensation for bodily damage as opposed to the later lex talionis (‘eye for an eye’) principle of Babylonian law; however, murder, robbery, adultery and rape were capital offenses.
Mari, Syria (2900 BC - 1759 BC (Middle chronology) trade center and hegemonic state): ancient Semitic city in Syria. Its remains constitute a tell located 11 km north-west of Abu Kamal on the Euphrates river western bank, some 120 km southeast of Deir ez-Zor. As a purposely built city, the existence of Mari was related to its position in the middle of the Euphrates trade routes; this position made it an intermediary between Sumer in the south and the Levant in the west. Mari was first abandoned in the middle of the 26th century BC but was rebuilt and became the capital of a hegemonic East-Semitic state before 2500 BC. This second Mari engaged in a long war with its rival Ebla, and is known for its strong affinity with the Sumerian culture. It was destroyed in the 23rd century BC by the Akkadians who allowed the city to be rebuilt and appointed a military governor bearing the title of Shakkanakku ("military governor"). The governors later became independent with the rapid disintegration of the Akkadian empire and rebuilt the city as a regional center in the middle of Euphrates valley. The Shakkanakkus ruled Mari until the second half of the 19th century BC when the dynasty collapsed for unknown reasons. A short time after the Shakkanakku collapse, Mari became the capital of the Amorite Lim dynasty. The Amorite Mari was short lived as it was annexed by Babylonia in c. 1761 BC, but the city survived as a small settlement under the rule of the Babylonians and the Assyrians before being abandoned and forgotten during the Hellenistic period. Mariotes worshiped both Semitic and Sumerian deities and established their city as a center of old trade. Mari's discovery in 1933 provided an important insight into the geopolitical map of ancient Mesopotamia and Syria, due to the discovery of more than 25,000 tablets (Mari tablets written in Akkadian) that contained important information about the administration of state during the second millennium BC and the nature of diplomatic relations between the political entities in the region. History: The first kingdom; The second kingdom: Mari-Ebla war; The third kingdom: The Shakkanakku dynasty, The Lim dynasty, The Assyrian era and the Lim restoration. French ruled and started to excavate Mari site in Syria: 1933–1939, 1951–1956, and since 1960. Archaeologists have tried to determine how many layers the site descends, according to French archaeologist André Parrot, "each time a vertical probe was commenced in order to trace the site's history down to virgin soil, such important discoveries were made that horizontal digging had to be resumed." Current situation [18/01/01]: Syrian Civil War, next to Raqqa, ISIL.
Amorites (21st c. BC - 17th c. BC): ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city. The term Amurru in Akkadian and Sumerian texts refers to both them and to their principal deity.
Ebla (Tell Mardikh; 1st c. 3500 BC - 23rd c. BC; 2nd; 3rd): one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria. Its remains constitute a tell located about 55 km southwest of Aleppo near the village of Mardikh. Ebla was an important center throughout the third millennium BC and in the first half of the second millennium BC. Its discovery proved the Levant was a center of ancient, centralized civilization equal to Egypt and Mesopotamia, and ruled out the view that the latter two were the only important centers in the Near East during the early Bronze Age. Karl Moore described the first Eblaite kingdom as the first recorded world power. Starting as a small settlement in the early Bronze Age (c. 3500 BC), Ebla developed into a trading empire and later into an expansionist power that imposed its hegemony over much of northern and eastern Syria. Ebla was destroyed during the 23rd century BC; it was then rebuilt and was mentioned in the records of the Third Dynasty of Ur. The second Ebla was a continuation of the first, ruled by a new royal dynasty. It was destroyed at the end of the third millennium BC, which paved the way for the Amorite tribes to settle in the city, forming the third Ebla. The third kingdom also flourished as a trade center; it became a subject and an ally of Yamhad (modern-day Aleppo) until its final destruction by the Hittite king Mursili I in c. 1600 BC.
Ebla tablets (2500 BC - 2250 BC): collection of as many as 1800 complete clay tablets, 4700 fragments and many thousand minor chips found in the palace archives of the ancient city of Ebla, Syria. The tablets were discovered by Italian archaeologist Paolo Matthiae and his team in 1974–75 during their excavations at the ancient city of Tell Mardikh. The tablets, which were found in situ on collapsed shelves, retained many of their contemporary clay tags to help reference them. They all date to the period between ca. 2500 BC and the destruction of the city ca. 2250 BC. Many tablets include both Sumerian and Eblaite inscriptions with versions of three basic bilingual word-lists contrasting words in the two languages. This structure has allowed modern scholars to clarify their understanding of the Sumerian language, at that time still a living language, because until the discovery of the tablet corpus there were no bilingual dictionaries with Sumerian and other languages, leaving pronunciation and other phonetic aspects of the language unclear. The only tablets at Ebla that were written exclusively in Sumerian are lexical lists, probably for use in training scribes. The archives contain thousands of copybooks, lists for learning relevant jargon, and scratch pads for students, demonstrating that Ebla was a major educational center specializing in the training of scribes. Shelved separately with the dictionaries, there were also syllabaries of Sumerian words with their pronunciation in Eblaite.
Canaan (Ebla tablets (c. 2500–2200 BC); Mari letters (c. 2000 BC)): Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC. The name Canaan occurs commonly in the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: i.e., the area of Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel and other nations.
Third Dynasty of Ur (Ur III; 22nd - 21st c. BC): both a Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire. The Third Dynasty of Ur was the last Sumerian dynasty which came to preeminent power in Mesopotamia. It began after several centuries of control by Akkadian and Gutian kings.
Yamhad (c. 1810 BC–c. 1517 BC): ancient Semitic kingdom centered on Ḥalab (Aleppo), Syria. The kingdom emerged at the end of the 19th century BC, and was ruled by the Yamhadite dynasty kings, who counted on both military and diplomacy to expand their realm. From the beginning of its establishment, the kingdom withstood the aggressions of its neighbors Mari, Qatna and Assyria, and was turned into the most powerful Syrian kingdom of its era through the actions of its king Yarim-Lim I. By the middle of the 18th century BC, most of Syria minus the south came under the authority of Yamhad, either as a direct possession or through vassalage, and for nearly a century and a half, Yamhad dominated northern, northwestern and eastern Syria, and had influence over small kingdoms in Mesopotamia at the borders of Elam. The kingdom was eventually destroyed by the Hittites, then annexed by Mitanni in the 16th c. BC. Yamhad's population was predominately Amorite, and had a typical Bronze Age Syrian culture. Yamhad was also inhabited by a substantial Hurrian population that settled in the kingdom, adding the influence of their culture.
Yamhad dynasty: ancient Amorite royal family founded in c. 1810 BC by Sumu-Epuh of Yamhad who had his capital in the city of Aleppo. Started as a local dynasty, the family expanded its influence through the actions of its energetic ruler Yarim-Lim I who turned it into the most influential family in the Levant through both diplomatic and military tools.
Mitanni (c. 1500 BC–c. 1300 BC; in Assyrian: Hanigalbat, in Egyptian: Naharin): Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia. Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Amorite Babylon and a series of ineffectual Assyrian kings created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia. The Mitanni dynasty ruled over the northern Euphrates-Tigris region between c. 1475 and c. 1275 BC. Eventually, Mitanni succumbed to Hittite and later Assyrian attacks and was reduced to the status of a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire.

Late Bronze Age collapse erased:

Tell Brak (Nagar, Nawar): ancient city in Syria; its remains constitute a tell located in the Upper Khabur region, near the modern village of Tell Brak, 50 km north-east of Al-Hasaka city, Al-Hasakah Governorate. The city's original name is unknown. During the second half of the third millennium BC, the city was known as Nagar and later on, Nawar. small settlement in the seventh millennium BC, Tell Brak evolved during the fourth millennium BC into one of the biggest cities in Upper Mesopotamia, and interacted with the cultures of southern Mesopotamia. The city shrank in size at the beginning of the third millennium BC with the end of Uruk period, before expanding again around c. 2600 BC, when it became known as Nagar, and was the capital of a regional kingdom that controlled the Khabur river valley. Nagar was destroyed around c. 2300 BC, and came under the rule of the Akkadian Empire, followed by a period of independence as a Hurrian city-state, before contracting at the beginning of the second millennium BC. Nagar prospered again by the 19th century BC, and came under the rule of different regional powers. In c. 1500 BC, Tell Brak was a center of Mitanni before being destroyed by Assyria c. 1300 BC. Different peoples inhabited the city, including the Halafians, Semites and the Hurrians.
Qatna: ancient city located in Homs Governorate, Syria. Its remains constitute a tell situated about 18 km northeast of Homs near the village of al-Mishrifeh. The city was an important center throughout most of the second millennium BC and in the first half of the first millennium BC. It contained one of the largest royal palaces of Bronze Age Syria and an intact royal tomb that has provided a great amount of archaeological evidence on the funerary habits of that period. The kingdom enjoyed good relations with Mari, but was engaged in constant warfare against Yamhad. By the 15th century BC, Qatna lost its hegemony and came under the authority of Mitanni. It later changed hands between the former and Egypt, until it was conquered and sacked by the Hittites in the late 14th century BC. Following its destruction, the city was reduced in size before being abandoned by the 13th century BC. It was resettled in the 10th c. BC, becoming a center of the kingdoms of Palistin then Hamath until it was destroyed by the Assyrians in 720 BC, which reduced it to a small village that eventually disappeared in the 6th century BC.
Ugarit (1450 BC - 1200 BC): ancient port city in northern Syria. Its ruins are often called Ras Shamra after the headland where they lie. Ugarit had close connections to the Hittite Empire, sent tribute to Egypt at times, and maintained trade and diplomatic connections with Cyprus (then called Alashiya), documented in the archives recovered from the site and corroborated by Mycenaean and Cypriot pottery found there. The polity was at its height from c. 1450 BC until its destruction in c. 1200 BC; this destruction was possibly caused by the mysterious Sea Peoples. The kingdom would be one of the many destroyed during the Bronze Age Collapse.
 
Map showing states around Israel and Judah.
Moab (c. 13th c. BC–c. 400 BC): historical name for a mountainous tract of land in Jordan. The land lies alongside much of the eastern shore of the Dead Sea.
Edom (c. 13th c. BC–c. 125 BC): ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east. Most of its former territory is now divided between Israel and Jordan. Edom appears in written sources relating to the late Bronze Age and to the Iron Age in the Levant, such as the Hebrew Bible and Egyptian and Mesopotamian records. In classical antiquity, the cognate name Idumea was used for a smaller area in the same general region. Country flourished between the 13th and the 8th c. BC and was destroyed after a period of decline in the 6th century BC by the Babylonians. After the loss of the kingdom, the Edomites were pushed westward towards southern Judah by nomadic tribes coming from the east; among them were the Nabateans, who first appeared in the historical annals of the 4th century BC and already established their own kingdom in what used to be Edom, by the first half of the 2nd century BC.
Burney Relief (Queen of the Night): Mesopotamian terracotta plaque in high relief of the Isin-Larsa- or Old-Babylonian period, depicting a winged, nude, goddess-like figure with bird's talons, flanked by owls, and perched upon two lions. The relief is displayed in the British Museum in London, which has dated it between 1800 and 1750 BCE. It originates from southern Iraq, but the exact find-site is unknown. Apart from its distinctive iconography, the piece is noted for its high relief and relatively large size, which suggests that it was used as a cult relief, which makes it a very rare survival from the period. However, whether it represents Lilitu, Inanna/Ishtar, or Ereshkigal, is under debate. The authenticity of the object has been questioned from its first appearance in the 1930s, but opinion has generally moved in its favour over the subsequent decades.
Medes (c.678 BCE–549 BCE): ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (Northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. Their arrival to the region is associated with the first wave of migrating Iranic Aryan tribes into Ancient Iran from circa 1000 BC (the Bronze Age collapse) through circa 900 BC. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, between 616 BCE and 605 BCE, a unified Median state was formed, which, together with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt, became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East. The Median kingdom was conquered in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great, who established the Iranian dynasty—the Persian Achaemenid Empire. However, nowadays there is considerable doubt whether a united Median empire ever existed. There is no archaeological evidence and the story of Herodotus is not supported by Assyrian and Babylonian sources.
Lexical lists: series of ancient Mesopotamian glossaries which preserve the semantics of Sumerograms, their phonetic value and their Akkadian or other language equivalents. They are the oldest literary texts from Mesopotamia and one of the most widespread genres in the ancient Near East. Wherever cuneiform tablets have been uncovered, inside Iraq or in the wider Middle East, these lists have been discovered.
Sumerogram: use of a Sumerian cuneiform character or group of characters as an ideogram or logogram rather than a syllabogram in the graphic representation of a language other than Sumerian, such as Akkadian or Hittite. Sumerograms are normally transliterated in majuscule letters, with dots separating the signs. In the same way, a written Akkadian word that is used ideographically to represent a language other than Akkadian (such as Hittite) is known as an Akkadogram. This type of logograms characterized, to a greater or lesser extent, every adaptation of the original Mesopotamian cuneiform system to a language other than Sumerian. The frequency and intensity of their use varied depending on period, style, and genre.
BabyloniaEdit
Babylonia: ancient Akkadian-speaking Semitic state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq). Emerged as independent state c. 1894 BC, with the city of Babylon as its capital. Often involved in rivalry with its fellow Akkadian state of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia. Babylonia became the major power in the region after Hammurabi created an empire out of many of the territories of the former Akkadian Empire.
Babylon (Arabic: بابل, Bābil; Akkadian: Bābili(m); Sumerian logogram: KÁ.DINGIR.RAKI; Hebrew: בָּבֶל, Bāḇel; Ancient Greek: Βαβυλών Babylṓn; Old Persian: 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 Bābiru) was originally a Semitic Akkadian city dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c. 2300 BC. Originally a minor administrative center, it only became an independent city-state in 1894 BC in the hands of a migrant Amorite dynasty not native to ancient Mesopotamia. The Babylonians were more often ruled by other foreign migrant dynasties throughout their history, such as by the Kassites, Arameans, Elamites and Chaldeans, as well as by their fellow Mesopotamians, the Assyrians.
Akkadian (/əˈkdiən/ akkadû, 𒀝𒅗𒁺𒌑 ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: 𒌵𒆠 URIKI ): extinct East Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria, Isin, Larsa and Babylonia) from the 30th c. BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Eastern Aramaic among Mesopotamians between the 8th c. BC and its final extinction by the 1st to 3rd c. AD. It is the earliest attested Semitic language, and used the cuneiform writing system, which was originally used to write the unrelated, and also extinct, Sumerian. The mutual influence between Sumerian and Akkadian had led scholars to describe the languages as a sprachbund. Akkadian proper names were first attested in Sumerian texts from around the mid 3rd-millennium BC. From the second half of the third millennium BC (c. 2500 BC), texts fully written in Akkadian begin to appear. By 2nd millennium BC, two variant forms of the language were in use in Assyria and Babylonia, known as Assyrian and Babylonian respectively. Because of the might of various Mesopotamian empires, such as the Akkadian Empire, Old Assyrian Empire, Babylonian Empire, and Middle Assyrian Empire, Akkadian became the lingua franca of much of the Ancient Near East. However, it began to decline during the Neo-Assyrian Empire around the 8th century BC, being marginalized by Aramaic during the reign of Tiglath-Pileser III. By the Hellenistic period, the language was largely confined to scholars and priests working in temples in Assyria and Babylonia. Akkadian is divided into several varieties based on geography and historical period:
  • Old Akkadian, 2500–1950 BC
  • Old Babylonian/Old Assyrian, 1950–1530 BC
  • Middle Babylonian/Middle Assyrian, 1530–1000 BC
  • Neo-Babylonian/Neo-Assyrian, 1000–600 BC
  • Late Babylonian, 600 BC–100 AD
At its apogee, Middle Babylonian was the written language of diplomacy of the entire ancient Orient, including Egypt. During this period, a large number of loan words were included in the language from North West Semitic languages and Hurrian; however, the use of these words was confined to the fringes of the Akkadian speaking territory. Middle Assyrian served as a lingua franca in much of the Ancient Near East of the Late Bronze Age (Amarna Period). During the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Assyrian began to turn into a chancellery language, being marginalized by Old Aramaic. Under the Achaemenids, Aramaic continued to prosper, but Assyrian continued its decline. The language's final demise came about during the Hellenistic period when it was further marginalized by Koine Greek, even though Neo-Assyrian cuneiform remained in use in literary tradition well into Parthian times. The latest known text in cuneiform Babylonian is an astronomical text dated to 75 AD. The youngest texts written in Akkadian date from the 3rd century AD. Old Assyrian developed as well during the second millennium BC, but because it was a purely popular language — kings wrote in Babylonian — few long texts are preserved. Eblaite, formerly thought of as yet another Akkadian dialect, is now generally considered a separate East Semitic language.
Akkadian Empire (c. 2334 – 2154 BC): first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible. The empire united Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian Empire exercised influence across Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia, sending military expeditions as far south as Dilmun and Magan (modern Bahrain and Oman) in the Arabian Peninsula. Sargon of Akkad; Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was briefly imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam and Gutium. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history, though the meaning of this term is not precise, and there are earlier Sumerian claimants. After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the people of Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into two major Akkadian-speaking nations: Assyria in the north, and, a few centuries later, Babylonia in the south.
Gutian people (Guteans): nomadic people of the Zagros Mountains (on the border of modern Iran and Iraq) during ancient times. Their homeland was known as Gutium. Conflict between people from Gutium and the Akkadian Empire has been linked to the collapse of the empire, towards the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE.
 
Hammurabi's Babylonia, showing the Babylonian territory upon his ascension in 1792 BC and upon his death in 1750 BC. The river courses and coastline are those of that time period -- in general, they are not the modern rivers or coastlines. There is some question to what degree the cities of Nineveh, Tuttul, and Assur were under Babylonian authority.
First Babylonian Dynasty (c. 1830 BC — c. 1531 BC; Paleo-Babylonian Empire): chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia is debated as there is a Babylonian King List A and a Babylonian King List B. In this chronology, the regnal years of List A are used due to their wide usage. The reigns in List B are longer, in general. The actual origins of the dynasty are rather hard to pinpoint with great certainty simply because Babylon itself, due to a high water table, yields very few archaeological materials intact. Thus any evidence must come from surrounding regions and written records. Not much is known about the kings from Sumuabum through Sin-muballit other than the fact they were Amorites rather than indigenous Akkadians. What is known, however, is that they accumulated little land. When Hammurabi (also an Amorite) ascended the throne of Babylon, the empire only consisted of a few towns in the surrounding area: Dilbat, Sippar, Kish, and Borsippa. Once Hammurabi was king, his military victories gained land for the empire. However, Babylon remained but one of several important areas in Mesopotamia, along with Assyria, then ruled by Shamshi-Adad I, and Larsa, then ruled by Rim-Sin I.
Hammurabi (c. 1810 - 1750 BC; reign 1792 - 1750 BC. (MC)): king of the First Babylonian Dynasty (the Amorite Dynasty). He became the first king of the Babylonian Empire following the abdication of his father, Sin-Muballit, who abdicated due to failing health. During his reign, he conquered the city-states of Elam, Larsa, Eshnunna, and Mari. He ousted Ishme-Dagan I, the king of Assyria, and forced his son Mut-Ashkur to pay tribute, thereby bringing almost all of Mesopotamia under Babylonian rule. Hammurabi is best known for having issued the Code of Hammurabi, which he claimed to have received from Shamash, the Babylonian god of justice. The Code of Hammurabi and the Law of Moses in the Torah contain numerous similarities, but these are probably due to shared background and oral tradition, and it is unlikely that Hammurabi's laws exerted any direct impact on the later Mosaic ones. Hammurabi was seen by many as a god within his own lifetime. After his death, Hammurabi was revered as a great conqueror who spread civilization and forced all peoples to pay obeisance to Marduk, the national god of the Babylonians. Later, his military accomplishments became de-emphasized and his role as the ideal lawgiver became the primary aspect of his legacy. The coup de grace for the Hammurabi's Amorite Dynasty occurred in 1595 BC, when Babylon was sacked and conquered by the powerful Hittite Empire, thereby ending all Amorite political presence in Mesopotamia. However, the Indo-European-speaking Hittites did not remain, turning over Babylon to their Kassite allies, a people speaking a language isolate, from the Zagros mountains region. This Kassite Dynasty ruled Babylon for over 400 years and adopted many aspects of the Babylonian culture, including Hammurabi's code of laws. Even after the fall of the Amorite Dynasty, however, Hammurabi was still remembered and revered. When the Elamite king Shutruk-Nahhunte I raided Babylon in 1158 BC and carried off many stone monuments, he had most of the inscriptions on these monuments erased and new inscriptions carved into them. On the stele containing Hammurabi's laws, however, only four or five columns were wiped out and no new inscription was ever added.
Code of Hammurabi (created: c. 1750 BC): well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1772 BC.
Samsu-iluna (c. 1750 - 1712 BC (MC)): 7th king of the founding Amorite dynasty of Babylon; son and successor of Hammurabi by an unknown mother. Though Samsu-iluna campaigned tirelessly and seems to have won frequently, the king proved unable to stop the empire's unwinding. Through it all, however, he did manage to keep the core of his kingdom intact, and this allowed the city of Babylon to cement its position in history. In the end, Samsu-iluna was left with a kingdom that was only fractionally larger than the one his father had started out with 50 years prior (but which did leave him mastery of the Euphrates up to and including the ruins of Mari and its dependencies). The status of Eshnunna is difficult to determine with any accuracy, and while it may have remained in Babylonian hands the city was exhausted and its political influence at an end. Depopulation of Sumer: Records in the cities of Ur and Uruk essentially stop after the 10th year of Samsu-iluna's reign, their priests apparently continued writing, but from more northerly cities; Larsa's records also end about this time.
Babylonian Chronicles: many series of tablets recording major events in Babylonian history. The Babylonian Chronicles were written from the reign of Nabonassar up to the Parthian Period, by Babylonian astronomers ("Chaldaeans"), who probably used the Astronomical Diaries as their source. The Chronicles provide the "master narrative" for large tracts of modern Babylonian history. The chronicles are thought to have been written in Babylon during the Achaemenid period, c. 550–400 BCE.
Nebuchadnezzar Chronicle: one of the series of Babylonian Chronicles, contains a description of the first decade of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. The tablet details Nebuchadnezzar's military campaigns in the west and has been interpreted to refer to both the Battle of Carchemish and the Siege of Jerusalem (597 BC). It is the only identified Chronicle referring to Nebuchadnezzar, and does not cover the whole of his reign. As such, the subsequent destruction and exile recorded in the bible to have taken place 10 years later are not covered in the chronicles or elsewhere in the archeological record.
Library of Ashurbanipal (7th c. BC): last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, is a collection of thousands of clay tablets and fragments containing texts of all kinds from the 7th century BC. Among its holdings was the famous Epic of Gilgamesh. Due to the sloppy handling of the original material much of the library is irreparably jumbled, making it impossible for scholars to discern and reconstruct many of the original texts, although some have survived intact.
Jewish–Babylonian war (601–586 BC): military conflict between the Kingdom of Judah and Babylonia; conflict marked the end of the Kingdom of Judah and Jewish independence until the Hasmonean revolt. After Babylonia invaded Jerusalem it destroyed the First Temple, and started the Babylonian exile.
Siege of Jerusalem (597 BC)
Babylonian Map of the World (c. 500 BC): diagrammatic labeled depiction of the known world from the perspective of Babylonia. The map is incised on a clay tablet, showing Babylon somewhat to the north of its center; the clay tablet is damaged, and also contains a section of cuneiform text.
Berossus (fl. beginning of 3rd c. BC): Hellenistic-era Babylonian writer, a priest of Bel Marduk and astronomer who wrote in the Koine Greek language. Versions of two excerpts of his writings survive, at several removes from the original. What is left of Berossus' writings is useless for the reconstruction of Mesopotamian history. Of greater interest to scholars is his historiography, using as it did both Greek and Mesopotamian methods. The affinities between it and Hesiod, Herodotus, Manethon, and the Hebrew Bible (specifically, the Torah and Deuteronomistic History) as histories of the ancient world give us an idea about how ancient people viewed their world.
Neo-Babylonian Empire (626 BC - 539 BC)Edit
Neo-Babylonian Empire: During the preceding three centuries, Babylonia had been ruled by their fellow Akkadian speakers and northern neighbours, Assyria. A year after the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler, Assurbanipal, in 627 BC, the Assyrian empire spiralled into a series of brutal civil wars. Babylonia rebelled under Nabopolassar, a member of the Chaldean tribe which had migrated from the Levant to south eastern Babylonia in the early 9th century BC. In alliance with the Medes, Persians, Scythians and Cimmerians, they sacked the city of Nineveh in 612 BC, and the seat of empire was transferred to Babylonia for the first time since the death of Hammurabi in the mid 18th century BC. This period witnessed a general improvement in economic life and agricultural production, and a great flourishing of architectural projects, the arts and science.
Nebuchadnezzar II (c. 634 – 562 BC; reign: c. 605 – 562 BC): Chaldean king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Both the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem's temple are ascribed to him. He is featured in the Book of Daniel and is mentioned in several other books of the Bible.
Assyria (25th c. BC–612 BC)Edit
Assyria: Early Assyria, 2600–2335 BC; Old Assyrian Kingdom; Middle Assyrian Empire, 1392–1056 BC; Neo-Assyrian Empire, 911–627 BC.
Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)Edit
Persepolis: Commonly accepted that Cyrus the Great was buried in Pasargadae, which is mentioned by Ctesias as his own city. If it is true that the body of Cambyses II was brought home "to the Persians," his burying place must be somewhere beside that of his father. Two completed graves behind the compound at Persepolis would then belong to Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III.
Persepolis Administrative Archives: Persepolis Fortification Archive and Persepolis Treasury Archive are two groups of clay administrative archives — sets of records physically stored together - found in Persepolis dating to the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Persepolis administrative archives are the single most important extant primary source for understanding the internal workings of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Pārsa; First Persian Empire; 550–330 BC): ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 (or 8) million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires. From this region, Cyrus the Great advanced to defeat the Medes, Lydia, and the Neo-Babylonian Empire, establishing the Achaemenid Empire. Alexander the Great, an avid admirer of Cyrus the Great, conquered most of the empire by 330 BC (superimposition of the maps of Achaemenid and Alexander's empires shows a 90% match, except that Alexander's realm never reached the peak size of the Achaemenid realm). Noted in Western history as the antagonist of the Greek city states during the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the Jewish exiles in Babylon. Despite the lasting conflict between the two states, many Athenians adopted Achaemenid customs in their daily lives in a reciprocal cultural exchange, some being employed by or allied to the Persian kings.
Cyrus the Great (c. 600 or 576 – 530 BC; Reign: 559–530 BC)
Cyropaedia: partly fictional biography of Cyrus the Great, written in the early 4th century BC by the Athenian gentleman-soldier, and student of Socrates, Xenophon of Athens.
Darius I (c. 550–486 BCE; reign: 522.09 BCE - 486.10 BCE): third king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Behistun Inscription (Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god"): multi-lingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran. It was crucial to the decipherment of cuneiform script. Authored by Darius the Great sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC, the inscription begins with a brief autobiography of Darius, including his ancestry and lineage. Later in the inscription, Darius provides a lengthy sequence of events following the deaths of Cyrus the Great and Cambyses II in which he fought nineteen battles in a period of one year (ending in December 521 BC) to put down multiple rebellions throughout the Persian Empire. This inscription is to cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: the document most crucial in the decipherment of a previously lost script.
s:The Sculptures and Inscription of Darius the Great on the Rock of Behistûn in Persia/Annotated/The Persian Text

Ancient Greco-Roman world, ancient GreeceEdit

Category:Roman-era Greek historiography
Bibliotheca historica: work of universal history by Diodorus Siculus; forty books, three sections. The first six books are geographical in theme, and describe the history and culture of Egypt (book I), of Mesopotamia, India, Scythia, and Arabia (II), of North Africa (III), and of Greece and Europe (IV - VI). In the next section (books VII - XVII), he recounts the history of the World starting with the Trojan War, down to the death of Alexander the Great. The last section (books XVII to the end) concerns the historical events from the successors of Alexander down to either 60 BC or the beginning of Caesar's Gallic War in 59 BC. His sources: Hecataeus of Abdera, Ctesias of Cnidus, Ephorus, Theopompus, Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris of Samos, Diyllus, Philistus, Timaeus, Polybius and Posidonius. Diodorus' immense work has not survived intact: we have the first five books and books 11 through 20. The rest exists only in fragments preserved in Photius and the excerpts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
Jireček Line: Greeks meet latins
Greco-Roman world (Greco-Roman culture, Greco-Roman): area of the "Mediterranean world" of Black Sea and the Mediterranean. "Cores" of this world: Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Iberian Peninsula, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Tunisia and Libya (Africa Proper).
Greek Heroic Age: period between the coming of the Greeks to Thessaly and the Greek return from Troy.
Trojan War (Traditional dating: c. 1194–1184 BC; Modern dating: c. 1260–1180 BC): waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of the most important events in Greek mythology and has been narrated through many works of Greek literature, most notably through Homer's Iliad. The Iliad relates four days in the tenth year of the decade-long siege of Troy; the Odyssey describes the journey home of Odysseus, one of the war's heroes. Other parts of the war are described in a cycle of epic poems, which have survived through fragments.
Hisarlik: modern name for the generally agreed site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion, and is located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia). The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles.
Prostitution in ancient Greece: in the more important cities, and particularly the many ports, Prostitution employed a significant number of people and represented a notable part of economic activity. It was far from being clandestine; cities did not condemn brothels, but rather only instituted regulations on them. In Athens, the legendary lawmaker Solon is credited with having created state brothels with regulated prices. Prostitution involved both sexes differently; women of all ages and young men were prostitutes, for a predominantly male clientele. In the case of adultery, the cuckold had the legal right to kill the offender if caught in the act; the same went for rape. Female adulterers, and by extension prostitutes, were forbidden to marry or take part in public ceremonies. The pornai (πόρναι) were found at the bottom end of the scale. They were the property of pimps or pornoboskós (πορνοβοσκός) who received a portion of their earnings (the word comes from pernemi πέρνημι "to sell"). In the classical era of ancient Greece, pornai were slaves of barbarian origin; starting in the Hellenistic era the case of young girls abandoned by their citizen fathers could be enslaved. They were considered to be slaves until proven otherwise. The Greeks also had an abundance of male prostitutes; πόρνοι pórnoi. Some of them aimed at a female clientele: the existence of gigolos is confirmed in the classical era. The vast majority of male prostitutes, however, were for a male clientele. The period during which adolescents were judged as desirable extended from puberty until the appearance of a beard, the hairlessness of youth being an object of marked taste among the Greeks. As such, there were cases of men keeping older boys for lovers, but depilated. Prostitution and citizenship: As a consequence, though prostitution was legal, it was still socially shameful. It was generally the domain of slaves or, more generally, non-citizens. In Athens, for a citizen, it had significant political consequences, such as the atimia (ἀτιμία); loss of public civil rights.
Bosporan Kingdom (c. 438 BC–c. 370 AD): ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch; longest surviving Roman client kingdom. The prosperity of the Bosporan Kingdom was based on the export of wheat, fish and slaves.
Platonic Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία): founded by Plato in c. 387 BC in Athens. Aristotle studied there for twenty years (367–347 BC) before founding his own school, the Lyceum. The Academy persisted throughout the Hellenistic period as a skeptical school, until coming to an end after the death of Philo of Larissa in 83 BC. The Platonic Academy was destroyed by the Roman dictator Sulla in 86 BC. Sulla had the sacred olive trees of Athena cut down in 86 BC to build siege engines. Among the religious observances that took place at the Akademeia was a torchlit night race from altars within the city to Prometheus' altar in the Akademeia. Therefore, there was probably not at that time a "school" in the sense of a clear distinction between teachers and students, or even a formal curriculum. There was, however, a distinction between senior and junior members. Two women are known to have studied with Plato at the Academy.
  • Neoplatonic Academy: The origins of Neoplatonist teaching in Athens are uncertain, but when Proclus arrived in Athens in the early 430s, he found Plutarch of Athens and his colleague Syrianus teaching in an Academy there. The Neoplatonists in Athens called themselves "successors" (diadochoi, but of Plato) and presented themselves as an uninterrupted tradition reaching back to Plato, but there cannot have actually been any geographical, institutional, economic or personal continuity with the original academy. The school seems to have been a private foundation, conducted in a large house which Proclus eventually inherited from Plutarch and Syrianus. The heads of the Neoplatonic Academy were Plutarch of Athens, Syrianus, Proclus, Marinus, Isidore, and finally Damascius. The Neoplatonic Academy reached its apex under Proclus (died 485).
Dura-Europos (Δοῦρα Εὐρωπός): Hellenistic, Parthian and Roman border city built on an escarpment 90 metres above the right bank of the Euphrates river. In 113 BC, Parthians conquered the city, and held it, with one brief Roman intermission (114 AD), until 165 AD. Under Parthian rule, it became an important provincial administrative center. The Romans decisively captured Dura-Europos in 165 AD and greatly enlarged it as their easternmost stronghold in Mesopotamia, until it was captured by Sassanians after a siege in 256–57 AD. Its population was deported, and after it was abandoned, it was covered by sand and mud and disappeared from sight. It was looted and mostly destroyed between 2011 and 2014 first by the Syrian Regime and the Iranian backed militias, and then by ISIL during the Syrian Civil War. Archaeology: Dura-Europos synagogue; Dura-Europos church; The Mithraeum
Battle of Pydna (168.06.22 BC): between Rome and Macedon during the Third Macedonian War. The battle saw the further ascendancy of Rome in the Hellenistic world world and the end of the Antigonid line of kings.
Minoan civilization (2700 - 1450 BC)Edit
Linear A (MM IB to LM IIIA; 2500-1450 BC): undeciphered writing system used in ancient Greece.
Cretan hieroglyphs (MM I to MM III; 2100 - 1700 B.C): undeciphered hieroglyphs found on artefacts of early Bronze Age Crete, during the Minoan era. It predates Linear A by about a century, but continued to be used in parallel for most of their history.
Linear B (c. 1450-1200 BC): syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek. The application of Linear B appears to have been confined to administrative contexts. In all the thousands of clay tablets, a relatively small number of different "hands" have been detected: 45 in Pylos and 66 in Knossos. Once the palaces were destroyed, the script disappeared.
Cypro-Minoan syllabary (archaic CM, CM1 (also known as Linear C), CM2, and CM3; some scholars disagree with this classification; ca. 1550-1050 BC)
Greek Dark Ages (ca. 1100-800 BC, #Late Bronze Age collapse): period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis, city states, in the 9th century BC.
Classical GreeceEdit
Magna Graecia
Archaic Greece (800–480 BC): followed the Greek Dark Ages. This period saw the rise of the poleis (singular polis, generally translated as "city-state"), the founding of colonies, the annexation of some of the eastern poleis by the Persian empire, as well as the first inklings of classical philosophy. Crisis and consolidation of the polis, Reorganization and consolidation of Athens; Colonization, Tyrants.
 
Map of the nations during the start of the Peloponnesian War around 431 BC.
Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC): ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. The Peloponnesian War reshaped the ancient Greek world. Corinth and Thebes demanded that Athens should be destroyed and all its citizens should be enslaved but Sparta refused. On the level of international relations, Athens, the strongest city-state in Greece prior to the war's beginning, was reduced to a state of near-complete subjection, while Sparta became established as the leading power of Greece. The economic costs of the war were felt all across Greece; poverty became widespread in the Peloponnese, while Athens found itself completely devastated, and never regained its pre-war prosperity.
Battle of Arginusae (406 BC): inexperienced fleet was thus tactically inferior to the Spartans, but its commanders were able to circumvent this problem by employing new and unorthodox tactics, which allowed the Athenians to secure a dramatic and unexpected victory. The news of the victory itself was met with jubilation at Athens, and the grateful Athenian public voted to bestow citizenship on the slaves and metics who had fought in the battle. Their joy was tempered, however, by the aftermath of the battle, in which a storm prevented the ships assigned to rescue the survivors of the 25 disabled or sunken Athenian triremes from performing their duties, and a great number of sailors drowned.
Classical Greece (5th-4th c. BC; Classical period, Hellenic period): 200 year period in Greek culture; had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire and greatly influenced the foundations of the Western Civilization. In the context of the art, architecture, and culture of Ancient Greece, the Classical period, sometimes called the Hellenic period, corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC (the most common dates being the fall of the last Athenian tyrant in 510 BC to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC). Cleisthenes; The Persian Wars; The Peloponnesian War. The Fall of Sparta; The rise of Athens; Theban hegemony - tentative and with no future; Rise of Macedon.
Fifth-century Athens (480 BC-404 BC; Golden Age of Athens or The Age of Pericles): period of Athenian political hegemony, economic growth and cultural flourishing; began in 480 BC when an Athenian-led coalition of city-states, known as the Delian League, defeated the Persians at Salamis; Athenian empire; eventually, Athens abandoned the pretense of parity among its allies and relocated the Delian League treasury from Delos to Athens, where it funded the building of the Athenian Acropolis; playwrights Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides all lived and worked in 5th century BCE Athens, as did the historians Herodotus and Thucydides, the physician Hippocrates, and the philosopher Socrates.
Spartan hegemony (404 to 371 BCE)
Corinthian War (395–387 BC)
Peace of Antalcidas (387 BC; King's Peace): peace treaty guaranteed by the Persian King Artaxerxes II that ended the Corinthian War in ancient Greece. The treaty's alternate name comes from Antalcidas, the Spartan diplomat who traveled to Susa to negotiate the terms of the treaty with the king of Achaemenid Persia.
 
The Theban Hegemony, 371 BC - 362 BC.
Battle of Leuctra (371.07.06 BC): battle between the Boeotians led by Thebans and the Spartans along with their allies amidst the post-Corinthian War conflict.
Theban hegemony (371 to 362 BC, till 346 BC: Macedon)
Battle of Mantinea (362 BC) (362.07.04 BC): fought between the Thebans, led by Epaminondas and supported by the Arcadians and the Boeotian league against the Spartans, led by King Agesilaus II and supported by the Eleans, Athenians, and Mantineans. The battle was to determine which of the two alliances would have hegemony over Greece. However, the death of Epaminondas and his intended successors coupled with the impact on the Spartans of yet another defeat weakened both alliances, and paved the way for Macedonian conquest led by Phillip II of Macedon.
Macedonia, Macedon (808 BC–168 BC)Edit

Sources for Macedonia, Philip II and Alexander:

The Anabasis of Alexander: history of the campaigns or expeditions ("anabasis") into the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great. It was composed centuries after the fact by the historian Arrian. This work consists of seven books and was Arrian's most important work. It is one of the few surviving complete accounts of the Macedonian conqueror's expedition; primarily a military history and has little to say about Alexander's personal life, his role in Greek politics or the reasons why the campaign against Persia was launched in the first place. Arrian was able to use sources which are now lost, such as the contemporary works by Callisthenes (the nephew of Alexander's tutor Aristotle), Onesicritus, Nearchus, and Aristobulus, and the slightly later work of Cleitarchus. Most important of all, Arrian had the biography of Alexander by Ptolemy, one of Alexander's leading generals and possibly his half-brother.
Hieronymus of Cardia (~360 - after 272 BC): Greek general and historian from Cardia in Thrace, was a contemporary of Alexander the Great; died at the age of 104. No significant amount of his work survived the end of the ancient world.
 
Map of the Kingdom of Macedon at the death of Philip II in 336 BC.
 
Kingdoms of the Diadochi after the Battle of Ipsus, c. 301 BC.
  Kingdom of Ptolemy I Soter
  Kingdom of Cassander
  Kingdom of Lysimachus
  Kingdom of Seleucus I Nicator
  Epirus
Other
  Carthage
  Roman Republic
  Greek States
Argead dynasty: ancient Greek royal house. They were the ruling dynasty of Macedonia from about 700 to 310 BC. The family's most celebrated members were Philip II of Macedonia and Alexander the Great.
Macedonia (ancient kingdom) (808 BC–168 BC): ancient kingdom on the northern periphery of Classical Greece and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. It was ruled during most of its existence initially by the founding dynasty of the Argeads, the intermittent Antipatrids and finally the Antigonids. Prior to 4th c. BC, Macedonia was a small kingdom in northern Greece, outside the area dominated by the great city-states of Athens, Sparta and Thebes, and at one time was subordinate to Achaemenid Persia. The reign of Philip II (359–336 BC) saw the rise of Macedonia, when the kingdom rose to control the entire Greek world. Alexander the Great: Macedonian Empire; Greek arts and literature flourished in the new conquered lands and advancements in philosophy and science (Aristotle) were spread to the ancient world.
Rise of Macedon (359–336 BC): from a small kingdom at the periphery of classical Greek affairs to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world (and beyond), occurred in the span of just 25 years; largely attributable to the personality and policies of Philip II. The main source for the period is Diodorus Siculus's Bibliotheca historica, written in the 1st c. BC, which is therefore a secondary source. Diodorus devotes Book XVI to the period of Philip's reign, but the action is much compressed, and due to the scope of the work, this book also contains details of happenings during the same period elsewhere in the ancient world. Diodorus is often derided by modern historians for his style and inaccuracies, but he preserves many details of the ancient period found nowhere else. Diodorus worked primarily by epitomizing the works of other historians, omitting many details where they did not suit his purpose, which was to illustrate moral lessons from history; his account of the period therefore contains many gaps. Outside the brief notices of Philip's exploits which occur in Diodorus and Justin, further details of his campaigns (and indeed the period in general) can be found in the orations of Athenian statesmen, primarily Demosthenes and Aeschines, which have survived intact. It was probably in the aftermath of his victory at the Battle of Crocus Field (if not before) that the Thessalians appointed Philip Archon of Thessaly; appointment for life, and gave Philip control over all the revenues of the Thessalian Confederation, and furthermore made Philip leader of the united Thessalian army; Cawkwell describes 352 BC as Philip's annus mirabilis; his appointment to high command in Thessaly was a dramatic increase in his power, effectively giving him a whole new army; his actions as the "avenger" and "saviour" of Apollo were calculated to win him goodwill amongst the Greeks in general. In return for ending the war, Macedon was made a member of the Amphictyonic council, and given the two votes which had been stripped from Phocis; was an important moment for Philip, since membership of the Ampictyony meant that Macedon was now no longer a 'barbarian' state in Greek eyes.
Third Sacred War (356–346 BC)
Peace of Philocrates (346 BC): between Athens and Macedon under Philip II. Philocrates was the name of the main Athenian negotiator of the Treaty.
Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC): between the Macedonians led by Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of the Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes; culmination of Philip's campaign in Greece (339–338 BC) and resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians. The battle has been described as one of the most decisive of the ancient world. The forces of Athens and Thebes were destroyed, and continued resistance was impossible; the war therefore came to an abrupt end. Philip was able to impose a settlement upon Greece, which all states accepted, with the exception of Sparta.
League of Corinth (winter of 338 BC/337 BC): first time in history that most of the Greek states (with the notable exception of Sparta) managed to become part of a single political entity.
Battle of Thebes (December, 335 BC): between Alexander the Great and the Greek city state of Thebes immediately outside of and in the city proper. Although Alexander did not desire to destroy Thebes, after sending several embassies requesting their submission on what he considered merciful terms, he eventually decided to destroy the city as an example to others. Alexander punished the Thebans severely for their rebellion. Wishing to send a message to the other Greek states, he had the 30,000 Thebans not killed in the fighting sold into slavery. The city itself was burnt to the ground.
Pella: best known as the ancient and wealthy capital of the kingdom of Macedon in the time of Alexander the Great.
Wars of Alexander the Great (336–323 BC): first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India. Alexander the Great was one of the most successful military commanders of all time. He was undefeated in battle. By the time of his death, he had conquered most of the world known to the ancient Greeks. Battle of the Granicus River; Siege of Halicarnassus; Battle of Issus; Siege of Tyre; Siege of Gaza; Battle of Gaugamela; End of the Achaemenid Persian Empire; India; return.
 
Map of the successor Kingdoms before the battle of Ipsus.
Wars of the Diadochi (Wars of Alexander's Successors; 322–275 BC): Seleucus I Nicator, Lysimachus, Cassander vs Antigonus I Monophthalmus and his son Demetrius I of Macedon. Ptolemy in Egypt, southern Syria (known as Coele-Syria), southern coast of Asia Minor. Antiochus in vast Asian territories of the empire. Antigonus in Macedon and Greece.
Diadochi (Greek: Διάδοχοι, Diadokhoi, meaning "Successors"): rival generals, families and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC. The Wars of the Diadochi mark the beginning of the Hellenistic period.
Cassander (ca. 350 BC – 297 BC): king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 305 BC until 297 BC, son of Antipater, and founder of the Antipatrid dynasty; educated alongside Alexander the Great in a group that included Hephaestion, Ptolemy and Lysimachus. Cassander stood out amongst the diadochi in his hostility to Alexander's memory. As Cassander and the other diadochi struggled for power, Alexander IV, Roxana, and Alexander’s supposed illegitimate son Heracles were all executed on Cassander's orders, and a guarantee to Olympias to spare her life was not respected. Cassander has been perceived to be ambitious and unscrupulous, and even members of his own family were estranged from him.
HellenismEdit
Hellenization: historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion, and, to a lesser extent, language over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in 4th c. BC. The result of Hellenization was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements, and these Greek influences spread from the Mediterranean basin as far east as modern-day Pakistan. In modern times, Hellenization has been associated with the adoption of modern Greek culture and the ethnic and cultural homogenization of Greece. Regions: Crimea (Bosporan Kingdom), Israel (Hellenistic Judaism), Parthia, Pisidia and Pamphylia, Phrygia, Syria, Bactria. Early Christianity: Scholars have continued to nuance Hengel's views, but almost all believe that strong Hellenistic influences were throughout the Levant, even among the conservative Jewish communities, which were the most nationalistic. Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire).
Template:Hellenistic rulers
Hellenistic period: from death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC to the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, Africa and Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East, and Southwest Asia, and a departure from earlier Greek attitudes towards "barbarian" cultures. While a few fragments exist, there is no surviving historical work which dates to the hundred years following Alexander's death. During the Hellenistic period the importance of Greece proper within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply; great centers of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria and Antioch, capitals of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria respectively. Southern Europe: Greece, Macedonia (Antigonid dynasty), Balkans, Western Mediterranean (Magna Graecia), Kingdom of Epirus; Hellenistic Middle east: The Ptolemaic Kingdom, The Seleucid Empire, Attalid Pergamum, Galatia, Bithynia, Cappadocia, The Kingdom of Pontus, Armenia, Parthia, Nabatean Kingdom, Judea (Hellenistic Judaism, Hasmonean dynasty); Greco-Bactrian kingdom; Indo-Greeks. In 27 BC, Augustus directly annexed Greece to the new Roman Empire as the province of Achaea; Augustus completed both the destruction of the Hellenistic kingdoms (Battle of Actium, the last Ptolemaic monarch - Cleopatra VII) and the Roman republic, and ended (in hindsight) the Hellenistic era. Religion: Hellenistic age also saw a rise in the disillusionment with traditional religion; rise of philosophy and the sciences had removed the gods from many of their traditional domains such as their role in the movement of the heavenly bodies and natural disasters; Sophists proclaimed the centrality of humanity and agnosticism; the belief in Euhemerism (the view that the gods were simply ancient kings and heroes), became popular; popular philosopher Epicurus promoted a view of disinterested gods living far away from the human realm in metakosmia; substantial decline in religiosity was mostly reserved for the educated classes. Sciences: Hellenistic science differed from Greek science in at least two ways: 1) it benefited from the cross-fertilization of Greek ideas with those that had developed in the larger Hellenistic world, 2) to some extent, it was supported by royal patrons in the kingdoms founded by Alexander's successors; Alexandria in Egypt became a major center of scientific research in the 3rd century BC; level of Hellenistic achievement in astronomy and engineering is impressively shown by the Antikythera mechanism (150–100 BC).
Hellenistic Greece
Antigonid dynasty (306 BC–168 BC): dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed"). Succeeding the Antipatrid dynasty in much of Macedonia, Antigonus ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. His attempts to take control of the whole of Alexander's empire led to his defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. Antigonus's son Demetrius I Poliorcetes survived the battle, and managed to seize control of Macedon itself a few years later, but eventually lost his throne, dying as a prisoner of Seleucus I Nicator. After a period of confusion, Demetrius's son Antigonus II Gonatas was able to establish the family's control over the old Kingdom of Macedon, as well as over most of the Greek city-states, by 276 BC.
Epirus (ancient state) (330 BC–167 BC): Pyrrhus of Epirus
Ptolemaic Kingdom (305 BC–30 BC; Egypt)
Seleucid Empire (312 BC–63 BC; Anatolia, Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia {q.v. #Ancient Persia and Iran (until Muslim conquest)}): Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian empire created by Alexander the Great. Seleucus received Babylonia and, from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near eastern territories. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, Persia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and what is now Kuwait, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and northwest parts of India.
Pergamon: ancient Greek city in Aeolis, currently located 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern-day Bakırçay). Today, the main sites of ancient Pergamon are to the north and west of the modern city of Bergama in Turkey.
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Ai-Khanoum (Alexandria on the Oxus): one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom.
Indo-Greek Kingdom Template:Indo-Greek kings
Greco-Buddhism
Antigonus II Gonatas (319–239 BC): powerful ruler who solidified the position of the Antigonid dynasty in Macedon after a long period defined by anarchy and chaos and acquired fame for his victory over the Gauls who had invaded the Balkans.
Antioch: ancient Greek - Roman city on the eastern side of the Orontes River. Its ruins lie near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey. Founded near the end of the 4th century BC by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals. Spice trade, the Silk Road, and the Persian Royal Road. Eventually rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East. Main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. Most of the urban development of Antioch was done during the Roman empire, great metropolis of 0.5 mln people during Augustan times. "The mixture of Roman, Greek, and Jewish elements admirably adapted Antioch for the great part it played in the early history of Christianity; The city was the cradle of the church" (cradle of Christianity).
 
Blue-eyed Central Asian Buddhist monk, with an East-Asian colleague, Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. (From the Greco-Indian kingdoms, to the Silk Road)
Ancient RomeEdit
Latifundium: very extensive parcel of privately owned land. The latifundia (Latin: latus, "spacious" and fundus, "farm, estate") of Roman history were great landed estates specializing in agriculture destined for export: grain, olive oil, or wine. They were characteristic of Magna Graecia and Sicily, Egypt, Northwest Africa and Hispania Baetica. The latifundia were the closest approximation to industrialized agriculture in Antiquity, and their economics depended upon slavery. Rome had to import grain (in the Republican period, from Sicily and North Africa, in the Imperial era, from Egypt). Ownership of land, organized in the latifundia, defined the Roman Senatorial class. It was the only acceptable source of wealth for senators, though Romans of the elite class would set up their freedmen as merchant traders, and participate as silent partners in businesses from which senatores were disqualified. The latifundia quickly started economic consolidation as larger estates achieved greater economies of scale and senators did not pay land taxes. Free peasants did not completely disappear: many became tenants on estates that were worked in two ways: partly directly controlled by the owner and worked by slaves and partly leased to tenants. It was one of the greatest levels of worker productivity before the 19th century.
Cura Annonae ("care for the grain supply"; import and distribution of grain to the residents of the city of Rome; Welfare state of the city of Rome?): honour of their goddess Annona. Rome imported most of the grain consumed by its population, estimated ~1,000,000 by 2nd c. AD. Most of the grain was distributed through commercial or non-subsidized channels, but a dole of subsidized or free grain, and later bread, was provided by the government to about 200,000 of the poorer residents of the city of Rome. A regular and predictable supply of grain and the grain dole were part of the Roman leadership's strategy of maintaining tranquility among a restive urban population by providing them with what the poet Juvenal sarcastically called "bread and circuses." In 22 AD, the emperor Tiberius said that the Cura Annonae if neglected would be 'the utter ruin of the state." The most important sources of the grain, mostly durum wheat, were Egypt, North Africa (21st century Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco), and Sicily. The population of the city of Rome declined precipitously during the 5th, the last century of the Western Roman Empire, and 6th centuries AD. It is unknown when the Cura Annonae ended. It may have persisted into the 6th century. By the late 200s BCE, grain was being shipped to the city of Rome from Sicily and Sardinia. In the first century BCE, the three major sources of wheat were Sardinia, Sicily, and North Africa, i.e. the region centered on the ancient city of Carthage, present day Tunisia. With the incorporation of Egypt into the Roman empire and the rule of the emperor Augustus (27 BCE-14 CE), Egypt became the main source of supply of grain for Rome. Grain made into bread was, by far, the most important element in the Roman diet. Shipping: shipping lanes that connected Rome with its centers of grain supply had strategic importance. Whoever controlled the grain supply had an important measure of control over the city of Rome. Rome was dependent upon the prompt arrival of imported grain. Ships: Hundreds or even thousands of ships were required to transport grain to Rome. The government of Rome encouraged building large ships for grain transport. Some had a capacity of carrying 50,000 modii (350 tonnes) or even more. Ships of much larger capacity are suggested in Lucian and the Acts of the Apostles. Grain transport presented special problems. Grain must be kept cool and dry to prevent sprouting and infestations of pests and mold and prevented from shifting from side to side in the hold of the ship which could impact the seaworthiness of the transport ship. Grain that was wet could sink the ship by expanding and splitting the sideboards of the hull. Milling and baking: The conversion of a grain supply for the citizens of the city of Rome to a flour supply carried with it a host of problems. Flour is much more perishable than grain, and its distribution would have to carried out more often. Little is known about the initial distribution system for the flour produced by the watermills. The Emperor Aurelian (270-275 CE) is usually credited with changing or completing the change of the food distribution system from grain or flour to bread, and adding olive oil, salt, and pork to the products distributed to the populace. These products had been distributed sporadically before Aurelian. Aurelian is also credited with increasing the size of the loaves of bread without increasing the price of a loaf, a measure that was undoubtedly popular with the Romans who were not receiving free bread and other products through the dole. In the 4th century CE, Rome had 290 granaries and warehouses and 254 bakeries which were regulated and monitored by the state and given privileges to ensure their cooperation. Politics and the grain supply
College of Pontiffs: body of the ancient Roman state whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the state religion. During the Empire, the office was publicly elected from the candidates of existing pontiffs, until the Emperors began to automatically assume the title, following Julius Caesar’s example. The pontifex maximus was a powerful political position to hold and the candidates for office were often very active political members of the college. Many, such as Julius Caesar, went on to hold consulships during their time as pontifex maximus. However, after 44 BC the Pontiffs, as with the other official priests of Rome, lost their political influence. Martha Hoffman Lewis could only find four instances where the pontiff's advice was asked: before Augustus' marriage to Livia; in 37 BC when they ordered the removal of the body of one of the proscribed from the Campus; they made expiatory sacrifices on the day the emperor Claudius married Agrippina; and their advice was sought concerning reforms of the discipline of the haruspices. The Lex Acilia bestowed power on the college to manage the calendar. Thus, they determined the days which religious and political meetings could be held, when sacrifices could be offered, votes cast, and senatorial decisions brought forth.
List of Roman consuls: in imperial times the consulship became the senior administrative office under the emperors, who frequently assumed the title of consul themselves, and appointed other consuls at will. The consulship was often bestowed as a political favour, or a reward for faithful service. Because there could only be two consuls at once, the emperors frequently appointed several sets of suffecti sequentially in the course of a year; holding the consulship for an entire year became a special honour. As the office lost much of its executive authority, and the number of consuls appointed for short and often irregular periods increased, surviving lists from Imperial times are often incomplete, and have been reconstructed from many sources, not always with much certainty. In many cases it is stated that a particular person had been consul, but the exact time cannot be firmly established. The order of the consuls of the Republic was however edited in the Fasti Capitolini. Augustus and several prominent patricians falsified the Fasti by listing some of their ancestors as consuls prior. Livy apparently gives the initial order throughout most of his work, but seems to have followed the new "official" order in his later books; perhaps he was influenced by the imperial propaganda. During the reign of Justinian I (527–565), the position of consul altered in two significant ways. From 535, there was no longer a Roman consul chosen in the West. In 541, the separate office of Roman consul was abolished. When used thereafter, the office was with few exceptions used as part of the imperial title. The office was finally abolished as part of the Basilika reforms of Leo VI the Wise in 887.
Ancient Roman units of measurement: length (pes = foot); area (pes quadratus = square foot); volume: dry vs liquid measures (amphora quadrantal = cubic foot; urna = 1/2 amphora quadrantal); weight (as or libra = pound, uncia = ounce)
Aureus: gold coin of ancient Rome valued at 25 silver denarii. The aureus was regularly issued from the 1st century BC to the beginning of the 4th century AD, when it was replaced by the solidus. The aureus was about the same size as the denarius, but heavier due to the higher density of gold (as opposed to that of silver.)
Curiales (from co + viria, 'gathering of men'): were initially the leading members of a gentes (clan) of the city of Rome. Their roles were both civil and sacred. Decurion was a member of a city senate in the Roman Empire. Decurions were drawn from the curiales class, which was made up of the wealthy middle class citizens of a town society. Decurions were the most powerful political figures at the local level. They were responsible for public contracts, religious rituals, entertainment, and ensuring order. Perhaps most importantly to the imperial government, they also supervised local tax collection. Under the Dominate (284 and later), when the empire's finances demanded more draconian tax collection measures, the position of decurion ceased being a status symbol and became an unwanted civil service position. Decurions were expected to make up any shortfall in the local tax collection out of their own pockets. Many decurions illegally left their positions in an attempt to seek relief from this burden; if caught, they would be subject to forfeiture of their property or even execution.
Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC)Edit
 
Languages of Central Italy at the beginning of Roman Expansion.
Latins (Italic tribe): Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome. From about 1000 BC, the Latins inhabited the small region known to the Romans as Old Latium (Latium Vetus), that is, the area between the river Tiber and the promontory of Mount Circeo 100 kilometres SE of Rome. The Latins maintained close culturo-religious relations until they were definitively united politically under Rome in 338 BC, and for centuries beyond. These included common festivals and religious sanctuaries. The rise of Rome as by far the most populous and powerful Latin state from c. 600 BC led to volatile relations with the other Latin states, which numbered about 14 in 500 BC.
Latin War (340–338 BC): conflict between the Roman Republic and its neighbors the Latin peoples of ancient Italy. It ended in the dissolution of the Latin League, and incorporation of its territory into the Roman sphere of influence, with the Latins gaining partial rights and varying levels of citizenship. Modern historians consider the ancient accounts of the Latin War to be a mixture of fact and fiction. All the surviving authors lived long after the Latin War and relied on the works of earlier writers.
Roman Republic (Res publica Romana): period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries of its existence the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula. By the following century it included North Africa, Spain, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France, Greece, and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of civil wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar, which led to the transition from republic to empire.
Pomerium: religious boundary around the city of Rome and cities controlled by Rome. In legal terms, Rome existed only within its pomerium; everything beyond it was simply territory (ager) belonging to Rome. Weapons were prohibited inside the pomerium. Praetorian guards were allowed in only in civilian dress (toga), and were then called collectively cohors togata. But it was possible to sneak in daggers (the proverbial weapon for political violence; sicarius). Provincial promagistrates and generals were forbidden from entering the pomerium, and resigned their imperium immediately upon crossing it (as it was the superlative form of the ban on armies entering Italy). It was forbidden to bury the dead inside the pomerium.
Hannibal's Crossing of the Alps (218 BC): Hannibal's father (Hamilcar Barca) was killed in 228 BC; Hannibal's brother-in-law (Hasdrubal "The Handsome") was assassinated; Hannibal becomes the chief command of the army of Carthage; lots of wars between the Romans/Italians and the Po river's dwellers and Galls in the North of Italy; Hannibal's expedition into Italia.
Illyrian Wars: set of wars fought in the period 229–168 BC between the Roman Republic and the Ardiaei kingdom.
  • First Illyrian War (229 BC to 228 BC): Rome's concern was that the trade across the Adriatic Sea increased after the First Punic War at a time when Ardiaei power increased under queen Teuta. Attacks on trading vessels of Rome's Italic allies by Illyrian pirates and the death of a Roman envoy named Coruncanius on Teuta's orders, prompted the Roman senate to dispatch a Roman army under the command of the consuls Lucius Postumius Albinus and Gnaeus Fulvius Centumalus. Rome expelled Illyrian garrisons from a number of Greek cities including Epidamnus, Apollonia, Corcyra, Pharos and established a protectorate over these Greek towns. The Romans also set up Demetrius of Pharos as a power in Illyria to counterbalance the power of Teuta.
  • Second Illyrian War (220 BC to 219 BC): Roman Republic was at war with the Celts of Cisalpine Gaul, and the Second Punic War with Carthage was beginning. These distractions gave Demetrius the time he needed to build a new Illyrian war fleet. Leading this fleet of 90 ships, Demetrius sailed south of Lissus, violating his earlier treaty and starting the war. Demetrius' fleet first attacked Pylos, where he captured 50 ships after several attempts. From Pylos, the fleet sailed to the Cyclades, quelling any resistance that they found on the way. Demetrius foolishly sent a fleet across the Adriatic, and, with the Illyrian forces divided, the fortified city of Dimale was captured by the Roman fleet under Lucius Aemilius Paulus. From Dimale the navy went towards Pharos. The forces of Rome routed the Illyrians and Demetrius fled to Macedon, where he became a trusted councillor at the court of Philip V of Macedon, and remained there until his death at Messene in 214 BC.
  • Third Illyrian War (168 BC): Illyrian king Gentius changed sides from Romans and allied himself with Perseus of Macedon. Gentius arrested two Roman legati and destroyed the cities of Apollonia and Dyrrhachium, which were allied to Rome. He was defeated at Scodra by a Roman force under L. Anicius Gallus.
 
Greece, Macedonia and their environs, ~200 BC.
Macedonian Wars (214-148 BC): series of conflicts fought by the Roman Republic and its Greek allies in the eastern Mediterranean against several different major Greek kingdoms. They resulted in Roman control or influence over the eastern Mediterranean basin, in addition to their hegemony in the western Mediterranean after the Punic wars. Traditionally, the "Macedonian Wars" include the four wars with Macedonia, in addition to one war with the Seleucid Empire, and a final minor war with the Achaean League (which is often considered to be the final stage of the final Macedonian war). The most significant war was that fought with the Seleucid Empire, while the war with Macedonia was the second, and both of these wars effectively marked the end of these empires as major world powers, even though neither of them led immediately to overt Roman domination. From the close of the Macedonian Wars until the early Roman Empire, the eastern Mediterranean remained an ever shifting network of polities with varying levels of independence from, dependence on, or outright military control by, Rome. According to Polybius, who sought to trace how Rome came to dominate the Greek east in less than a century, Rome's wars with Greece were set in motion after several Greek city-states sought Roman protection against the Macedonian Kingdom and Seleucid Empire in the face of a destabilizing situation created by the weakening of Ptolemaic Egypt. In contrast to the west, the Greek east had been dominated by major empires for centuries, and Roman influence and alliance-seeking led to wars with these empires that further weakened them and therefore created an unstable power vacuum that only Rome was capable of pacifying. It wasn't until the time of the Roman Empire that the eastern Mediterranean, along with the entire Roman world, was organized into provinces under explicit Roman control.
Roman–Seleucid War (192–188 BC): military conflict between two coalitions led by the Roman Republic and the Seleucid Empire.
Gracchi brothers: Tiberius and Gaius, were Romans who both served as tribunes of the plebs between 133 and 121 BC. They attempted to redistribute the occupation of the ager publicus—the public land hitherto controlled principally by aristocrats—to the urban poor and veterans, in addition to other social and constitutional reforms. After achieving some early success, both were assassinated by the Optimates, the conservative faction in the senate that opposed these reforms. Reforms of Tiberius Gracchus: Tiberius was elected to the office of Tribune of the Plebs in 133 BC. He immediately began pushing for a programme of land reform, partly by invoking the 240-year-old Sextian-Licinian law that limited the amount of land that could be owned by a single individual. Using the powers of Lex Hortensia, Tiberius established a commission to oversee the redistribution of land holdings from the rich to the unlanded urban poor. The commission consisted of himself, his father-in-law and his brother Gaius. Reforms of Gaius Gracchus: Ten years later, in 123 BC, Gaius took the same office as his brother, as a tribune for the plebeians. Gaius was more practically minded than Tiberius and consequently was considered more dangerous by the senatorial class. He gained support from the agrarian poor by reviving the land reform programme and from the urban poor with various popular measures.
Tiberius Gracchus (c. 169–164 – 133 BC): politician of the Roman Republic, and the first prominent member of the Populares, a reformist faction. He belonged to the highest aristocracy, as his father was consul and his mother, Cornelia Africana, was the daughter of Scipio Africanus.
Gaius Gracchus (154–121 BC): Roman Popularis politician in the 2nd century BC and brother of the reformer Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.
Gaius Marius (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman. Victor of the Cimbric and Jugurthine wars, he held the office of consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. He was also noted for his important reforms of Roman armies. He was at the centre of a paradigmatic shift from the militia levies of the middle Republic to the professional soldiery of the late Republic; he also developed the pilum, a javelin designed to bend on impact, and large-scale changes to the logistical structure of the Roman army. For his victory over invading Germanic tribes in the Cimbrian War, he was dubbed "the third founder of Rome". His life and career, by breaking with many of the precedents that bound the ambitious upper class of the Roman Republic together and instituting a soldiery loyal not to the Republic but to their commanders, was highly significant in Rome's transformation from Republic to Empire. Cimbri and Teutones: Reforms to the military, Battle with the Germanic tribes. Sulla and the First Civil War. Legacy: Reforms to the legion, The Assemblies and foreign affairs, Political violence.
Marian reforms (107 BC): group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius. Marius and his contemporaries' need for soldiers cemented a paradigmatic shift away from the levy-based armies of the middle Republic towards open recruitment. From now on Rome's legions would largely consist of poor citizens (the "capite censi" or "head count") whose future after service could only be assured if their general could bring about land distribution and pay on their behalf. In the broad sweep of history, this reliance on poor men would make soldiers strongly loyal not to the Senate and people of Rome, but to their generals: friend, comrade, benefactor, and patron. Marius, however, in his successive consulships, also overhauled the training and logistical organisation of his men. Instead of baggage trains, Marius had his troops carry all their weapons, blankets, clothes, and rations.
Cimbrian War (113–101 BC): fought between the Roman Republic and the Celtic or Germanic tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutones, who migrated from the Jutland peninsula into Roman controlled territory, and clashed with Rome and her allies. The Cimbrian War was the first time since the Second Punic War that Italia and Rome itself had been seriously threatened. The timing of the war had a great effect on the internal politics of Rome, and the organization of its military. The war contributed greatly to the political career of Gaius Marius, whose consulships and political conflicts challenged many of the Roman republic's political institutions and customs of the time. The Cimbrian threat, along with the Jugurthine War, inspired the landmark Marian reforms of the Roman legions.
Battle of Arausio (105.10.06 BC): Cimbrian and Teutonic victory. Roman losses are described as being up to 80,000 troops, as well as another 40,000 auxiliary troops (allies) and servants and camp followers—virtually all of their participants in the battle. In terms of losses, this battle is regarded as the worst defeat in the history of ancient Rome.
Battle of Aquae Sextiae (102 BC): the Romans under Gaius Marius finally defeated the Teutones and Ambrones. The Teutones and the Ambrones were virtually wiped out, with the Romans claiming to have killed 200,000 and captured 90,000, including large numbers of women and children who were later sold into slavery. Some of the surviving captives are reported to have been among the rebelling gladiators in the Third Servile War.
Battle of Vercellae (Battle of the Raudine Plain; 101.07.30 BC): Roman victory of Consul Gaius Marius over the invading Celto-Germanic tribe of the Cimbri near the settlement of Vercellae in Cisalpine Gaul. Much credit for this victory has been given to the actions of Proconsul Catulus' legate, Lucius Cornelius Sulla who led the Roman and allied Italian cavalry.
Sulla (Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix; c. 138 BC – 78 BC): Roman general and statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was a skillful general, achieving numerous successes in wars against different opponents, both foreign and Roman. He was awarded a Grass Crown, the most prestigious Roman military honor, during the Social War. Sulla then took six of his most loyal legions and marched on Rome. This was an unprecedented event. No general before him had ever crossed the city limits, the pomoerium, with his army. Second march on Rome: The old enemy of Marius, and assuredly of Cinna as well, led an open revolt against the Marian forces in Africa. Additional help came from Picenum and Spain. Two of the three future triumvirs joined Sulla's cause in his bid to take control. Marcus Licinius Crassus marched with an army from Spain, and would later play a pivotal role at the Colline Gates. The young son of Pompeius Strabo (the butcher of Asculum during the Social War), Pompey, raised an army of his own from among his father's veterans and threw his lot in with Sulla. At the age of 23, and never having held a senatorial office, Pompey forced himself into the political scene with an army at his back. Dictatorship and constitutional reforms: Proscribing or outlawing every one of those whom he perceived to have acted against the best interests of the Republic while he was in the East, Sulla ordered some 1,500 nobles (i.e., senators and equites) executed, although it is estimated that as many as 9,000 people were killed. The purge went on for several months. Possibly to protect himself from future political retribution, Sulla had the sons and grandsons of the proscribed banned from running for political office, a restriction not removed for over 30 years. The young Gaius Julius Caesar, as Cinna's son-in-law, became one of Sulla's targets and fled the city. He was saved through the efforts of his relatives, many of whom were Sulla's supporters, but Sulla noted in his memoirs that he regretted sparing Caesar's life, because of the young man's notorious ambition. His public funeral in Rome (in the Forum, in the presence of the whole city) was on a scale unmatched until that of Augustus in AD 14. Sulla's body was brought into the city on a golden bier, escorted by his veteran soldiers, and orations were delivered by several eminent senators: the main funeral oration was delivered by Lucius Marcius Philippus. Sulla's body was cremated and his ashes placed in his tomb in the Campus Martius. An epitaph, which Sulla composed himself, was inscribed onto the tomb, reading: "No friend ever served me, and no enemy ever wronged me, whom I have not repaid in full".
Sulla's first civil war (88–87 BC): one of a series of civil wars in ancient Rome, between Gaius Marius and Sulla; first in a succession of several internal conflicts, which eventually led to the dissolution of the Roman Republic and establishment of Julius Caesar as dictator. Prelude - Social War. Sulla then took six of his most loyal legions and marched on Rome. This action was an unprecedented event. No general before him had ever crossed the city limits, the pomerium, with his army. It was so unethical that most of his senatorial officers (with the exception of one, probably Lucullus) refused to accompany him. Sulla justified his actions on the grounds that the Senate had been neutered and the mos maiorum ("The way things were done", or "the custom of the ancestors", which as a reference amounted to a Roman constitution although none of it was codified as such) had been offended by the negation of the rights of the consuls of the year to fight the wars of that year. A force of armed gladiators raised by the Marians (Marius offered freedom to any slave that would fight with him against Sulla) failed to resist Sulla's organized military force and Marius and his followers fled the city. Sulla and his supporters in the Senate passed a death sentence on Marius, Sulpicius and a few other allies of Marius. A few men were executed, but (according to Plutarch) Marius narrowly escaped capture and death on several occasions and eventually found safety in Africa. Aftermath: With Sulla out of Rome, Marius plotted his return. Fighting broke out between the conservative supporters of Sulla, led by Gnaeus Octavius (consul of 87), and the popularis supporters of Cinna. Marius along with his son then returned from exile in Africa with an army he had raised there and by the end of 87 BC combined with Cinna and the Roman war hero Quintus Sertorius to enter Rome, oust Octavius and take control of the city. Based on the orders of Marius, some of his soldiers (who were former slaves) went through Rome killing the leading supporters of Sulla, including Octavius. Their heads were exhibited in the Forum. After five days, Quintus Sertorius and Cinna ordered their more disciplined troops to kill Marius's rampaging slave army. All told some 100 Roman nobles had been murdered.
Constitutional reforms of Sulla (between 82 and 80 BC): Roman Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla enacted series of laws, which reformed the Constitution of the Roman Republic. In the decades before Sulla had become dictator, a series of political developments occurred which severely weakened aristocratic control over the Roman Constitution. Sulla's dictatorship constituted one of the most significant developments in the History of the Constitution of the Roman Republic, and it served as a warning for the coming civil war, which ultimately would destroy the Roman Republic and create the Roman Empire. Sulla, who had witnessed chaos at the hands of his political enemies in the years before his dictatorship, was naturally conservative. He believed that the underlying flaw in the Roman constitution was the increasingly aggressive democracy, which expressed itself through the Roman assemblies, and as such, he sought to strengthen the Roman Senate and reduce the power of the plebeian tribunes. But what he did not realize was that it was he himself who actually had illustrated the underlying flaw in the Roman constitution: that it was the army, and not the Roman senate, which dictated the fortunes of the state. The precedent he produced would be emulated less than forty years later by an individual whom he almost had executed, Julius Caesar, and as such, he played a critical early role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
  • Before the Gracchi (287–133 BC): By the middle of the 2nd century BC, the Plebeians (commoners) saw a worsening economic situation. When the soldiers returned from the battlefield, they often had to sell their farms to pay their debts, and the landed aristocracy quickly bought these farms at discounted prices. The wars had also brought to Rome a great surplus of inexpensive slave labor, which the landed aristocrats used to staff their new farms. Soon the masses of unemployed Plebeians began to flood into Rome, and into the ranks of the legislative assemblies. At the same time, the aristocracy was becoming extremely rich, and with the destruction of Rome's great commercial rival of Carthage, even more opportunities for profit became available. The sums that were spent on the new luxuries had no precedent in prior Roman history; the Romans began to pass sumptuary laws to limit some excesses, although these were harmless at best, political footballs at worst. Thus, most of these newly landless Plebeians belonged to one of the thirty-one rural Tribes, rather than one of the four urban Tribes; this meant that their vote counted more than those of the lower classes in the four Urban Tribes—and these landless Plebeians soon acquired so much political power that the Plebeian Council became highly populist. The new power of the Plebeians was watched with fear and dismay by the aristocratic classes who had formerly had control of all law-making at Rome.
  • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus (133–121 BC)
  • Sulla's constitution (82–80 BC): Over the past three-hundred years, the Tribunes had been the officers most responsible for the loss of power by the aristocracy. Since the Tribunate was the principal means through which the democracy of Rome had always asserted itself against the aristocracy, it was of paramount importance to Sulla that he cripple the office. Through his reforms to the Plebeian Council, Tribunes lost the power to initiate legislation. Sulla then prohibited ex-Tribunes from ever holding any other office, so ambitious individuals would no longer seek election to the Tribunate, since such an election would end their political career. Finally, Sulla revoked the power of the Tribunes to veto acts of the senate. This reform was of dubious constitutionality at best, and was outright sacrilegious at worst. Ultimately, the Tribunes, and thus the People of Rome, became powerless. To further solidify the prestige and authority of the senate, Sulla transferred the control of the courts from the knights, who had held control since the Gracchi reforms, to the senators. This, along with the increase in the number of courts, further added to the power that was already held by the senators. He also codified, and thus established definitively, the cursus honorum, which required an individual to reach a certain age and level of experience before running for any particular office.
  • The fate of Sulla's constitution (70–27 BC): Upon their return, Pompey and Crassus found the populare party fiercely attacking Sulla's constitution, and so they attempted to forge an agreement with the populare party. If both Pompey and Crassus were elected Consul in 70 BC, they would dismantle the more obnoxious components of Sulla's constitution. The promise of both Pompey and Crassus, aided by the presence of both of their armies outside of the gates of Rome, helped to 'persuade' the populares to elect the two to the Consulship. As soon as they were elected, they dismantled most of Sulla's constitution. In 63 BC, a conspiracy led by Lucius Sergius Catiline attempted to overthrow the Republic, and install Catiline as master of the state. Catiline and his supporters simply followed in Sulla's footsteps. Ultimately, however, the conspiracy was discovered and the conspirators were killed. In January 49 BC, after the senate had refused to renew his appointment as governor, Julius Caesar followed in Sulla's footsteps, marched on Rome, and made himself dictator. This time, however, the Roman Republic was not as lucky, and the civil war that Caesar began would not end until 27 BC, with the creation of the Roman Empire.
Sulla's second civil war (83–82 BC): fought between Lucius Cornelius Sulla and Gaius Marius the younger. Marius declared Sulla's reforms and laws invalid, officially exiled Sulla and had himself elected to Sulla's eastern command and himself and Cinna elected consuls for the year 86 BC. Marius died a fortnight after and Cinna was left in sole control of Rome. Having managed this achievement, the Marians sent out Lucius Valerius Flaccus with an army to relieve Sulla of his command in the east. In the meantime, the two Roman armies camped next to each other and Sulla, not for the first time, encouraged his soldiers to spread dissension among Flaccus’ army. Many deserted to Sulla before Flaccus packed up and moved on north to threaten Mithridates’ northern dominions. In the meantime Sulla moved to intercept the new Pontic army and end the war at Orchomenus. With Mithridates defeated and Cinna now dead in a mutiny, Sulla was determined to regain control of Rome. In 83 BC he landed his army in two divisions; one at Brundisium another at Tarentum. As soon as he had set foot in Italy, the outlawed nobles and old Sullan supporters who had survived the Marian regime flocked to his banner. The most prominent was Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, who had gathered legions in Africa and, with Marcus Licinius Crassus, who had raised troops in Spain, joined Sulla soon after his landing in Italy. The former consul Lucius Marcius Philippus also joined Sulla and led a force which secured Sardinia for the Sullan cause. Here is also where the young Gnaeus Pompey first comes into the limelight—the son of Pompeius Strabo, he raised three legions in Picenum and, defeating and outmanoeuvering the Marian forces, made his way to Sulla. With these reinforcements Sulla's army swelled to around 50,000 men, and with his loyal legions he began his second march on Rome. Upon his defeat Marius sent word to the praetor Brutus Damasippus in Rome, to kill any remaining Sullan sympathisers left before Sulla could take the city. Damasippus called a meeting of the Senate and there, in the Curia itself, the marked men were cut down by assassins. Sulla subsequently entered the city as a victorious general. A meeting of the Senate was convened in the Temple of Bellona; as Sulla was addressing the senators, the sound of terrified screams drifted in from the Campus Martius. Sulla calmed the senators by attributing the screams to 'some criminals that are receiving correction.' In reality, what the Senate had heard was the sound of 8,000 prisoners who had surrendered the previous day being executed on Sulla's orders; none of the captured were spared from execution. Soon afterwards, Sulla had himself declared Dictator, and now held supreme power over Rome. When the starving people of Praeneste despaired and surrendered to Ofella (Sulla's lieutenant), Marius hid in the tunnels under the town and tried to escape through them but failed and committed suicide. The people of Praeneste were then mostly massacred by Ofella. Carbo was soon discovered and arrested by Pompey, whom Sulla had sent to track the man down. Pompey had the weeping man brought before him in chains and publicly executed him in Lilybaeum, his head then sent to Sulla and displayed along with Marius' and many others in the Forum.
Battle of the Colline Gate (82 BC) (Kalends of November, 82 BC): final and decisive battle of the second civil war between Lucius Cornelius Sulla and the Marians. Sulla won and secured control of Rome and Italy. Appian is the only source who provides details about the battle. Much of the war was fought in northern Italy. The Lucanians, the Samnites and the Gauls fought alongside the Marians. Following defection of the Gauls to the forces of Sulla and the defeat of some of his forces by Metellus (one of Sulla's lieutenants) near Placentia (Piacenza), Carbo, the leader of the Marians, fled to Africa. Sulla's commanders were concerned by the state of his soldiers after their forced-march. They pointed out that they were not up against the disorganized Marians, whom they had easily beat time and again, but against the Samnites and Lucanians − highly motivated, experienced and warlike opponents. They urged Sulla to wait and let his soldiers recuperate over night. But Sulla only allowed his men a meal and a few hours rest. Then he organized his battle lines, and at four o'clock, with the sun the sun already sinking, the battle began. Velleius Paterculus wrote that Sulla ordered the head of Telesinus to be carried around the walls of Praeneste fixed on top of a spear.
Second Catilinarian conspiracy (Catiline conspiracy): a plot, devised by the Roman senator Lucius Sergius Catilina (or Catiline), with the help of a group of fellow aristocrats and disaffected veterans of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, to overthrow the consulship of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Gaius Antonius Hybrida. In 63 BC, Cicero exposed the plot, forcing Catiline to flee from Rome. The conspiracy was chronicled by Sallust in his work The Conspiracy of Catiline, and this work remains an authority on the matter.
Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 44.03.15 BC): Roman politician, military general, and historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He also wrote Latin prose. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Following Sulla's final victory, though, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one. He was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, and his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. The threat against him was lifted by the intervention of his mother's family, which included supporters of Sulla, and the Vestal Virgins. Sulla gave in reluctantly and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar. On the way across the Aegean Sea, Caesar was kidnapped by pirates and held prisoner. He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. The pirates demanded a ransom of 20 talents of silver, but he insisted that they ask for 50. After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them. He had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised while in captivity—a promise that the pirates had taken as a joke. He was still in considerable debt and needed to satisfy his creditors before he could leave. He turned to Marcus Licinius Crassus, one of Rome's richest men. Crassus paid some of Caesar's debts and acted as guarantor for others, in return for political support in his opposition to the interests of Pompey. Even so, to avoid becoming a private citizen and thus open to prosecution for his debts, Caesar left for his province before his praetorship had ended. In Spain, he conquered two local tribes and was hailed as imperator by his troops; he reformed the law regarding debts, and completed his governorship in high esteem. On Caesar's return to Italy in September 45 BC, he filed his will, naming his grandnephew Gaius Octavius (Octavian, later known as Augustus Caesar) as his principal heir, leaving his vast estate and property including his name. Caesar also wrote that if Octavian died before Caesar did, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus would be the next heir in succession. In his will, he also left a substantial gift to the citizens of Rome. When Caesar returned to Rome, the Senate granted him triumphs for his victories, ostensibly those over Gaul, Egypt, Pharnaces, and Juba, rather than over his Roman opponents. He passed a debt-restructuring law, which ultimately eliminated about a fourth of all debts owed. To minimise the risk that another general might attempt to challenge him, Caesar passed a law that subjected governors to term limits. The most important change, however, was his reform of the calendar. The Roman calendar at the time was regulated by the movement of the moon.By replacing it with the Egyptian calendar, based on the sun, Roman farmers were able to use it as the basis of consistent seasonal planting from year to year. He set the length of the year to 365.25 days by adding an intercalary/leap day at the end of February every fourth year. He established a police force, appointed officials to carry out his land reforms, and ordered the rebuilding of Carthage and Corinth. He also extended Latin rights throughout the Roman world, and then abolished the tax system and reverted to the earlier version that allowed cities to collect tribute however they wanted, rather than needing Roman intermediaries. He was granted a golden chair in the Senate, was allowed to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose, and was offered a form of semi-official or popular cult, with Mark Antony as his high priest. Julius Caesar was the first historical Roman to be officially deified. During his lifetime, Caesar was regarded as one of the best orators and prose authors in Latin—even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar's rhetoric and style. Only Caesar's war commentaries have survived.
Publius Clodius Pulcher (c. December 93 BC – 52.01.18 BC of the pre-Julian calendar): a Roman patrician (later plebeian) and a politician. As tribune, he pushed through an ambitious legislative program, including a grain dole, but he is chiefly remembered for his feud with Cicero and Titus Annius Milo, whose bodyguards murdered him on the Appian Way.
  • Bona Dea scandal and trial for incestum: The rites were hosted by Caesar's wife Pompeia, and his mother, Aurelia, and they were supervised by the Vestal Virgins. It was a cult from which men were excluded and they were not permitted to speak or even know the goddess's name: the euphemism "Good Goddess" was used. Clodius intruded on the rites, disguised as a woman and apparently intent on finding and seducing Pompeia but was discovered. The ensuing scandal dragged on for months during which Pompey returned from the east, Caesar divorced his wife, and most public business was suspended. Caesar's mother Aurelia and sister testified to Clodius' offense. Caesar did his best to help Clodius by claiming that he knew nothing. When asked why, if he knew nothing, Caesar had divorced his wife, Caesar made the famous response that Caesar's wife had to be beyond suspicion. At home, Terentia demanded to give his testimony and ensure the destruction of her subversive rival's brother and lover. Cicero did so, but Marcus Licinius Crassus decided the outcome of the trial by bribery of the jurors en masse to secure Clodius' acquittal.
  • Adoption into Fonteii family: However, to be elected as a tribune, he had to renounce his patrician rank since that magistracy was not permitted to patricians. In 59 BC, during Caesar's first consulship, Clodius was able to enact a transfer to plebeian status by getting himself adopted by a certain P. Fonteius, who was much younger than him. The process violated almost every proper form of adoption in ancient Rome, which was a serious business involving clan and family rituals and inheritance rights, but since Clodius had the backing of one of the consuls, Caesar, he was able to secure his most unorthodox adoption. On 16 November, Clodius took office as tribune of the plebs and began preparations for his destruction of Cicero and an extensive populist legislative program to bind as much of the community as possible to his policies as beneficiaries.
  • Tribunate: As tribune, Clodius also introduced a law that threatened exile to anyone who executed a Roman citizen without a trial. Cicero, having executed members of the Catiline conspiracy four years before without a trial, had had a public dispute with Clodius and was clearly the intended target of the law. Cicero went into exile and arrived at Thessalonica, Greece, on May 29, 58 BC. The day that Cicero left Italy into exile, Clodius proposed another law which forbade Cicero to approach within 640 km of Italy and confiscated his property. The bill was passed, and Cicero's house on the Palatine was destroyed by Clodius' supporters, as were his villas in Tusculum and Formiae. Clodius had a temple of Libertas (Liberty) built on the site of Cicero's house so even if Cicero returned, he would not be able to take the site back. He had noticed that violence and physical force had become the main means of maintaining dominance in Roman politics. Therefore, he abolished the restrictions on establishing new collegia, the old social and political clubs or guilds of workmen, and had them set up by his agents. The guilds were essentially organized and trained as gangs of thugs, and Clodius used them to control the streets of Rome by driving off the supporters of his political opponents. Thus the opposition to Clodius was muted, and he became the "king of the Roman streets". However, Clodius' good relationship with the triumvirate deteriorated when Pompey criticised his policies and started contemplating recalling Cicero from exile. The infuriated Clodius turned against Pompey, starting to harass him, reputedly with the secret approval of Crassus. Pompey gave his approval for the tribunes Milo and Publius Sestius to raise their own gangs in order to oppose Clodius' thugs, with some gladiator trainers and ex-gladiators as leaders and trainers. Street fighting continued through the first half of 57, but Clodius lost the battle and the bill about Cicero was passed. Clodius subsequently attacked the workmen who were rebuilding Cicero's house at public cost, assaulted Cicero himself in the street and set fire to the house of Cicero's younger brother, Quintus Tullius Cicero.
 
Map of Roman Empire (1st century BC), at Caesar time with conquests.
Caesar's Civil War: one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. It began as a series of political and military confrontations, between Julius Caesar (100–44 BC), his political supporters (broadly known as Populares), and his legions, against the Optimates (or Boni), the politically conservative and socially traditionalist faction of the Roman Senate, who were supported by Pompey (106–48 BC) and his legions. Caesar soon emerged as a champion of the common people, and advocated a variety of reforms. The Senate, fearful of Caesar, demanded that he relinquish command of his army. Caesar refused, and instead marched his army on Rome, which no Roman general was permitted to do. Pompey fled Rome and organized an army in the south of Italy to meet Caesar. The war was a four-year-long politico-military struggle, fought in Italy, Illyria, Greece, Egypt, Africa, and Hispania. Pompey defeated Caesar in 48 BC at the Battle of Dyrrhachium, but was himself defeated much more decisively at the Battle of Pharsalus. The Optimates under Marcus Junius Brutus and Cicero surrendered after the battle, while others, including those under Cato the Younger and Metellus Scipio fought on. Pompey fled to Egypt and was killed upon arrival. Scipio was defeated in 46 BC at the Battle of Thapsus in North Africa. He and Cato committed suicide shortly after the battle. The following year, Caesar defeated the last of the Optimates in the Battle of Munda and became Dictator perpetuo (Dictator in perpetuity or Dictator for life) of Rome. March on Rome and the early Hispanian campaign: Caesar pursued Pompey to Brundisium, expecting restoration of their alliance of ten years prior; throughout the Great Roman Civil War's early stages, Caesar frequently proposed to Pompey that they, both generals, sheathe their swords. Pompey refused, legalistically arguing that Caesar was his subordinate and thus was obligated to cease campaigning and dismiss his armies before any negotiation. As the Senate's chosen commander, and with the backing of at least one of the current consuls, Pompey commanded legitimacy, whereas Caesar's military crossing of the Rubicon rendered him a de jure enemy of the Senate and People of Rome. Greek, Illyrian and African campaigns. Egyptian dynastic struggle: Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was murdered by an officer of King Ptolemy XIII. Caesar pursued the Pompeian army to Alexandria, where he camped and became involved with the Alexandrine Civil War between Ptolemy and his sister, wife, and co-regent, Cleopatra VII. Perhaps as a result of Ptolemy's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra. Caesar was besieged at Alexandria and after Mithridates relieved the city, Caesar defeated Ptolemy's army and installed Cleopatra as ruler, with whom he fathered his only known biological son, Ptolemy XV Caesar, better known as "Caesarion". Caesar and Cleopatra never married, due to Roman law that prohibited a marriage with a non-Roman citizen. Later campaign in Africa and the war on Cato. Second Hispanian campaign and the end of the war.
Roman Empire (27 BC – 285/395 AD (Undivided))Edit
Principate (30 BC - 284 AD): name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Augustus in about 30 BC to the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate. The Principate is characterised by the reign of a single emperor (princeps) and an effort on the part of the early emperors, at least, to preserve the illusion of the formal continuance, in some aspects, of the Roman Republic. The title, in full, of princeps senatus / princeps civitatis ("first amongst the senators" / "first amongst the citizens") was first adopted by Octavian Caesar Augustus (27 BC–AD 14), the first Roman 'emperor' who chose, like the assassinated dictator Julius Caesar, not to reintroduce a legal monarchy. Augustus's purpose was probably to establish the political stability desperately needed after the exhausting civil wars by a de facto dictatorial regime within the constitutional framework of the Roman Republic as a more acceptable alternative to, for example, the early Roman Kingdom. Under the Antonine dynasty, it was the norm for the Emperor to appoint a successful and politically promising individual as his successor. In modern historical analysis, this is treated by many authors as an "ideal" situation: the individual who was most capable was promoted to the position of princeps.
Rise of Rome: to dominate the overt politics of Europe, North Africa and the Near East completely from the 1st century BC to the 4th century AD, is the subject of a great deal of analysis by historians, military strategists, political scientists, and increasingly also some economists.
Roman Empire (la. Imperium Rōmānum)
Languages of the Roman Empire: Latin and Greek were the official, but other languages were important regionally. Latin was the original language of the Romans and remained the language of imperial administration, legislation, and the military throughout the classical period. In the West it became the lingua franca and came to be used for even local administration of the cities including the law courts. After all freeborn inhabitants of the Empire were universally enfranchised in 212 AD, a great number of Roman citizens would have lacked Latin, though they were expected to acquire at least a token knowledge, and Latin remained a marker of "Romanness". Koine Greek had become a shared language around the eastern Mediterranean and diplomatic communications in the East even beyond the borders of the Empire. The international use of Greek was one condition that enabled the spread of Christianity, as indicated for example by the choice of Greek as the language of the New Testament in the Bible and its use for the ecumenical councils of the Christian Roman Empire rather than Latin. With the dissolution of the Empire in the West, Greek became the dominant language of the Roman Empire in the East, modernly referred to as the Byzantine Empire. Regional languages: Aramaic and Syriac, Coptic, Punic (Semitic language of the Carthaginians), Celtic, Germanic. Multilingualism: Trilingualism was perhaps not uncommon among educated people who came from regions where a language other than Latin or Greek was spoken. Ritual language. Legal language: Roman law was written in Latin, and the "letter of the law" was tied strictly to the words in which it was expressed. Linguistic legacy: Romance languages.
Law school of Beirut (law school of Berytus): center for the study of Roman law in classical antiquity located in Beirut (Latin: Berytus). It flourished under the patronage of the Roman emperors and functioned as the Roman Empire's preeminent center of jurisprudence until its destruction in AD 551. The law schools of the Roman Empire established organized repositories of imperial constitutions and institutionalized the study and practice of jurisprudence to relieve the busy imperial courts. The archiving of imperial constitutions facilitated the task of jurists in referring to legal precedents. The origins of the law school of Beirut are obscure, but probably it was under Augustus in the first century. The school attracted young, affluent Roman citizens, and its professors made major contributions to the Codex of Justinian. The school achieved such wide recognition throughout the Empire that Beirut was known as the "Mother of Laws". Beirut was one of the few schools allowed to continue teaching jurisprudence when Byzantine emperor Justinian I shut down other provincial law schools. Reputation and legacy: Peter Stein asserts that the texts of ancient Roman law have constituted "a kind of legal supermarket, in which lawyers of different periods have found what they needed at the time."
Julio-Claudian dynasty: first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, or the family to which they belonged; they ruled the Roman Empire from its formation, in the second half of the 1st century (44/31/27) BC, until AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide.
Julio-Claudian family tree: around the start of the Common Era, the family trees of the gens Julia and the gens Claudia became intertwined into the Julio-Claudian family tree as a result of marriages and adoptions.
Top: the division of Roman territory on the foundation of the Triumvirate (43 BC).
Bottom: the division of territory after the Battle of Philippi.
Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (April 27, ca. 85–81 BC, died 43 BC): Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of the leading instigators of Julius Caesar's assassination. Decimus Brutus is not to be confused with the more famous Brutus among the conspirators, Marcus Brutus. He served in Caesar's army during the Gallic-Pyrrhus wars and was given the command of the fleet in the war against the Veneti in 56 BC. In 44 BC, Decimus was made Praetor Peregrinus by personal appointment of Caesar and was destined to be the governor of Cisalpine Gaul in the following year. In 43 BC with the siege of Decimus Brutus at Mutina raised, Decimus Brutus cautiously thanked Octavian, now commander of the legions that had rescued him, from the other side of the river. Octavian coldly indicated he had come to oppose Antony, not aid Caesar's murderers. Decimus Brutus was given the command to wage war against Antony, but many of his soldiers deserted to Octavian.
Battle of Mutina (April 21, 43 BC): Marcus Antonius vs Octavianus to provide Decimus Brutus with aid.
Augustus (la: Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus; born: Gaius Octavius; 63.09.23 BC – 14.08.19 AD): the founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis ("First Citizen of the State"). The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.
Second Triumvirate: Gaius Octavius (Octavian, Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 43.11.26 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which is viewed as marking the end of the Roman Republic.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) (born c. 89 or 88 BC, died late 13 or early 12 BC): Roman patrician who was triumvir with Octavian (the future Augustus) and Mark Antony, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic. Lepidus had previously been a close ally of Julius Caesar.
Mark Antony (la: Marcus Antonius; January 14, 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC): Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire. Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar, and served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War.
Res Gestae Divi Augusti (The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. By its very nature the Res Gestae is propaganda for the principate that Augustus instituted. It tends to gloss over the events between the assassination of Augustus' adoptive father Julius Caesar and the victory at Actium when his foothold on power was finally undisputed. Augustus' enemies are never mentioned by name. Caesar's murderers Brutus and Cassius are called simply "those who killed my father". Mark Antony and Sextus Pompey, Augustus' opponents in the East, remain equally anonymous; the former is "he with whom I fought the war," while the latter is merely a "pirate." Often quoted is Augustus' official position on his government: "From that time (27 BC, the end of the civil war) I surpassed all others in influence, yet my official powers were no greater than those of my colleague in office."
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (23 October or November 64/63 BC – 12 BC): Roman statesman, general and architect. He was a close friend, son-in-law, and lieutenant to Augustus and was responsible for the construction of some of the most beautiful buildings in the history of Rome and for important military victories, most notably at the Battle of Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Agrippa assisted Augustus in making Rome a city of marble and renovating aqueducts to give all Romans, from every social class, access to the highest quality public services. He was responsible for the creation of many baths, porticoes and gardens. Agrippa was also father-in-law to the second Emperor Tiberius, maternal grandfather to Caligula, and maternal great-grandfather to the Emperor Nero.
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (c. September, 9 CE): alliance of Germanic tribes ambushed and decisively destroyed three Roman legions and their auxiliaries, led by Publius Quinctilius Varus. The alliance was led by Arminius, a Germanic officer of Varus's auxilia. Arminius had acquired Roman citizenship and had received a Roman military education, which enabled him to deceive the Roman commander methodically and anticipate the Roman army's tactical responses. Despite several successful campaigns and raids by the Romans in the years after the battle, they never again attempted to conquer the Germanic territories east of the Rhine river.
Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69): four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession; suicide of emperor Nero, in 68, was followed by a brief period of civil war, the first Roman civil war since Mark Antony's death in 30 BC. Successive rise and fall of Galba, Otho and Vitellius until the final accession of Vespasian, first ruler of the Flavian dynasty, in July 69.
Flavian dynasty: Roman Imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between AD 69 and AD 96, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69–79), and his two sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96). The Flavians rose to power during the civil war of 69.
Nerva–Antonine dynasty: dynasty of seven Roman Emperors who ruled over the Roman Empire from 96 AD to 192 AD. These Emperors are Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus.
Trajan's Column: Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars. The war against Dacia was one of conquest and expansion. Therefore, with the aim of the Dacian Campaigns being the incorporation and integration of Dacia into the Roman Empire as a Roman province, depictions of violent action towards foreign women and children is nonexistent. Wartime violence in general seems to have been downplayed. Some scholars suggest the lack of battle scenes and large number of building scenes is a propaganda constructed specifically for the urban population of Rome (the primary audience), addressing their fear and distrust of the army by depicting its warfare as one with little collateral damage. The emperor Trajan is depicted realistically in the Veristic style, and makes 59 appearances among his troops. The focus on Trajan as the heroic protagonist is central. The portrayal of the Roman army as kinder and gentler may also be because it aids in Trajan's image as a man with the virtues of "justice, clemency, moderation, and restraint".
Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79: one of the most catastrophic and infamous volcanic eruptions in European history. Historians have learned about the eruption from the eyewitness account of Pliny the Younger, a Roman administrator and poet. Several Roman settlements were obliterated and buried underneath massive pyroclastic surges and ashfall deposits, the most well known being Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Villa of the Papyri: private house in the ancient Roman city of Herculaneum (current commune of Ercolano, southern Italy). Situated north-west of the township, the residence sits halfway up the slope of the volcano Vesuvius without other buildings to obstruct the view. The villa suburbana was perhaps owned by Julius Caesar's father-in-law, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus. In AD 79, the eruption of Vesuvius covered all of Herculaneum with some 30 m of volcanic ash. Its remains were first excavated in the years between 1750 and 1765 by Karl Weber by means of underground tunnels. Its name derives from the discovery of its library, the only surviving library from antiquity that exists in its entirety.
Herculaneum papyri: more than 1,800 papyri found in Herculaneum in the 18th century, carbonized by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. Most of the work discovered are associated with the Epicurean philosopher and poet Philodemus of Gadara.
Constitutio Antoniniana (Edict of Caracalla): issued in 212 CE, by the Roman Emperor Caracalla declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given full Roman citizenship and that all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women. Analysis: In the words of Cassius Dio: "This was the reason why he made all the people in his empire Roman citizens; nominally he was honoring them, but his real purpose was to increase his revenues by this means, inasmuch as aliens did not have to pay most of these taxes." The edict may have made enlistment in the army less attractive to most, and perhaps the recruiting difficulties of the Roman army by the end of the 3rd century were related to this.
 
Map of the Roman Empire around the year of the consulship of Aurelianus and Bassus (271 AD), with the break away Gallic Empire in the West and the Palmyrene Empire in the East.
Crisis of the Third Century (AD 235–284): period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression. The Crisis began with the assassination of Emperor Alexander Severus at the hands of his own troops in 235, initiating a fifty-year period in which there were at least 26 claimants to the title of Emperor, mostly prominent Roman army generals, assuming imperial power over all or part of the Empire. By 268, the Empire had split into three competing states. Later, Aurelian (270–275) reunited the empire; the Crisis ended with the ascension and reforms of Diocletian in 284. Crisis resulted in such profound changes in the Empire's institutions, society, economic life and, eventually, religion, that it is increasingly seen by most historians as defining the transition between the historical periods of classical antiquity and late antiquity. {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Work#Epidemiology} Maximinus was the first of the barracks emperors – rulers who were elevated by the troops without having any political experience, a supporting faction, distinguished ancestors, or a legitimate claim to the imperial throne. As their rule rested on military might and generalship, they operated as warlords reliant on the army to maintain power. The situation didn't stabilize until Diocletian, himself a barracks emperor, took power in 284. Radical reforms of Diocletian, who broke the cycle of usurpation. He began by sharing his rule with a colleague, then formally established the Tetrarchy of four co-emperors in 293. Historians regard this as the end of the crisis period, which had lasted 58 years. However the trend of civil war would continue after the abdication of Diocletian in the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy (306-324) until the rise of Constantine the Great as sole Emperor. Causes: The problem of succession and civil war: the Roman Empire had no clear process for becoming emperor. Because the empire maintained the facade of a republic for much of the Principate, the ability to become emperor was never limited to one family. A combination of appeasement of the army, Senatorial consent, and general approval by the populace allowed the emperors of the Antonine dynasty to hold on to power. When Septimius Severus seized the imperial throne after battling various rival claimants, the truth of succession became obvious. Natural disasters: Antonine Plague; increased variability of weather. Drier summers meant less agricultural productivity and more extreme weather events led to agricultural instability. Foreign invasions. Economic impact: Breakdown of internal trade network: The widespread civil unrest made it no longer safe for merchants to travel as they once had, and the financial crisis that struck made exchange very difficult with the debased currency. Large landowners, no longer able to successfully export their crops over long distances, began producing food for subsistence and local barter. Rather than import manufactured goods from the empire's great urban areas, they began to manufacture many goods locally, often on their own estates, thus beginning the self-sufficient "house economy" that would become commonplace in later centuries, reaching its final form in the manorialism of the Middle Ages. The common, free people of the Roman cities, meanwhile, began to move out into the countryside in search of food and better protection. Made desperate by economic necessity, many of these former city dwellers, as well as many small farmers, were forced to give up hard-earned basic civil rights in order to receive protection from large land-holders. In doing so, they became a half-free class of Roman citizen known as coloni. They were tied to the land, and in later Imperial law, their status was made hereditary. This provided an early model for serfdom, the origins of medieval feudal society and of the medieval peasantry. Increased localism: Major cities and towns, including Rome itself, had not needed fortifications for many centuries, but now surrounded themselves with thick walls. The large cities of classical antiquity slowly gave way to the smaller, walled cities that became common in the Middle Ages. While imperial revenues fell, imperial expenses rose sharply. More soldiers, greater proportions of cavalry, and the ruinous expense of walling in cities all added to the toll. Goods and services previously paid for by the government were now demanded in addition to monetary taxes. The decline in commerce between the imperial provinces put them on a path toward increased self-sufficiency. Large landowners, who had become more self-sufficient, became less mindful of Rome’s central authority, particularly in the Western Empire, and were downright hostile toward its tax collectors. The measure of wealth at this time began to have less to do with wielding urban civil authority and more to do with controlling large agricultural estates in rural regions since this guaranteed access to the only economic resource of real value — agricultural land and the crops it produced. The common people of the empire lost economic and political status to the land-holding nobility, and the commercial middle classes waned along with their trade-derived livelihoods.
Dominate (late Roman Empire): the "despotic" later phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the "Principate", in the ancient Roman Empire. Traditionally been considered to begin with the commencement of the reign of Diocletian in AD 284, following the Third Century Crisis of AD 235–284, and to end in the west with the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476, while in the east its end is disputed, as either occurring at the close of the reign of Justinian I (AD 565) or of Heraclius (AD 641). In form, the Dominate is considered to have been more authoritarian, less collegiate and more bureaucratic than the Principate from which it emerged.
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 214 OR 215 .09.09 – 275.09 OR 10): Roman Emperor from 270 to 275. Born in humble circumstances, he rose through the military ranks to become emperor. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians, and Carpi. Aurelian restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire in 273. The following year he conquered the Gallic Empire in the west, reuniting the Empire in its entirety. He was also responsible for the construction of the Aurelian Walls in Rome, and the abandonment of the province of Dacia. His successes were instrumental in ending the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century, earning him the title Restitutor Orbis or 'Restorer of the World'. Although Domitian was the first emperor who had demanded to be officially hailed as dominus et deus (master and god), these titles never occurred in written form on official documents until the reign of Aurelian. Defending Italy Against the Iuthungi; Defeat of the Goths and abandonment of Dacia; Conquest of the Palmyrene Empire (Syrian queen Zenobia cut off Rome's shipments of grain, and in a matter of weeks, the Romans started running low on bread. <...> Eventually Zenobia and her son were captured and made to walk on the streets of Rome in his triumph, the woman in golden chains. With the grain stores once again shipped to Rome, Aurelian's soldiers handed out free bread to the citizens of the city, and the Emperor was hailed a hero by his subjects)
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun"): the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. On 25 December AD 274, the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until the last third-part of the reign of Constantine I. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to AD 387, and there were enough devotees in the fifth century that the Christian theologian Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. On the venerable day of the Sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed. In the country however persons engaged in agriculture may freely and lawfully continue their pursuits because it often happens that another day is not suitable for grain-sowing or vine planting; lest by neglecting the proper moment for such operations the bounty of heaven should be lost. Constantine's triumphal arch
 
Roman Roads in Britain around 150 AD.
Roman conquest of Britain: gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Latin: Britannia). Campaigns of Agricola (78–84).
Roman Britain (43 AD–c. 410): area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 and 54 BC as part of his Gallic Wars. The Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age and had been aiding Caesar's enemies. He received tribute, installed a friendly king over the Trinovantes, and returned to Gaul. Planned invasions under Augustus were called off in 34, 27, and 25 BC. In 40 AD, Caligula assembled 200,000 men at the Channel, only to have them gather seashells. Three years later, Claudius directed four legions to invade Britain. Under the 2nd century emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, two walls were built to defend the Roman province from the Caledonians, whose realms in the Scottish Highlands were never controlled. During the Diocletian Reforms, at the end of the 3rd century, Britannia was divided into four provinces under the direction of a vicarius, who administered the Diocese of the Britains. Following the conquest of the Britons, a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged as the Romans introduced improved agriculture, urban planning, industrial production, and architecture. The Roman goddess Britannia became the female personification of Britain. End of Roman rule: Urban life had generally grown less intense by the fourth quarter of the 4th century, and coins minted between 378 and 388 are very rare, indicating a likely combination of economic decline, diminishing numbers of troops, problems with the payment of soldiers and officials or with unstable conditions during the usurpation of Magnus Maximus 383–87. Coinage circulation increased during the 390s, although it never attained the levels of earlier decades. Copper coins are very rare after 402, although minted silver and gold coins from hoards indicate they were still present in the province even if they were not being spent. By 407 there were no new Roman coins going into circulation, and by 430 it is likely that coinage as a medium of exchange had been abandoned. Trade: Exports to Britain included: coin; pottery, particularly red-gloss terra sigillata (samian ware) from southern, central and eastern Gaul, as well as various other wares from Gaul and the Rhine provinces; olive oil from southern Spain in amphorae; wine from Gaul in amphorae and barrels; salted fish products from the western Mediterranean and Brittany in barrels and amphorae; preserved olives from southern Spain in amphorae; lava quern-stones from Mayen on the middle Rhine; glass; and some agricultural products; Britain's exports are harder to detect archaeologically, but will have included metals, such as silver and gold and some lead, iron and copper. Demographics: Roman Britain had an estimated population between 2.8 million and 3 million people at the end of 2nd c.; at the end of 4th c., it had an estimated population of 3.6 million people, of whom 125,000 consisted of the Roman army and their families and dependents
End of Roman rule in Britain: transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain. Roman rule ended in different parts of Britain at different times, and under different circumstances. In 383, the usurper Magnus Maximus withdrew troops from northern and western Britain, probably leaving local warlords in charge. Around 410, the Romano-British expelled the magistrates of the usurper Constantine III, ostensibly in response to his failures to use the Roman garrison he had stripped from Britain to protect the island. Roman Emperor Honorius replied to a request for assistance with the Rescript of Honorius, telling the Roman cities to see to their own defence, a tacit acceptance of temporary British self-government. Honorius was fighting a large-scale war in Italy against the Visigoths under their leader Alaric, with Rome itself under siege. No forces could be spared to protect distant Britain.
Sub-Roman Britain (in non-archaeological contexts: Post-Roman Britain): term derived from an archaeological label for the material culture of Great Britain in Late Antiquity, the transition period between the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century around AD 235 (and the subsequent collapse and end of Roman Britain), until the start of the Early Medieval period. This period has attracted a great deal of academic and popular debate, in part because of the scarcity of the written source material. Breakdown of Roman society: In 406 the army in Britain revolted, electing three successive "tyrants", the last of whom took further troops to Gaul. He established himself briefly as Constantine III but was defeated and subsequently executed in 411. Meanwhile, there were barbarian raids on Britain in 408, but these seem to have been defeated. After 410 Honorius apparently sent letters to the cities of Britain telling them to fend for themselves, though this is sometimes disputed.
Ancient Rome and Greece (Hellenism) after acceptance of Christianity (313/321/324-, Constantine)Edit
Codex Theodosianus: compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312; also concerned with the imposition of orthodoxy - the Arian controversy was ongoing - within the Christian religion and contains 65 decrees directed at heretics.
Edict of Thessalonica (Cunctos populos, issued 380.02.27): by three reigning Roman Emperors (Theodosius I, Gratian, and Valentinian II), made Nicene Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire. It condemned other Christian creeds such as Arianism as heresies of madmen, and authorized their persecution. The edict was issued under the influence of Ascholius, and thus of Pope Damasus I, who had appointed him. It re-affirmed a single expression of the Apostolic Faith as legitimate in the Roman Empire, "catholic" (that is, universal) and "orthodox" (that is, correct in teaching). After the edict, Theodosius spent a great deal of energy trying to suppress all non-Nicene forms of Christianity, especially Arianism, and in establishing Nicene orthodoxy throughout his realm.
State church of the Roman Empire: With the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 AD, Emperor Theodosius I made Nicene Christianity the Empire's state religion. The Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and the Catholic Church each claim to stand in continuity with the church to which Theodosius granted recognition, but do not look on it as specific to the Roman Empire. Early Christianity in relation to the state. Establishment and early controversies. Late antiquity: End of the Western Roman Empire. Patriarchates in the Eastern Roman Empire. Rise of Islam. Expansion of Christianity in Europe. East–West Schism (1054).
Great Church (Latin: ecclesia magna): term of the historiography of early Christianity describing its rapid growth and structural development 180–313 AD (around the time of the Ante-Nicene Period) and its claim to represent Christianity within the Roman Empire. The term is primarily associated with the Roman Catholic account of the history of Christian theology, but is also used by non-Catholic historians. The "epoch of the Great Church" is counted as beginning around the end of the second century when, despite the persecution of Christians, the religion became established numerically and organizationally, eventually becoming the state church of the Roman Empire in 380. However, the Church of East and Oriental Orthodoxy parted ways at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, both due to Christological differences. Modern theories on the formation of the Great Church: In contrast to "Jewish Christianity".
 
Map of the territory controlled by the Western Roman court in 395 AD with the names of major tribes of various cultural backgrounds marked out in blue.
Western Roman Empire (395–476/480; reorganization of the Italian peninsula and abolition of separate Western Roman administrative institutions under Emperor Justinian during the latter half of the 6th c.): western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court; in particular, this term is used to describe the period from 395 to 476, where there were separate coequal courts dividing the governance of the empire in the Western and the Eastern provinces, with a distinct imperial succession in the separate courts. The terms Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire are modern descriptions that describe political entities that were de facto independent; contemporary Romans did not consider the Empire to have been split into two separate empires but viewed it as a single polity governed by two separate imperial courts as an administrative expediency. In the 6th century, emperor Justinian I re-imposed direct Imperial rule on large parts of the former Western Roman Empire, including the prosperous regions of North Africa, the ancient Roman heartland of Italy and parts of Hispania. Political instability in the Eastern heartlands, combined with foreign invasions and religious differences, made efforts to retain control of these territories difficult and they were gradually lost for good. When Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as "Roman Emperor" in 800, he both severed ties with the outraged Eastern Empire and established the precedent that no man in Western Europe would be emperor without a papal coronation, this marked a new imperial line that would evolve into the Holy Roman Empire, which presented a revival of the Imperial title in Western Europe but was in no meaningful sense an extension of Roman traditions or institutions. History: Tetrarchy, Further divisions, Reign of Honorius, Escalating barbarian conflicts, Internal unrest and Majorian, Collapse, Fall of the Empire. Political aftermath: Germanic Italy (Odoacer → Ostrogoths), Imperial reconquest. Legacy: Many of the invading Germanic tribes were already Christianized, although most were followers of Arianism. They quickly changed their adherence to the state church of the Roman Empire. This helped cement the loyalty of the local Roman populations, as well as the support of the powerful Bishop of Rome. Roman law, particularly the Corpus Juris Civilis collected on the orders of Justinian I, is the basis of modern civil law. In contrast, common law is based on Germanic Anglo-Saxon law. Civil law is by far the most widespread system of law in the world, in force in some form in about 150 countries. Latin also influenced Germanic languages such as English and German. The Latin alphabet was expanded due to the split of I into I and J, and of V into U, V, and, in places (especially Germanic languages and Polish), W. A very visible legacy of the Western Roman Empire is the Catholic Church. Church institutions slowly began to replace Roman ones in the West, even helping to negotiate the safety of Rome during the late 5th century. The Pope has consistently held the title of "Pontifex Maximus" since before the fall of the Western Roman Empire and retains it to this day; this title formerly used by the high priest of the Roman polytheistic religion, one of whom was Julius Caesar. {q.v. #After Western Roman Empire(395/476-), before Holy Roman Empire (Treaty of Verdun in 843)}
Jerome (c. 347 – 30 September 420): a Latin Catholic priest, confessor, theologian, and historian, commonly known as Saint Jerome. He is best known for his translation of most of the Bible into Latin (the translation that became known as the Vulgate), and his commentaries on the Gospels. His list of writings is extensive. Jerome was known for his teachings on Christian moral life, especially to those living in cosmopolitan centers such as Rome. In many cases, he focused his attention on the lives of women and identified how a woman devoted to Jesus should live her life. This focus stemmed from his close patron relationships with several prominent female ascetics who were members of affluent senatorial families. As a student, Jerome engaged in the superficial escapades and sexual experimentation of students in Rome; he indulged himself quite casually but he suffered terrible bouts of guilt afterwards. To appease his conscience, on Sundays he visited the sepulchres of the martyrs and the Apostles in the catacombs. This experience reminded him of the terrors of hell.
  • Conversion to Christianity: After several years in Rome, he travelled with Bonosus to Gaul and settled in Trier where he seems to have first taken up theological studies, and where, for his friend Tyrannius Rufinus, he copied Hilary of Poitiers' commentary on the Psalms and the treatise De synodis. Next came a stay of at least several months, or possibly years, with Rufinus at Aquileia, where he made many Christian friends. During one of these illnesses (about the winter of 373–374), he had a vision that led him to lay aside his secular studies and devote himself to God. He seems to have abstained for a considerable time from the study of the classics and to have plunged deeply into that of the Bible. Seized with a desire for a life of ascetic penance, Jerome went for a time to the desert of Chalcis, to the southeast of Antioch, known as the "Syrian Thebaid", from the number of eremites inhabiting it. During this period, he seems to have found time for studying and writing. He made his first attempt to learn Hebrew under the guidance of a converted Jew; and he seems to have been in correspondence with Jewish Christians in Antioch. Around this time he had copied for him a Hebrew Gospel, of which fragments are preserved in his notes, and is known today as the Gospel of the Hebrews, and which the Nazarenes considered to be the true Gospel of Matthew. Returning to Antioch in 378 or 379, Jerome was ordained there by Bishop Paulinus, apparently unwillingly and on condition that he continue his ascetic life. Soon afterward, he went to Constantinople to pursue a study of Scripture under Gregory Nazianzen. He seems to have spent two years there, then left, and the next three (382–385) he was in Rome again, as secretary to Pope Damasus I and the leading Roman Christians. Invited originally for the synod of 382, held to end the schism of Antioch as there were rival claimants to be the proper patriarch in Antioch. Jerome had accompanied one of the claimants, Paulinus, back to Rome to get more support for him, and distinguishing himself to the pope, took a prominent place in his papal councils. Jerome was given duties in Rome, and he undertook a revision of the Latin Bible, to be based on the Greek manuscripts of the New Testament. He also updated the Psalter containing the Book of Psalms then in use in Rome, based on the Septuagint. Though he did not realize it yet, translating much of what became the Latin Vulgate Bible would take many years and be his most important achievement. In Rome Jerome was surrounded by a circle of well-born and well-educated women, including some from the noblest patrician families, such as the widows Lea, Marcella and Paula, with Paula's daughters Blaesilla and Eustochium. The resulting inclination of these women towards the monastic life, away from the indulgent lasciviousness in Rome, and his unsparing criticism of the secular clergy of Rome, brought a growing hostility against him among the Roman clergy and their supporters.
  • Reception by later Christianity: Jerome is the second most voluminous writer (after Augustine of Hippo) in ancient Latin Christianity. Jerome acquired a knowledge of Hebrew by studying with a Jew who converted to Christianity, and took the unusual position (for that time) that the Hebrew, and not the Septuagint, was the inspired text of the Old Testament.
Augustine of Hippo (354.11.13 – 430.08.28): Roman African, early Christian theologian and Neoplatonic philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of the Western Church and Western philosophy, and indirectly all of Western Christianity. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius in North Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers of the Latin Church for his writings in the Patristic Period. Among his most important works are The City of God, De doctrina Christiana, and Confessions.
  • Childhood and education: At the age of 17, through the generosity of his fellow citizen Romanianus, Augustine went to Carthage to continue his education in rhetoric, though it was above the financial means of his family. In spite of the good warnings of his mother, as a youth Augustine lived a hedonistic lifestyle for a time, associating with young men who boasted of their sexual exploits. At about the age of 17, Augustine began an affair with a young woman in Carthage. In 385, Augustine ended his relationship with his lover in order to prepare himself to marry a ten-year-old heiress. (He had to wait for two years because the legal age of marriage for women was twelve.) By the time he was able to marry her, however, he instead decided to become a celibate priest. By the time he realized that he needed to know Greek, it was too late; and although he acquired a smattering of the language, he was never eloquent with it. However, his mastery of Latin was another matter. He became an expert both in the eloquent use of the language and in the use of clever arguments to make his points.
  • Move to Carthage, Rome, Milan: Manichaean friends introduced him to the prefect of the City of Rome, Symmachus, who while traveling through Carthage had been asked by the imperial court at Milan to provide a rhetoric professor. Augustine won the job and headed north to take his position in Milan in late 384. Thirty years old, he had won the most visible academic position in the Latin world at a time when such posts gave ready access to political careers. In Rome, he reportedly turned away from Manichaeanism, embracing the scepticism of the New Academy movement. Because of his education, Augustine had great rhetorical prowess and was very knowledgeable of the philosophies behind many faiths. At Milan, his mother's religiosity, Augustine's own studies in Neoplatonism, and his friend Simplicianus all urged him towards Christianity. Initially Augustine was not strongly influenced by Christianity and its ideologies, but after coming in contact with Ambrose of Milan, Augustine reevaluated himself and was forever changed. Augustine arrived in Milan and visited Ambrose in order to see if Ambrose was one of the greatest speakers and rhetoricians in the world. More interested in his speaking skills than the topic of speech, Augustine quickly discovered that Ambrose was a spectacular orator. Like Augustine, Ambrose was a master of rhetoric, but older and more experienced. Soon, their relationship grew, as Augustine wrote, "And I began to love him, of course, not at the first as a teacher of the truth, for I had entirely despaired of finding that in thy Church—but as a friendly man." Eventually, Augustine says that he was spiritually led into the faith of Christianity. Augustine was very much influenced by Ambrose, even more than by his own mother and others he admired. Within his Confessions, Augustine states, "That man of God received me as a father would, and welcomed my coming as a good bishop should." Ambrose adopted Augustine as a spiritual son after the death of Augustine's father. Augustine's mother had followed him to Milan and arranged an honest marriage for him. Although Augustine accepted this marriage, for which he had to abandon his concubine, he was deeply hurt by the loss of his lover. Augustine confessed that he was not a lover of wedlock so much as a slave of lust, so he procured another concubine since he had to wait two years until his fiancée came of age. However, his emotional wound was not healed, even began to fester. It was during this period that he uttered his famous prayer, "Grant me chastity and continence, but not yet."
  • Christian conversion and priesthood: In late August of 386, at the age of 31, after having heard and been inspired and moved by the story of Ponticianus's and his friends' first reading of the life of Saint Anthony of the Desert, Augustine converted to Christianity. As Augustine later told it, his conversion was prompted by a childlike voice he heard telling him to "take up and read" (Latin: tolle, lege), which he took as a divine command to open the Bible and read the first thing he saw. Augustine read from Paul's Epistle to the Romans – the "Transformation of Believers" section, consisting of chapters 12 to 15 – wherein Paul outlines how the Gospel transforms believers, and describes the believers' resulting behaviour. Although it is written as an account of his life, the Confessions also talks about the nature of time, causality, free will, and other important philosophical topics. Augustine's mother Monica died at Ostia, Italy, as they prepared to embark for Africa. Upon their arrival, they began a life of aristocratic leisure at Augustine's family's property. Soon after, Adeodatus, too, died. Augustine then sold his patrimony and gave the money to the poor. The only thing he kept was the family house, which he converted into a monastic foundation for himself and a group of friends. His work The City of God was written to console his fellow Christians shortly after the Visigoths had sacked Rome in 410. Augustine worked tirelessly in trying to convince the people of Hippo to convert to Christianity. Though he had left his monastery, he continued to lead a monastic life in the episcopal residence. Possidius also described Augustine's personal traits in detail, drawing a portrait of a man who ate sparingly, worked tirelessly, despised gossip, shunned the temptations of the flesh, and exercised prudence in the financial stewardship of his see.
  • Death and veneration: According to Possidius, Augustine spent his final days in prayer and repentance, requesting that the penitential Psalms of David be hung on his walls so that he could read them. He directed that the library of the church in Hippo and all the books therein should be carefully preserved. He died on 430.08.28. Shortly after his death, the Vandals lifted the siege of Hippo, but they returned not long thereafter and burned the city. They destroyed all of it but Augustine's cathedral and library, which they left untouched.
  • Views and thought: It sufficed for him to admit that they are metaphysically distinct: to be a human is to be a composite of soul and body, and the soul is superior to the body. The latter statement is grounded in his hierarchical classification of things into those that merely exist, those that exist and live, and those that exist, live, and have intelligence or reason. Like other Church Fathers such as Athenagoras, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria and Basil of Caesarea, Augustine "vigorously condemned the practice of induced abortion", and although he disapproved of an abortion during any stage of pregnancy, he made a distinction between early abortions and later ones. Augustine held that "the timing of the infusion of the soul was a mystery known to God alone". However, he considered procreation as one of the goods of marriage; abortion figured as a means, along with drugs which cause sterility, of frustrating this good. It lay along a continuum which included infanticide as an instance of ‘lustful cruelty’ or ‘cruel lust.’ Augustine called the use of means to avoid the birth of a child an ‘evil work:’ a reference to either abortion or contraception or both." Augustine's ecclesiology was more fully developed in City of God. There he conceives of the church as a heavenly city or kingdom, ruled by love, which will ultimately triumph over all earthly empires which are self-indulgent and ruled by pride.
  • Mariology: Although Augustine did not develop an independent Mariology, his statements on Mary surpass in number and depth those of other early writers. Even before the Council of Ephesus, he defended the Ever-Virgin Mary as the Mother of God, believing her to be "full of grace" (following earlier Latin writers such as Jerome) on account of her sexual integrity and innocence. Likewise, he affirmed that the Virgin Mary "conceived as virgin, gave birth as virgin and stayed virgin forever".
  • Natural knowledge and biblical interpretation: Augustine took the view that, if a literal interpretation contradicts science and our God-given reason, the Biblical text should be interpreted metaphorically.
  • Just war: Augustine asserted that Christians should be pacifists as a personal, philosophical stance. However, peacefulness in the face of a grave wrong that could only be stopped by violence would be a sin. Defence of one's self or others could be a necessity, especially when authorized by a legitimate authority. In essence, the pursuit of peace must include the option of fighting for its long-term preservation. Such a war could not be pre-emptive, but defensive, to restore peace.
  • Free will: A will defiled by sin is not considered as "free" as it once was because it is bound by material things, which could be lost or be difficult to part with, resulting in unhappiness. Sin impairs free will, while grace restores it. Christians championed the concept of a relational God who interacts with humans rather than a Stoic or Gnostic God who unilaterally foreordained every event (yet Stoics still claimed to teach free will).
  • Sociology, morals and ethics: Slavery: Augustine led many clergy under his authority at Hippo to free their slaves "as an act of piety". He boldly wrote a letter urging the emperor to set up a new law against slave traders and was very much concerned about the sale of children.
  • Jews: Against certain Christian movements, some of which rejected the use of Hebrew Scripture, Augustine countered that God had chosen the Jews as a special people, and he considered the scattering of Jewish people by the Roman Empire to be a fulfillment of prophecy.
  • Sexuality: For Augustine, the evil of sexual immorality was not in the sexual act itself, but rather in the emotions that typically accompany it. In On Christian Doctrine Augustine contrasts love, which is enjoyment on account of God, and lust, which is not on account of God.
  • Pedagogy: Augustine was a strong advocate of critical thinking skills. Because written works were still rather limited during this time, spoken communication of knowledge was very important. His emphasis on the importance of community as a means of learning distinguishes his pedagogy from some others.
Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism: Religion in the Greco-Roman world at the time of the Constantinian shift mostly comprised three main currents: traditional religions of ancient Greece and Rome; official Roman imperial cult; various mystery religions, such as the Dionysian and Eleusinian Mysteries and the mystery cults of Cybele, Mithras, and the syncretized Isis. Early Christianity grew gradually in Rome and the Roman Empire from the 1st to 4th centuries. In 313 it was legally tolerated and in 380 it became the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica. Nevertheless, Hellenistic polytheistic traditions survived in pockets of Greece throughout Late Antiquity until they gradually diminished after the triumph of Christianity.
  • Before the Edict of Milan:
    • The rise of esoteric philosophy
    • Eastern sun-worship: Elagabalus used his authority to install El-Gabal as the chief deity of the Roman pantheon, merging the god with the Roman sun gods to form Deus Sol Invictus, meaning God - the Undefeated Sun, and making him superior to Jupiter, and assigning either Astarte, Minerva, Urania, or some combination of the three, as El-Gabal's wife. Nearly half a century after Elagabalus, Aurelian came to power. He was a reformer, strengthening the position of the sun-god as the main divinity of the Roman pantheon; he even built a brand new temple, in Rome, dedicated to the deity. It's also thought likely that he may have been responsible for establishing the festival of the day of the birth of the unconquered sun (Dies Natalis Solis Invicti), which was celebrated on December 25
    • Judaism and Christianity (Split of early Christianity and Judaism): Imperial tolerance only extended to religions that did not resist Roman authority and would respect Roman gods. Religions that were hostile to the state or any that claimed exclusive rights to religious beliefs and practice were not included and some exclusive Eastern cults were persecuted. Jews were given special privileges owing to their dominance in economy, numbers and dispersal, but this tolerance was balanced unevenly on a thin veneer of Jewish submission. Tolerance of Judaism turned to persecution when collaboration was perceived as ending, see Anti-Judaism in the pre-Christian Roman Empire.
  • Toleration and Constantine. Beginning of persecution of paganism. Restoration and tolerance from Julian till Valens (361–375). Renewal of persecution under Gratian. Under Theodosius I. Polytheism revival. Final decline.
Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire: began late during the reign of Constantine the Great, when he ordered the pillaging and the tearing down of some temples. The first anti-pagan laws by the Christian state started with Constantine's son Constantius II, who was an opponent of paganism; he ordered the closing of all pagan temples, forbade pagan sacrifices under pain of death, and removed the traditional Altar of Victory from the Senate. Under his reign ordinary Christians began to vandalise pagan temples, tombs and monuments. This persecution had proceeded after a period of persecution of Christians in the Empire. From 361 until 375, paganism was relatively tolerated. Three Emperors—Gratian, Valentinian II and Theodosius I—came under the influence of the Bishop of Milan, Ambrose. At his suggestion, state anti-paganism policies were reinstituted. As a penitent under the care of Ambrose, Theodosius was influenced to issue the "Theodocian Decrees" of 391. During the course of his life, Constantine progressively became more Christian and turned away from any syncretic tendencies he appeared to favour at times, thereby demonstrating, according to his biographers, that "The God of the Christians was indeed a jealous God who tolerated no other gods beside him. The Church could never acknowledge that she stood on the same plane with other religious bodies, she conquered for herself one domain after another".
  • Religious policies of Constantine I:
    • Ban on new temples, toleration of sacrifices: As for worshipping the emperor, Constantine's mausoleum gave him a Christ-like status: his tomb was set amid 12 monuments, each containing relics of one of the Apostles. Constantine had continued to engage in pagan rituals. The emperor still claimed to be a supernatural being, although the outward form of this personality cult had become Christian. Church restrictions opposing the pillaging of pagan temples by Christians were in place even while the Christians were being persecuted by the pagans. Spanish bishops in AD 305 decreed that anyone who broke idols and was killed while doing so was not formally to be counted as a martyr, as the provocation was too blatant. Constantine became the first Emperor in the Christian era to persecute specific groups of Christians, the Donatists, in order to enforce religious unity.
    • Legislation against magic and private divination
    • Looting and destruction of temples: He destroyed the Temple of Aphrodite in the Lebanon. He ordered the execution of eunuch priests in Egypt because they transgressed his moral norms.
  • Anti-paganism policy of Constantius II:
    • Initial measures
    • Relative moderation: The relative moderation of Constantius' actions toward paganism is reflected by the fact that it was not until over 20 years after Constantius' death, during the reign of Gratian, that any pagan senators protested their religion's treatment.
    • Pagan resistance: No matter what the imperial edicts declared in their fearful threats, the vast numbers of pagans, and the passive resistance of pagan governors and magistrates rendered them largely impotent in their application.
    • Magnentius rebellion
    • Removal of the Altar of Victory
  • Restoration and tolerance from Julian until Valentinian I/Valens (361–378): Julian, who had been a co-emperor since 355, ruled solely for 18 months from 361 to 363. He was a nephew of Constantine and received a Christian training. After childhood, Julian was educated by Hellenists and became attracted to the teachings of neoplatonists and the old religions. However, he witnessed the assassination of his father, brother and other family members by the guards of the imperial palace; rightly or wrongly, he blamed this brutal act on the Christian Emperor Constantius. His antipathy to Christianity was deepened when Constantius executed Julian's only remaining brother in 354. Julian's religious beliefs were syncretic and he was initiated into at least three mystery religions. But his religious open-mindedness did not extend to Christianity since it was fundamentally incompatible with syncretic paganism. Upon becoming emperor, Julian attempted to restore the old Roman religion. Julian allowed religious freedom and avoided any form of actual compulsion. However, no Christian was allowed to teach or to study the ancient classical authors; "Let them keep to Matthew and Luke". This effectively debarred them from a professional career. The Jewish historian and theologian Jacob Neusner writes: "It was only after the near catastrophe of Julian's reversion to paganism that the Christian emperors systematically legislated against paganism so as to destroy it."
  • Religious toleration under Jovian, Valentinian and Valens: After the death of Julian, Jovian seems to have instituted a policy of religious toleration which avoided the extremes of Constantius and Julian. Under Valentinian and Valens, religious toleration continued. Pagan writers praise both of these emperors for their liberal religious policies. Valentinian also confirmed the rights and privileges of the pagan priests and confirmed the right of pagans to be the exclusive caretakers of their temples. Valens, who ruled the east, was an Arian and was too engaged with fighting against the Orthodox Christians to bother much with pagans.
  • Anti-paganism policy of the emperors Gratian, Valentinian II and Theodosius I: The anti-paganism policies pursued by the emperors Gratian, Valentinian II and Theodosius I may have been influenced by Saint Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan. Under pressure from Ambrose, Theodosius issued the Theodosian Decrees of 391. The Altar of Victory was removed by Gratian.
  • Theodosius (381–395): In 392 he became emperor of the whole empire. From this moment till the end of his reign in 395, while pagans remained outspoken in their demands for toleration, he authorized or participated in the killing of pagan priests, destruction of many temples, holy sites, images and objects of reverence throughout the empire and participated in actions by Christians against major Pagan sites. His later decrees were seen as effectively a declaration of war on traditional religious practices and for anyone caught, was a death sentence, as well as an automatic confiscation of property, even for private familial rites within the home.
  • After the fall of the Western Empire: The subjugation of the Roman Empire to Christianity became complete when the emperor Anastasius I, who came to the throne in 491, was required to sign a written declaration of orthodoxy before his coronation. Under Pope Gregory I, the caverns, grottoes, crags and glens that had once been used for the worship of the pagan gods were now appropriated by Christianity: "Let altars be built and relics be placed there" wrote Pope Gregory I, "so that [the pagans] have to change from the worship of the daemones to that of the true God."
Christian persecution of paganism under Theodosius I: Between 389 and 391 Theodosius I issued the "Theodosian decrees," which established a practical ban on paganism; visits to the temples were forbidden, remaining pagan holidays abolished, the sacred fire in the Temple of Vesta in the Roman Forum extinguished, the Vestal Virgins disbanded, auspices and witchcraft punished. Theodosius refused to restore the Altar of Victory in the Senate House, as requested by pagan Senators. In 392 Theodosius I became emperor of the whole empire (the last one to be so). From this moment until the end of his reign in 395, while pagans remained outspoken in their demands for toleration, he authorized or participated in the destruction of many temples, holy sites, images and objects of piety throughout the empire in actions by Christians against major pagan sites. He issued a comprehensive law that prohibited any public pagan ritual, and was particularly oppressive of Manicheans. He is likely to have suppressed the Ancient Olympic Games, whose last record of celebration is from 393. Under Pope Gregory I, the caverns, grottoes, crags and glens that had once been used for the worship of the pagan gods were now appropriated by Christianity: "Let altars be built and relics be placed there" wrote Pope Gregory I, "so that [the pagans] have to change from the worship of the daemones to that of the true God."
Jadah, Judea (Israel)Edit
Hasmonean dynasty (140 BC–37 BC): ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during Classical antiquity. Between c. 140 BC and c. 116 BC, the dynasty ruled semi-autonomously from the Seleucids in the region of Judea. From 110 BC, with the Seleucid empire disintegrating, the dynasty became fully independent, expanded into the neighbouring regions of Samaria, Galilee, Iturea, Perea, and Idumea, and took the title "basileus". Some modern scholars refer to this period as an independent kingdom of Israel. In 63 BC, the kingdom was conquered by the Roman Republic, broken up and set up as a Roman client state. The Kingdom had survived for 103 years before yielding to the Herodian Dynasty in 37 BC.
Mariamne I (Mariamne the Hasmonean; died 29 BCE): second wife of Herod the Great. She was known for her great beauty, as was her brother Aristobulus. Ultimately this was the main reason for the downfall of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea.
Herodian kingdom (37 BCE–4 BCE): client state of the Roman Republic from 37 BCE, when Herod the Great was appointed "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate. When Herod died in 4 BCE, the kingdom was divided among his sons into the Herodian Tetrarchy.
Herod the Great (73/74 BCE - 4 BCE; Herod the Great or Herod I): Roman client king of Judea; known for his colossal building projects throughout Judea, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (Herod's Temple), the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima, the fortress at Masada and Herodium.
Herodian dynasty: Judean dynasty of Idumaean/Edomite descent. The Herodian dynasty began with Herod the Great, who assumed the throne of Judea, with Roman support, bringing down the century long Hasmonean Kingdom. His kingdom lasted until his death in 4 BCE, when it was divided between his sons as a Tetrarchy, which lasted for about 10 years. Most of those kingdoms, including Judea proper, were incorporated into Judaea Province in 6 CE, though limited Herodian kingship continued in Northern Levant until 92, when the last Herodian monarch, Agrippa II, died and Rome assumed full power over his domain.
Herodias
Salome (c. AD 14 – between 62 and 71): was the daughter of Herod II and Herodias. According to Flavius Josephus's Jewish Antiquities, Salome was first married to Philip the Tetrarch of Ituraea and Trakonitis. After Philip's death in 34 AD she married Aristobulus of Chalcis and became queen of Chalcis and Armenia Minor. They had three children. Three coins with portraits of Aristobulus and Salome have been found. Her name in Hebrew is שלומית (Shlomiẗ, pronounced [ʃlomiθ]) and is derived from the root word שָׁלוֹם (shalom), meaning "peace". Salome is often identified with the dancing woman from the New Testament (Mark 6:17-29 and Matthew 14:3-11, where, however, her name is not given). Other elements of Christian tradition concentrate on her lighthearted and cold foolishness that, according to the gospels, led to John the Baptist's death. (Mark 6:25-27; Matthew 14:8-11)
Herodian Tetrarchy (4 BCE–6 CE): formed following the death of Herod the Great in 4 BCE, when his kingdom was divided between his sons as an inheritance. Judea, the major section of the tetrarchy, was transformed by Rome in 6 CE, abolishing the rule of Herod Archelaus, and forming the Province of Judea by joining together Judea proper (biblical Judah), Samaria and Idumea (biblical Edom). However, other parts of the Herodian Tetrarchy continued to function under Herodians. Thus, Philip the Tetrarch ruled Batanea, with Trachonitis, as well as Auranitis until 34 CE (his domain later being incorporated into the Province of Syria), while Herod Antipas ruled Galilee and Perea until 34 CE.
Herod Antipas (born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch ("ruler of a quarter"). He is best known today for accounts in the New Testament of his role in events that led to the executions of John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth.
Sicarii (la: Sicarius: "dagger-man"): term applied, in the decades immediately preceding the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, to an extremist splinter group of the Jewish Zealots, who attempted to expel the Romans and their partisans from the Roman province of Judea. The Sicarii carried sicae, or small daggers, concealed in their cloaks, hence their name. At public gatherings, they pulled out these daggers to attack Romans or Roman sympathizers, blending into the crowd after the deed to escape detection. They were one of the earliest forms of an organized assassination unit or cloak and daggers, predating the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries.
Maccabean Revolt (167–160 BC): conflict between a Judean rebel group known as the Maccabees and the Seleucid Empire. In the narrative of I Maccabees, after Antiochus issued his decrees forbidding Jewish religious practice, a rural Jewish priest from Modiin, Mattathias the Hasmonean, sparked the revolt against the Seleucid Empire by refusing to worship the Greek gods. Mattathias killed a Hellenistic Jew who stepped forward to offer a sacrifice to an idol in Mattathias' place. He and his five sons fled to the wilderness of Judah. After Mattathias' death about one year later in 166 BC, his son Judah Maccabee led an army of Jewish dissidents to victory over the Seleucid dynasty in guerrilla warfare, which at first was directed against Hellenized Jews, of whom there were many.
Hellenistic Judaism: form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture. Until the fall of the Roman Empire and the Muslim conquests of the Eastern Mediterranean, the main centers of Hellenistic Judaism were Alexandria (Egypt) and Antioch (Northern Syria—now Turkey), the two main Greek urban settlements of the Middle East and North Africa area, both founded at the end of the 4th century BCE in the wake of the conquests of Alexander the Great. The major literary product of the contact of Second Temple Judaism and Hellenistic culture is the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible from Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Aramaic to Koiné Greek, specifically, Jewish Koiné Greek. Decline of Hellenistic Judaism started in the 2nd century CE, and its causes are still not fully understood.

Ancient Semitic civilizationsEdit

{q.v. #Jadah, Judea (Israel)}

PhoeniciaEdit
Phoenicia (1200 BC–539 BC): ancient Semitic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon and Latakia Governorate and Tartus Governorate in Syria. All major Phoenician cities were on the coastline of the Mediterranean, some colonies reaching the Western Mediterranean. Famous as 'traders in purple' and for spread of their alphabets (or abjad), from which almost all modern phonetic alphabets are derived. It is uncertain to what extent the Phoenicians viewed themselves as a single ethnicity and nationality. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to ancient Greece. As Canaanites, they were unique in their remarkable seafaring achievements.
Ancient CarthageEdit
Ancient Carthage (814 BC–146 BC)
History of Carthage: Due to the subjugation of the civilization by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War, very few Carthaginian historical primary sources survive. There are a few ancient translations of Punic texts into Greek and Latin, as well as inscriptions on monuments and buildings discovered in North Africa. However, the majority of available primary source material about Carthaginian civilization was written by Greek and Roman historians, such as Livy, Polybius, Appian, Cornelius Nepos, Silius Italicus, Plutarch, Dio Cassius, and Herodotus.
Greek–Punic Wars (600–265 BC): series of conflicts fought between the Carthaginians and the Greek city-states, led by Syracusans, over control of Sicily and the western Mediterranean; longest lasting wars of classical antiquity. No Carthaginian records of the war exist today, because when the city was destroyed in 146 BC by the Romans, the books from Carthage's library were distributed among the nearby African tribes, and none remain on the topic of Carthaginian history. As a result most of what we know about the Sicilian Wars comes from Greek historians.

Ancient IndiaEdit

Ancient China (till ~ 256 BC)Edit

  • Neolithic (~8500 BC - ~2100 BC)
  • Xia dynasty (~2100 BC - ~1600 BC)
  • Shang dynasty (~1600 BC - ~1046 BC)
  • Zhou dynasty (~1045 BC - 256 BC) → Western / Eastern Zhou [Spring and Autumn; Warring States]
Warring States period: period in ancient China following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the victory of the state of Qin in 221 BC, creating a unified China under the Qin dynasty. The time when Sun-Zu's "Art of War" comes about; huge strife; many wars.
Zhan Guo Ce (戰國策; "Strategies of the Warring States"; compiled 3rd - 1st c. BC): renowned ancient Chinese historical work and compilation of sporadic materials on the Warring States period. Accounts the strategies and political views of the School of Diplomacy and reveals the historical and social characteristics of the period.
Yinqueshan Han Slips (time of burial for both tombs had been dated to about 140 BC/134 BC and 118 BC, the texts having been written on the bamboo slips before then): ancient Chinese writing tablets from the Western Han Dynasty, made of bamboo strips and discovered in 1972. Tablets contain many writings that were not previously known or shed new light on the ancient versions of classic texts.
Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project: was a multi-disciplinary project commissioned by PRC in 1996 to determine with accuracy the location and time frame of the Xia Dynasty, the Shang Dynasty and the Zhou Dynasty.

Ancient Persia and Iran (until Muslim conquest)Edit

Category:Ancient Persia

{q.v. #Hellenism}

Parthian Empire (Arsacid Empire; 247 BC – 224 AD): major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran. At its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran. The empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han Empire of China, became a center of trade and commerce.
Sasanian Empire (Sassanid; 224–651): The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognized as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighboring arch rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years. 2 golden eras of Persian culture in pre-Islamic times: 309-379, 498-622. Between Roman (later East Roman (aka Byzantian)) {Greek, Latin}, Indian and later Arabic pressures, cultures, wars, politics.

Ancient CaucasusEdit

 
Colchis and Iberia.
Colchis (c. 13th c. BC–164 BC): Colchians were the population native to Colchis. They are assumed to have been early Kartvelian-speaking tribes, ancestral to the contemporary groups of Svans, Mingrelians and Lazs.
Kingdom of Iberia (ca. 302 BC–580 AD): Its population, known as the Caucasian Iberians, formed the nucleus of the Georgian people (Kartvelians), and the state, together with Colchis to its west, would form the nucleus of the medieval Kingdom of Georgia.
Caucasian Albania (2nd c. BC – AD 8th c.): name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.

Foreign relationsEdit

Category:Foreign relations of ancient Rome
Category:History of the foreign relations of China
Club of great powers (1500-1100 BC): term used by historians to refer to a collection of empires in the ancient Near East and Egypt between 1500-1100 BC, or the Late Bronze Age. These powers were Assyria, Babylon, Egyptian Empire (New Kingdom of Egypt), Hittite Empire, and Mitanni, viz. the major powers in Mesopotamia, the Levant and Anatolia. States interacted through letters, written in Akkadian, the international language of diplomacy, and through oral messages. Marriages were a sure way to strengthen diplomatic ties and peace. One exception to this system was Egypt, which never gave royal women, but happily accepted the royal women of other states. Another commonly traded item was gifts. Each state had a specialty in what they could produce in their region. Egypt mined gold, Lebanon logged cedars, murex shells valued for their dye came from Northern Africa, Canaan specialized in jewelry, and Cyprus had its glass, beads of gold, faience, and agate.
Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty (c.1259 BC): only ancient Near Eastern treaty for which both sides' versions have survived. Both sides of the treaty have been the subject of intensive scholarly study. The treaty itself did not bring about a peace; in fact "an atmosphere of enmity between Hatti and Egypt lasted many years," until the eventual treaty of alliance was signed. Translation of the texts revealed that this engraving was originally translated from silver tablets given to each side, which have since been lost to contemporary historians. The Egyptian version of the peace treaty was engraved in hieroglyphics on the walls of two temples belonging to Pharaoh Ramses II in Thebes: the Ramesseum and the Precinct of Amun-Re at the Temple of Karnak. The scribes who engraved the Egyptian version of the treaty included descriptions of the figures and seals that were on the tablet that the Hittites delivered.
Sino-Roman relations: were essentially indirect throughout the existence of both empires. Powerful intermediate empires such as the Parthians and Kushans kept the two Eurasian flanking powers permanently apart and mutual awareness remained low and knowledge fuzzy.
Daqin (大秦/Dàqín): ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empire or, depending on context, the Near East, especially Syria.

Postclassical Era (Medieval) {between 200-600 and c. 1500}Edit

From first empires to the nation-states: The forming up of Western Europe from the lands and neighborhoods of Roman Empire:

Francia > Carolingian Empire > FR, Holy Roman Empire (DE, de), (Rome) > FR, , > FR, DE, Italy > FR, East and West DE, Italy
Postclassical Era
Byzantine–Sasanian wars
Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628: final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran. The previous war between the two powers had ended in 591 after Emperor Maurice helped the Sasanian king Khosrow II regain his throne. In 602 Maurice was murdered by his political rival Phocas. Khosrow proceeded to declare war, ostensibly to avenge the death of Maurice. This became a decades-long conflict, the longest war in the series, and was fought throughout the Middle East: in Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Armenia, the Aegean Sea and even before the walls of Constantinople itself. While the Persians proved largely successful during the first stage of the war from 602 to 622, conquering much of the Levant, Egypt, several islands in the Aegean Sea and parts of Anatolia, the ascendancy of emperor Heraclius in 610 led, despite initial setbacks, to a Status quo ante bellum. Heraclius' campaigns in Iranian lands from 622 to 626 forced the Persians onto the defensive, allowing his forces to regain momentum. Allied with the Avars and Slavs, the Persians made a final attempt to take Constantinople in 626, but were defeated there. In 627 Heraclius invaded the heartland of the Persians and forced them to sue for peace.
 
Plan of a fictional mediaeval manor.
Manorialism: essential element of feudal society, was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the villa system of the Late Roman Empire, was widely practiced in medieval western and parts of central Europe, and was slowly replaced by the advent of a money-based market economy and new forms of agrarian contract. Vesting of legal and economic power in a Lord of the Manor, supported economically from his own direct landholding in a manor (sometimes called a fief), and from the obligatory contributions of a legally subject part of the peasant population under the jurisdiction of himself and his manorial court. In examining the origins of the monastic cloister, Walter Horn found that "as a manorial entity the Carolingian monastery ... differed little from the fabric of a feudal estate, save that the corporate community of men for whose sustenance this organization was maintained consisted of monks who served God in chant and spent much of their time in reading and writing." Manorialism died slowly and piecemeal, along with its most vivid feature in the landscape, the open field system. It outlasted serfdom as it outlasted feudalism: "primarily an economic organization, it could maintain a warrior, but it could equally well maintain a capitalist landlord. It could be self-sufficient, yield produce for the market, or it could yield a money rent." Antecedents of the system can be traced to the rural economy of the later Roman Empire (Dominate); labor was the key factor of production; sons were to succeed their fathers in their trade, councilors were forbidden to resign, and coloni, the cultivators of land, were not to move from the land they were attached to → serfs. The word derives from traditional inherited divisions of the countryside, reassigned as local jurisdictions known as manors or seigneuries; each manor being subject to a lord (French seigneur), usually holding his position in return for undertakings offered to a higher lord; the lord held a manorial court, governed by public law and local custom; not all territorial seigneurs were secular, bishops and abbots also held lands that entailed similar obligations. Manors each consisted of up to three classes of land: demesne (part directly controlled by the lord and used for the benefit of his household and dependents), dependent (serf or villein; holdings carrying the obligation that the peasant household supply the lord with specified labour services or a part of its output), free peasant land (without such obligation but otherwise subject to manorial jurisdiction and custom, and owing money rent fixed at the time of the lease).
Seigneurial system of New France: semi-feudal system of land tenure used in the North American French colonial empire.
Byzantine–Venetian war of 1171 (1171-1172): as a result of the Byzantine imprisonment of Venetian merchants and citizens across the Empire. 10,000 Venetians were imprisoned in the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, alone. Despite Doge Michiel's apparent will to pursue a peaceful solution, outrage in Venice itself swung popular opinion in the favour of full scale war against Byzantium. Doge Michiel had no choice but to set out for war, which he did in mid-late 1171. After indecisive battles in Euboea, Michiel was forced to withdraw his fleet to Chios. After a number of months on Chios, whilst waiting for a Venetian embassy to be received in Constantinople, plague began to set in. However, the emperor of Byzantium, Manuel I Komnenos, was well aware of the plague, and continued to stall negotiations. The Venetians attempted to move from island to island to avoid the plague. Doge Michiel's efforts, however, were fruitless, and in May 1172, he returned to Venice with what was left of the fleet. The Venetians were decisively defeated.
Mongol invasions of the Levant
Battle of Ain Jalut (1260.09.03): between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth, not far from the site of Zir'in. The battle marked the south-westernmost extent of Mongol conquests, and was the first time a Mongol advance had been permanently halted.
Battle of Marj al-Saffar (1303) (1303.04.20-22): between the Mamluks and the Mongols and their Armenian allies near Kiswe, Syria, just south of Damascus. The battle, a disastrous defeat for the Mongols, put an end to Ghazan Khan's invasions of Syria.
Franco-Mongol alliance: Several attempts at a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Islamic caliphates, their common enemy, were made by various leaders among the Frankish Crusaders and the Mongol Empire in the 13th century. Such an alliance might have seemed an obvious choice: the Mongols were already sympathetic to Christianity, given the presence of many influential Nestorian Christians in the Mongol court. The Franks (Western Europeans and those in the Crusader States of the Levant) were open to the idea of support from the East, in part owing to the long-running legend of the mythical Prester John, an Eastern king in a magical kingdom who many believed would one day come to the assistance of the Crusaders in the Holy Land. The Franks and Mongols also shared a common enemy in the Muslims. However, despite many messages, gifts, and emissaries over the course of several decades, the often-proposed alliance never came to fruition. Traditionally, the Mongols tended to see outside parties as either subjects or enemies, with little room in the middle for a concept such as an ally.

After Western Roman Empire(395/476-), before Holy Roman Empire (Treaty of Verdun in 843)Edit

Tribal hegemony in the former Western Roman Empire from the decline of Rome to 843

"Template:Europe Hegemony" → Template:Barbarian kingdoms
  • Germanic kingdoms:
  • Hunnic kingdoms: Hunnic Empire (Huns 376–454)
  • Turkic kingdoms: Great Bulgaria; Bulgar Khanate; Khazar Khaganate
  • Iranian kingdoms: Alani Kingdom; Avar Khaganate
  • Celtic kingdoms
  • Slavic kingdoms: Carantian Principality; Samo's Empire
  • Berber kingdoms: Mauro-Roman Kingdom (Moors 711–1492); Kingdom of the Aures; Kingdom of Altava
  • Byzantines in Italy 553–568
Foederati
 
Political division in Europe, North Africa and Near East after the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD.
 
Europe in 526 AD. The Germanic kingdoms.
Migration Period (Völkerwanderung; from Roman and Greek perspective: Barbarian invasions): intensified human migration in Europe from about 400 to 800 AD. "Invasion" versus "migration": in general, French and Italian scholars have tended to view this as a catastrophic event: the destruction of a civilization and the beginning of a "Dark Age" which set Europe back a millennium; in contrast, German and English historians have tended to see it as the replacement of a "tired, effete and decadent Mediterranean civilization" with a "more virile, martial, Nordic one"; rather than "invasion", German and Slavic scholars use the term "migration". The migrants comprised war bands or tribes of 10,000 to 20,000 people, but in the course of 100 years they numbered not more than 750,000 in total, compared to an average 39.9 million population of the Roman Empire at that time. The first migrations of peoples were made by Germanic tribes such as the Goths (including the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths), the Vandals, the Anglo-Saxons, the Lombards, the Suebi, the Frisii, the Jutes, the Burgundians, the Alemanni, the Scirii and the Franks; they were later pushed westward by the Huns, the Avars, the Slavs and the Bulgars. Later invasions—such as the Viking, the Norman, the Varangian, the Hungarian, the Moorish, the Turkic and the Mongol—also had significant effects (especially in North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, Anatolia and Central and Eastern Europe); however, they are usually considered outside the scope of the Migration Period. Extreme weather events of 535–536. The rural population in Roman provinces became distanced from the metropolis, and there was little to differentiate them from other peasants across the Roman frontier. In addition, Rome increasingly used foreign mercenaries to defend itself. That "barbarisation" parallelled changes within barbaricum. The nature of the barbarian takeover of former Roman provinces varied from region to region. For example, in Aquitaine, the provincial administration was largely self-reliant. Halsall has argued that local rulers simply "handed over" military rule to the Ostrogoths, acquiring the identity of the newcomers. In Gaul, the collapse of imperial rule resulted in anarchy: the Franks and Alemanni were pulled into the ensuing "power vacuum", resulting in conflict. In Spain, local aristocrats maintained independent rule for some time, raising their own armies against the Vandals. Meanwhile, the Roman withdrawal from Lowland England resulted in conflict between Saxons and the Brythonic chieftains (whose centres of power retreated westward as a result). The Eastern Roman Empire attempted to maintain control of the Balkan provinces despite a thinly-spread imperial army relying mainly on local militias and an extensive effort to refortify the Danubian limes. The ambitious fortification efforts collapsed, worsening the impoverished conditions of the local populace and resulting in colonization by Slavic warriors and their families.
Barbarian kingdoms: kingdoms dominated by Germanic tribes established all over Mediterranean after Barbarian Invasions (Migration Period). The term "barbarian" has been commonly used by historians even though the term was not used by the peoples in question and carries considerable value judgement. Historically, the period of the Barbarian kingdoms spans the years from 409 to 910. The most important and most successful of these kingdoms was that of the Franks. Established in the 4th to 5th century, the Frankish kingdom grew to include much of Western Europe, developing into the early medieval Carolingian Empire and ultimately the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire of the high medieval period and beyond. The Frankish Realm continued until 843, when it was partitioned. Realms resulting from this event included West Francia (predecessor of modern France), Middle Francia and East Francia (predecessor of modern Germany). Other major kingdoms included those of the Visigoths and Ostrogoths; Kingdom of the Lombards; Alamannia; Vandal Kingdom; kingdoms of the Burgundians and of the Suebi. In the Eastern part of Europe formatted dominant Barbarian states as the Hunnic Empire (370–469), the Avar Khaganate (567–after 822), Old Great Bulgaria (632–668), the Khazar Khaganate (c. 650–969) and Danube Bulgaria (founded by Asparuh in 680), all of them constantly rivaling the hegemony of the Byzantine Empire and the rest of Europe. These kingdoms were foederati of the Roman Empire, and even after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476 they continued to at least nominally consider themselves subject to the Eastern Emperor. The title of "emperor" was revived in the west by Charlemagne in AD 800.
 
Map of the Roman Empire with its dioceses, in 400 AD.
Roman diocese (Latin: dioecēsis, from Greek: διοίκησις, "administration"): one of the administrative divisions of the later Roman Empire, starting with the Tetrarchy. It formed the intermediate level of government, grouping several provinces and being in turn subordinated to a praetorian prefecture.
Crossing of the Rhine: by a mixed group of barbarians that included Vandals, Alans and Suebi is traditionally considered to have occurred on 406.12.31. The crossing transgressed one of the Late Roman Empire's most secure limites or boundaries and so it was a climactic moment in the decline of the Empire. It initiated a wave of destruction of Roman cities and the collapse of Roman civic order in northern Gaul. That, in turn, occasioned the rise of three usurpers in succession in the province of Britannia. Therefore, the crossing of the Rhine is a marker date in the Migration Period during which various Germanic tribes moved westward and southward from southern Scandinavia and northern Germania. A letter by Jerome, written from Bethlehem, gives a long list of the barbarian tribes involved (Quadi, Vandals, Sarmatians, Alans, Gepids, Herules, Saxons, Burgundians, Alemanni and the armies of the Pannonians). A frozen Rhine, making the crossing easier, is not attested by any contemporary but was a plausible surmise made by Edward Gibbon. Uncertainty over date
Sack of Rome (410) (410.08.24): the city was attacked by the Visigoths led by King Alaric. At that time, Rome was no longer the capital of the Western Roman Empire, having been replaced in that position first by Mediolanum in 286 and then by Ravenna in 402. First time in almost 800 years that Rome had fallen to a foreign enemy. St. Jerome, living in Bethlehem at the time, wrote that "The City which had taken the whole world was itself taken. // If Rome can perish, what can be safe?" The Roman Empire at this time was still in the midst of religious conflict between pagans and Christians. The sack was used by both sides to bolster their competing claims of divine legitimacy. The religious and political attacks on Christianity spurred Saint Augustine to write a defense, The City of God, which went on to become foundational to Christian thought.
Odoacer (c. 433–493; Flavius Odoacer, Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar): barbarian statesman who deposed Romulus Augustus and became King of Italy (476–493). His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire. Though the real power in Italy was in his hands, he represented himself as the client of the emperor in Constantinople. Odoacer generally used the Roman honorific patrician, granted by the emperor Zeno, but is referred to as a king (Latin: rex) in many documents. He himself used it in the only surviving official document that emanated from his chancery, and it was also used by the consul Basilius. Odoacer introduced few important changes into the administrative system of Italy. He had the support of the Roman Senate and was able to distribute land to his followers without much opposition. Unrest among his warriors led to violence in 477–478, but no such disturbances occurred during the later period of his reign. Although Odoacer was an Arian Christian, he rarely intervened in the affairs of Trinitarian state church of the Roman Empire. When Illus, master of soldiers of the Eastern Empire, asked for Odoacer's help in 484 in his struggle to depose Zeno, Odoacer invaded Zeno's westernmost provinces. The emperor responded first by inciting the Rugii of present-day Austria to attack Italy. During the winter of 487–488 Odoacer crossed the Danube and defeated the Rugii in their own territory. Zeno also appointed the Ostrogoth Theoderic the Great who was menacing the borders of the Eastern Empire, to be king of Italy, turning one troublesome, nominal vassal against another. Theoderic invaded Italy in 489 and by August 490 had captured almost the entire peninsula, forcing Odoacer to take refuge in Ravenna. The city surrendered on 5 March 493; Theoderic invited Odoacer to a banquet of reconciliation and there killed him.
Vandal Kingdom (435–534; Regnum Vandalorum et Alanorum): established by the Germanic Vandal people under Genseric, and ruled in North Africa and the Mediterranean. In 429, the Vandals, estimated to number 80,000 people, had crossed by boat from Spain to North Africa. They advanced eastward conquering the coastal regions of 21st century Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. In 435, the Roman Empire, then ruling in North Africa, allowed the Vandals to settle in the provinces of Numidia and Mauretania when it became clear that the Vandal army could not be defeated by Roman military forces. In 439 the Vandals renewed their advance eastward and captured Carthage, the most important city of North Africa. The fledgling kingdom then conquered the Roman-ruled islands of Mallorca, Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica in the western Mediterranean Sea. The conquest of North Africa by the Vandals was a blow to the beleaguered Western Roman Empire as North Africa was a major source of revenue and a supplier of grain (mostly wheat) to the city of Rome. Although primarily remembered for the sack of Rome in 455 and their persecution of Nicene Christians in favor of Arian Christianity, the Vandals were also patrons of learning. Conquest by the Eastern Roman Empire: In the words of historian Roger Collins: Belisarius; "The remaining Vandals were then shipped back to Constantinople to be absorbed into the imperial army. As a distinct ethnic unit they disappeared". Religion: from the beginning of their invasion of North Africa in 429, the Vandals – who were predominantly followers of Arianism – persecuted the Nicene church. Peter Heather has argues that Genseric's promotion of the Arian church - with the accompanying persecution of the Nicene church - had political motivations. He notes a 'key distinction' between 'the anti-Nicene character' of Genseric's actions in Proconsularis and the rest of his kingdom; persecution was most intense when it was in proximity to his Arian followers. Heather suggests that Arianism was a means for Genseric to keep his followers united and under control, where there was interaction between his people and the Nicene church this strategy was threatened. Huneric, Genseric's son and successor, continued and intensified the repression of the Nicene church and attempted to make Arianism the primary religion in North Africa; indeed, much of Victor of Vita's narrative focuses on the atrocities and persecutions committed during Huneric's reign. Churches were then confiscated for the Royal Fisc or for Arian use.
Battle of Cape Bon (468): engagement during a joint military expedition of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires led by Basiliscus against the Vandal capital of Carthage. The invasion of the kingdom of the Vandals was one of the largest amphibious operations in antiquity, with 1,113 ships and over 50,000 personnel. While attempting to land near Carthage at the Cape of Mercury (Latin: Promontorium Mercurii; now Cape Bon), the Roman fleet was thrown into disorder by a Vandal fireship attack. The Vandal fleet followed up on the action and sunk over 100 Roman ships. Some 10,000 Roman soldiers and sailors died in the battle. The battle is considered to have ended the Western Roman Empire's chances of survival. Without access to the resources of the former Roman province of Africa, the west could not sustain an army powerful enough to defeat its numerous enemies. The Romans abandoned the campaign and Gaiseric remained master of the western Mediterranean until his death, ruling from the Strait of Gibraltar all the way to Tripolitania.
Gaiseric (c. 389–477.01.25; Geiseric, Genseric): King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) who established the Vandal Kingdom and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th c. During his nearly 50 years of rule, he raised a relatively insignificant Germanic tribe to the status of a major Mediterranean power. Gaiseric successfully defended himself against a Suebian attack and transported most of his people, around 80,000, to Northern Africa in 428. He might have been invited by the Roman governor Bonifacius, who wished to use the military strength of the Vandals in his struggle against the imperial government. Gaiseric caused great devastation as he moved eastward from the Strait of Gibraltar across Africa. He turned on Bonifacius, defeated his army in 430, and then crushed the joint forces of the Eastern and Western empires that had been sent against him. In 435 Gaiseric concluded a treaty with the Romans under which the Vandals retained Mauretania and part of Numidia as foederati (allies under special treaty) of Rome. In a surprise move on 19 October 439, Gaiseric captured Carthage, striking a devastating blow at imperial power. He occupied Sicily in 468 for 8 years until the island was ceded in 476 to Odavacer except for a toehold on the far west coast, Lilybaeum, also was ceded in 491 to Theodoric. His most famous exploit, however, was the capture and plundering of Rome in June 455. In 455, Roman emperor Valentinian III was murdered on orders of Petronius Maximus, who usurped the throne. Gaiseric was of the opinion that these acts voided his 442 peace treaty with Valentinian, and on 31 May, he and his men landed on Italian soil and marched on Rome, where Pope Leo I implored him not to destroy the ancient city or murder its inhabitants. Gaiseric agreed and the gates of Rome were thrown open to him and his men. Maximus, who fled rather than fight the Vandal warlord, was killed by a Roman mob outside the city. Although history remembers the Vandal sack of Rome as extremely brutal – making the word vandalism a term for any wantonly destructive act – in actuality the Vandals did not wreak great destruction in the city; they did, however, take gold, silver and many other things of value. He also took with him Empress Licinia Eudoxia, Valentinian's widow, and her daughters, Eudocia and Placidia. Many important people were taken hostage for even more riches. Eudocia married Gaiseric's son Huneric after arriving in Carthage. They had been betrothed earlier as an act of solidifying the treaty of 442. One legend has it that Gaiseric was unable to vault upon a horse because of a fall he had taken as a young man; so he assuaged his desire for military glory on the sea.
Hephthalite Empire (440s–670): people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560. They were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin, west to Sogdia and south through Afghanistan to northern India. They were a tribal confederation and included both nomadic and settled urban communities. They were part of the four major states known collectively as Xyon (Xionites) or Huna, being preceded by the Kidarites, and succeeded by the Alkhon and lastly the Nezak. All of these peoples have often been linked to the Huns who invaded Eastern Europe during the same period, and/or have been referred to as "Huns", but there is no consensus among scholars about such a connection, if they actually existed.
Huna people: name given by the ancient Indians to a group of Central Asian tribes who, via the Khyber Pass, entered India at the end of the 5th or early 6th century. They occupied areas as far as Eran and Kausambi, greatly weakening the Gupta Empire. Hunas are thought to have included the Xionite and/or Hephthalite, the Kidarites, the Alchon Huns (also known as the Alxon, Alakhana, Walxon etc) and the Nezak Huns. The relationship, if any, of the Hunas to the Huns, a Central Asian people who invaded Europe during the same period, is also unclear.
OstrogothsEdit
Category:Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogoths: branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths). The Ostrogoths, under Theodoric the Great, established a kingdom in Italy in the late 5th and 6th centuries.
Ostrogothic Kingdom (Regnum Italiae; 493–553): established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas. In Italy the Ostrogoths, led by Theodoric the Great, killed and replaced Odoacer, a Germanic soldier, erstwhile-leader of the foederati in Northern Italy, and the de facto ruler of Italy, who had deposed the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, in 476. Most of the social institutions of the late Western Roman Empire were preserved during his rule. Starting in 535, the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire invaded Italy under Justinian I. Ostrogoths; Odoacer's kingdom (476–493). Conquest of Italy by the Goths (488–493): Theodoric kills Odoacer (493). Reign of Theodoric the Great (493–526): The administrative machinery of Odoacer's kingdom, in essence that of the former Empire, was retained and continued to be staffed exclusively by Romans, such as the articulate and literate Cassiodorus. The Senate continued to function normally and was consulted on civil appointments, and the laws of the Empire were still recognized as ruling the Roman population, though Goths were ruled under their own traditional laws. The continuity in administration is illustrated by the fact that several senior ministers of Odoacer, like Liberius and Cassiodorus the Elder, were retained in the new kingdom's top positions. Relations with the Germanic states of the West. Relations with the Empire. Death of Theodoric and dynastic disputes (526–535). Gothic War and end of the Ostrogothic Kingdom (535–554).
Theoderic the Great (454 – 526.08.30; also Theodoric): king of the Germanic Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patricius of the Eastern Roman Empire. Theodoric was treated with favor by the Emperor Leo I. He learned to read, write, and perform arithmetic while in captivity in the Eastern Empire. When Leo heard that his imperial army was returning from having been turned back by the Goths near Pannonia, he sent Theodoric home with gifts and no promises of any commitments. On his return in 469/470, Theodoric assumed leadership over the Gothic regions previously ruled by his uncle, Valamir, while his father became king. Not long afterwards near Singidunum-Belgrade in upper Moesia, the Tisza Sarmatian king Babai had extended his authority at Constantinople's expense. Legitimizing his position as a warrior, Theodoric crossed the Danube with six-thousand warriors, defeated the Sarmatians and killed Babai; this moment likely crystallized his position and marked the beginning of his kingship, despite not actually having yet assumed the throne. The Ostrogoths needed a place to live, and Zeno was having serious problems with Odoacer, the Germanic foederatus and King of Italy, who although ostensibly viceroy for Zeno, was menacing Byzantine territory and not respecting the rights of Roman citizens in Italy. In 488, Emperor Zeno ordered Theodoric to overthrow Odoacer. Theodoric was of the Arian (nontrinitarian) faith and in his final years, he was no longer the disengaged Arian patron of religious toleration that he had seemed earlier in his reign. "Indeed, his death cut short what could well have developed into a major persecution of Catholic churches in retaliation for measures taken by Justinian in Constantinople against Arians there." Despite the Byzantine caesaropapism, which conflated emperor and church authority in the same person—whereby Theodoric's Arian beliefs were tolerated under two separate emperors—the fact remained that to most across the Eastern Empire, Theodoric was a heretic. Seeking to restore the glory of ancient Rome, Theodoric ruled Italy during one of its most peaceful and prosperous periods and was accordingly hailed as a new Trajan and Valentinian I for his building efforts and his religious toleration. His far-sighted goals included taking what was best from Roman culture and combining it with Gothic energy and physical power as a way into the future. Relatively amicable relations between Goths and Romans also make Theodoric's kingdom notable. Memories of his reign made him a hero of medieval German legends, as Dietrich von Bern, where the two figures have represented the same person.
Mausoleum of Theodoric (Mausoleo di Teodorico): ancient monument just outside Ravenna, Italy. It was built in 520 AD by Theodoric the Great as his future tomb.
Cassiodorus (Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator; c. 485 – c. 585): Roman statesman, renowned scholar of antiquity, and writer serving in the administration of Theoderic the Great. He founded a monastery, Vivarium, where he spent the last years of his life. Cassiodorus spent his career trying to bridge the 6th-century cultural divides: between East and West, Greek culture and Latin, Roman and Goth, and between an Orthodox people and their Arian rulers. He speaks fondly in his Institutiones of Dionysius Exiguus, the calculator of the Anno Domini era. Monastery at Vivarium composed of two main buildings: a coenobitic monastery and a retreat, for those who desired a more solitary life. Educational philosophy: Cassiodorus devoted much of his life to supporting education within the Christian community at large. When his proposed theological university in Rome was denied, he was forced to re-examine his entire approach to how material was learned and interpreted. His Variae show that, like Augustine of Hippo, Cassiodorus viewed reading as a transformative act for the reader. It is with this in mind that he designed and mandated the course of studies at the Vivarium, which demanded an intense regimen of reading and meditation. By assigning a specific order of texts to be read, Cassiodorus hoped to create the discipline necessary within the reader to become a successful monk. The first work in this succession of texts would be the Psalms, with which the untrained reader would need to begin because of its appeal to emotion and temporal goods. Beyond demanding the pursuit of discipline among his students, Cassiodorus encouraged the study of the liberal arts. He believed these arts were part of the content of the Bible, and some mastery of them—especially grammar and rhetoric—necessary for a complete understanding of it. These arts were divided into trivium and quadrivium. Cassiodorus found the writings of the Greeks and Romans valuable for their expression of higher truths where other arts failed. Though he saw these texts as vastly inferior to the perfect word of Scripture, the truths presented in them played to Cassiodorus' educational principles. Thus he is unafraid to cite Cicero alongside sacred text, and acknowledge the classical ideal of good being part of the practice of rhetoric. Cassiodorus' legacy is quietly profound. Through the influence of Cassiodorus, the monastic system adopted a more vigorous, widespread, and regular approach to reproducing documents within the monastery. This approach to the development of the monastic lifestyle was perpetuated especially through German religious institutions.
Gothic War (535–554) (Result: Short term Eastern Roman victory, long term devastation of Italy): between the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Emperor Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy in the Italian peninsula, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica. The war had its roots in the ambition of the East Roman Emperor Justinian I to recover the provinces of the former Western Roman Empire, which the Romans had lost to invading barbarian tribes in the previous century (the Migration Period). First Byzantine campaign, 535–540: Conquest of Sicily and Dalmatia; First siege of Rome; Siege of Ariminum (Belisarius; Narses); Mediolanum; Frankish invasion; Capture of Ravenna. Gothic revival, 541–551: Reigns of Ildibad and Eraric; Early Gothic successes; Southern Italy (Totila: Siege of Rome (549–550)). Byzantine reconquest, 551–554 {q.v. #Byzantine Papacy, #Kingdom of the Lombards}.
LombardsEdit
Lombards (or Langobards): Germanic tribe who ruled Italy from 568 to 774.
Kingdom of the Lombards (Latin: Regnum Langobardorum, Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Latin: Regnum totius Italiae)): early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century. The king was traditionally elected by the highest-ranking aristocrats, the dukes, as several attempts to establish a hereditary dynasty failed. The kingdom was subdivided into a varying number of duchies, ruled by semi-autonomous dukes, which were in turn subdivided into gastaldates at the municipal level. The capital of the kingdom and the center of its political life was Pavia in the modern northern Italian region of Lombardy. The Lombard invasion of Italy was opposed by the Byzantine Empire, which retained control of much of the peninsula until the mid-8th century. For most of the kingdom's history, the Byzantine-ruled Exarchate of Ravenna and Duchy of Rome separated the northern Lombard duchies, collectively known as Langobardia Maior, from the two large southern duchies of Spoleto and Benevento, which constituted Langobardia Minor. Because of this division, the southern duchies were considerably more autonomous than the smaller northern duchies. Over time, the Lombards gradually adopted Roman titles, names, and traditions. By the time Paul the Deacon was writing in the late 8th century, the Lombardic language, dress and hairstyles had all disappeared. Initially the Lombards were Arian Christians or pagans, which put them at odds with the Roman population as well as the Byzantine Empire and the Pope. However, by the end of the 7th century, their conversion to Catholicism was all but complete. Nevertheless, their conflict with the Pope continued and was responsible for their gradual loss of power to the Franks, who conquered the kingdom in 774. Charlemagne, the king of the Franks, adopted the title "King of the Lombards", although he never managed to gain control of Benevento, the southernmost Lombard duchy. A reduced Regnum Italiae, a heritage of the Lombards, continued to exist for centuries as one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, roughly corresponding to the territory of the former Langobardia Maior. Founding of the kingdom: Cleph and the Rule of the Dukes, Final settlement: Autari, Agilulf and Theudelinda. Revival of the Arians: Arioald, Rothari. Bavarian dynasty. Dynastic crisis. Liutprand: the apogee of the reign. Last kings: Aistulf. Fall of the kingdom. Historiographical views: The historical bipartition of Italy that has, for centuries, directed the North towards Central-Western Europe and the South, instead, to the Mediterranean area dates back to the separation between Langobardia Major and Langobardia Minor, while Lombard law influenced the Italian legal system for a long time, and was not completely abandoned even after the rediscovery of Roman law in the 11th and 12th centuries.
Rule of the Dukes: interregnum in the Lombard Kingdom of Italy (574/5–584/5) during which Italy was ruled by the Lombard dukes of the old Roman provinces and urban centres. The interregnum is said to have lasted a decade according to Paul the Deacon, but all other sources—the Fredegarii Chronicon, the Origo Gentis Langobardorum, the Chronicon Gothanum, and the Copenhagen continuator of Prosper Tiro—accord it twelve. Cleph's reign was short and his rule hard. Upon his death, the Lombards did not elect another leader-king, leaving the territorial dukes the highest authorities in Lombard territories. According to Fredegar, they were forced to pay tribute to the Franks, and this lasted until the accession of Adaloald. The dukes were unable to organise themselves under a single leader capable of continuing their successes against the Byzantines. When they invaded Frankish Provence (584/5), the Frankish kings Guntram and Childebert II counter-invaded northern Italy, took Trent, and opened negotiations with the emperor Tiberius II, sovereign of the hard-pressed exarchate of Ravenna. Finally, tired of disunion, fearing a pincer action from a Byzantine–Frankish alliance, and lacking the leadership necessary to withstand combined military forces, the dukes elected as king Authari (Autari?). They ceded to him the old capital of Pavia and half of their ducal demesnes, though the fidelity to their oath with which this last promise was carried out is suspect.
Gairethinx ("spear assembly"): Lombard ceremony in which edicts and laws were affirmed by the army. It may have involved the entire army banging their spears on their shields; or it may have been a much quieter event.

Viking Age, slavs, balts, finno-ugric peopleEdit

 
Unternehmungen der Wikinger im 8-10. Jh.
Viking Age (793 AD to 1066): Scandinavian Norsemen explored Europe by its seas and rivers for trade, raids and conquest. In this period, the Norsemen settled in Norse Greenland, Newfoundland, and present-day Faroe Islands, Iceland, Normandy, Scotland, England, Ukraine, Ireland, Russia, Germany, and Anatolia. Though Viking travellers and colonists were seen at many points in history as brutal raiders, many historical documents suggest that their invasion of other countries was retaliation in response to the encroachment upon tribal lands by Christian missionaries, and perhaps by the Saxon Wars prosecuted by Charlemagne and his kin to the south, or motivated by overpopulation, trade inequities, and the lack of viable farmland in their homeland. Information about the Viking Age is drawn largely from what was written about the Vikings by their enemies, and primary sources of archaeology, supplemented with secondary sources such as the Icelandic Sagas.
Scandinavian Scotland
Kingdom of the Isles: comprised the Hebrides, the islands of the Firth of Clyde and the Isle of Man from the 9th to the 13th centuries AD.
Kingdom of Dublin
Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks: medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Eastern Roman Empire. The route allowed traders along its length to establish a direct prosperous trade with the Empire, and prompted some of them to settle in the territories of present-day Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The majority of the route comprised a long-distance waterway, including the Baltic Sea, several rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea, and rivers of the Dnieper river system, with portages on the drainage divides.
Volga trade route: connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea, via the Volga River. The Rus used this route to trade with Muslim countries on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, sometimes penetrating as far as Baghdad. The route functioned concurrently with the Dnieper trade route, better known as the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, and lost its importance in the 11th century. Volga trade route was established by the Varangians (Vikings) who settled in Northwestern Russia in the early 9th century.
Sarskoye Gorodishche (Sarsky fort): medieval fortified settlement in the Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia. It was situated on the bank of the Sara River, a short distance from Lake Nero, to the south of modern Rostov, of which it seems to have been the early medieval predecessor. Major Varangian finds at Sarskoye date from ca. 800 onward, indicating that it was a major (perhaps the most important) trade station on the Volga trade route between Scandinavia and Baghdad. Traces of a bath, an iron foundery, a potter's workshop and a jeweller's shop were encountered. There were two hoards of early 9th-century dirhams. Another deposit was detected in the vicinity: it contained dirhams inscribed with Runic signs, interpreted as a thanksgiving to Thor. Like the Slavs and Varangians at Gnezdovo, the Merya and the Norsemen seem to have peacefully co-existed in the 9th and 10th centuries. The settlement appears to have escaped the violent clashes of the Norsemen with the indigenous population, so characteristic of the Ladoga region.
Caspian expeditions of the Rus': military raids undertaken by the Rus' between 864 and 1041 on the Caspian Sea shores. Initially, the Rus' appeared in Serkland in 9th c. traveling as merchants along the Volga trade route, selling furs, honey, and slaves. The first small-scale raids took place in the late 9th and early 10th c.
 
Major Varangian trade routes, the Volga trade route (in red) and the Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (in purple).
 
Distribution of early Varangian settlement, mid-ninth century CE. Varangian settlements shown in red, other Scandivanian settlement in purple. Grey names indicate locations of Slavic tribes. Blue outline indicates extent of Khazar sphere of influence.
Ragnar Lodbrok (Lothbrok; Old Norse: Ragnarr Loðbrók, "Ragnar shaggy breeches", contemporary Norse: Ragnar Loðbrók): Norse Viking hero and legendary Scandinavian king known from Viking Age Old Norse poetry, sagas, as well as contemporary chronicles. To those in modern academia, his life and personage is somewhat historically dubious. According to traditional literature, Ragnar distinguished himself by many raids against Eastern Europe, Francia, Ireland, and Britain during the 9th century. Most significant medieval sources that mention Ragnar include: Book IX of the Gesta Danorum, Tale of Ragnar's sons (Ragnarssona þáttr), Tale of Ragnar Lodbrok, Ragnarsdrápa (skaldic poem), Krákumál (Ragnar's death-song).
Siege of Paris (845): culmination of a Viking invasion of France. The Viking forces were led by a Norse chieftain named "Reginherus", or Ragnar, who traditionally has been identified with the legendary saga character Ragnar Lodbrok. Ragnar's fleet of 120 Viking ships, carrying thousands of men, entered the Seine in March and proceeded to sail up the river. Frankish king Charles the Bald assembled a smaller army in response, but as the Vikings defeated one division, comprising half of the army, the remaining forces retreated. The Vikings reached Paris at the end of the month, during Easter. After plundering and occupying the city, the Vikings withdrew when they had been paid a ransom of 7,000 French livres [2,570 kilograms] of silver and gold from Charles the Bald.
Rollo (Norman: Rou; Old Norse: Hrólfr; French: Rollon; c. 860 – c. 930 AD): Viking who became the first ruler of Normandy, a region in northern France. He is sometimes called the first Duke of Normandy. Rollo emerged as the outstanding personality among the Norsemen who had secured a permanent foothold on Frankish soil in the valley of the lower Seine. After the Siege of Chartres in 911, Charles the Simple, the king of West Francia, ceded them lands between the mouth of the Seine and what is now Rouen in exchange for Rollo agreeing to end his brigandage, and provide the Franks with protection against future Viking raids. Rollo is first recorded as the leader of these Viking settlers in a charter of 918, and he continued to reign over the region of Normandy until at least 928. The offspring of Rollo and his followers became known as the Normans. After the Norman conquest of England and their conquest of southern Italy and Sicily over the following two centuries, their descendants came to rule Norman England (the House of Normandy), the Kingdom of Sicily (the Kings of Sicily) as well as the Principality of Antioch from the 10th to 12th c. The earliest well-attested historical event associated with Rollo is his part in leading the Vikings who besieged Paris in 885–886.
Siege of Paris (885–886): part of a Viking raid on the Seine, in the Kingdom of the West Franks. The siege was the most important event of the reign of Charles the Fat, and a turning point in the fortunes of the Carolingian dynasty and the history of France. It also proved to the Franks the strategic importance of Paris, at a time when it also was one of the largest cities in West Francia. The siege is the subject of an eyewitness account in the Latin poem Bella Parisiacae urbis of Abbo Cernuus.
Rus' people: early medieval group of people who gave their name to the lands of Russia, Ruthenia, and Belarus. According to both contemporary Byzantine and Islamic sources and the Primary Chronicle of Rus', compiled in about A.D 1113, the Rus were Norsemen who had relocated "from over sea", first to northeastern Europe, creating an early polity that finally came under the leadership of Rurik. Later, Rurik's relative Oleg captured Kiev, founding Rus', academically known as Kievan Rus'. Key sources: Slavic sources (Varangians were first expelled, then invited to rule the warring Slavic and Finnic tribes of Novgorod); Islamic sources (distinguish three groups of the Rus: Kuyavia, Slavia, and Arcania). Academic study: Normanism; Anti-Normanism; Beyond the Normanist/anti-Normanist debate.
Siege of Constantinople (860): only major military expedition of the Rus' Khaganate recorded in Byzantine and Western European sources. The cause of the siege was the construction of the fortress Sarkel by Byzantine engineers, restricting the Rus' trade route along the Don River in favor of the Khazars.
Rus'–Byzantine War (907): associated in the Primary Chronicle with the name of Oleg of Novgorod. The chronicle implies that it was the most successful military operation of the Kievan Rus' against the Byzantine Empire. Paradoxically, Greek sources do not mention it at all. Interpretations: That Oleg's campaign is not fiction is clear from the authentic text of the peace treaty, which was incorporated into the chronicle. Current scholarship tends to explain the silence of Greek sources with regard to Oleg's campaign by the inaccurate chronology of the Primary Chronicle. Some assume that the raid actually took place in 904, when the Byzantines were at war with Leo of Tripoli. A more plausible conjecture has been advanced by Boris Rybakov and Lev Gumilev: the account of the campaign in fact refers to the Rus'-Byzantine War (860), erroneously described in Slavonic sources as a Kievan failure.
Rus' Khaganate (~ late 8th, early-to-mid 9th c.): name applied by some modern historians to a polity that was postulated to exist during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe. It was suggested that the Rus' Khaganate was a state, or a cluster of city-states, set up by a people called Rus', described in all contemporary sources as being Norsemen, somewhere in what is today European Russia, as a chronological predecessor to the Rurik Dynasty and the Kievan Rus'. The region's population at that time was composed of Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Turkic, Hungarian, and Norse peoples. The region was also a place of operations for Varangians, eastern Scandinavian adventurers, merchants, and pirates. This period is thought to be the times of the genesis of a distinct Rus' ethnos, which gave rise to Kievan Rus' and later states from which modern Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine evolved.
Template:Russo-Byzantine Treaties:
Rus'–Byzantine Treaty (907): result of Oleg's raid against Constantinople (see Rus'–Byzantine War (907) for details). Scholars generally consider this document as preliminary to the Rus'–Byzantine Treaty of 911. The text of the treaty, as preserved in the Kievan chronicle, opens with a list of signatories on the part of the Rus'. They are all Norse: Karl, Farulf, Vermund, Hrollaf, and Steinvith. Kievan Rus' figures in the text as a conglomeration of major urban centres: Kiev, Chernigov, Pereyaslav, Polotsk, Rostov, and Lyubech. Aleksey Shakhmatov commented that the list of the towns is arbitrary and that some of them may have been inserted by later scribes.
Rus'–Byzantine Treaty (911): most comprehensive and detailed treaty concluded between the Byzantine Empire and Kievan Rus in the 10th century. It was preceded by the preliminary treaty of 907. It was the earliest written source of Old Russian Law. Composed in two languages and signed personally by Emperor Leo VI. The text also includes speeches of the parties on the occasion. No treaties of comparable complexity and antiquity are known among the other societies in Europe of that time. The treaty opens with a lengthy enumeration of the Rus' envoys, whose names are exclusively Norse: Karl, Ingjald, Farulf, Vermund, Hrollaf, Gunnar, Harold, Kami, Frithleif, Hroarr, Angantyr, Throand, Leithulf, Fast, and Steinvith. The articles 3 to 7 regulate criminal law and the life of their colony at Constantinople. There is also a proviso on inheritance of a merchant who died in the imperial capital. The article 8 is dedicated to maritime law. The following articles enlarge on ransom of captives, exchange of criminals, and the status of the Varangian mercenaries in Byzantine service.
Rus'–Byzantine Treaty (945): between the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII and Igor I of Kiev was concluded either in 944 or 945 as a result of a naval expedition undertaken by Kievan Rus against Constantinople in the early 940s.
Varangian Guard: elite unit of the Byzantine Army, from 10th to 14th c., whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Byzantine Emperors. They are known for being primarily composed of Germanic peoples, specifically Norsemen (the Guard was formed approximately 200 years into the Viking Age) and Anglo-Saxons (after the Norman Conquest of England created an Anglo-Saxon diaspora, part of which found employment in Constantinople).
Thingmen: standing army in the service of the Kings of England during the period 1013-51, financed by direct taxation which had its origins in the tribute known as Danegeld. It consisted mostly of men of Scandinavian descent and it had an initial strength of 3,000 housecarls and a fleet of 40 ships, which was subsequently reduced. Its last remnant was disbanded by Edward the Confessor in 1051.
Runestones (vikings)Edit
Runestone: typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock. The tradition began in the 4th century and lasted into the 12th century, but most of the runestones date from the late Viking Age. Most runestones are located in Scandinavia, but there are also scattered runestones in locations that were visited by Norsemen during the Viking Age. Runestones are often memorials to dead men. Runestones were usually brightly coloured when erected, though this is no longer evident as the colour has worn off.
Greece runestones: about 30 runestones containing information related to voyages made by Norsemen to the Byzantine Empire. They were made during the Viking Age until about 1100 and were engraved in the Old Norse language with Scandinavian runes.
England runestones: group of about 30 runestones that refer to Viking Age voyages to England. They were engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark. The Anglo-Saxon rulers paid large sums, Danegelds, to Vikings, who mostly came from Denmark (but many also from Sweden) and who arrived to the English shores during the 990s and the first decades of the 11th century.
Ingvar runestones: name of c. 26 Varangian Runestones that were raised in commemoration of those who died in the Swedish Viking expedition to the Caspian Sea of Ingvar the Far-Travelled. Fateful expedition taking place between 1036 and 1041 with many ships. The Vikings came to the south-eastern shores of the Caspian Sea, and they appear to have taken part in the Battle of Sasireti, in Georgia. Few returned, as many died in battle, but most of them, including Ingvar, died of disease.
Runes: letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter. Runology is the study of the runic alphabets, runic inscriptions, runestones, and their history. Runology forms a specialised branch of Germanic linguistics. The earliest runic inscriptions date from around 150 AD. The characters were generally replaced by the Latin alphabet as the cultures that had used runes underwent Christianisation, by approximately 700 AD in central Europe and 1100 AD in northern Europe. However, the use of runes persisted for specialized purposes in northern Europe. Until the early 20th century, runes were used in rural Sweden for decorative purposes in Dalarna and on Runic calendars.

Slavs, slavic ethnogenesisEdit

Early Slavs: diverse group of tribal societies during the Migration period and early medieval Europe (c. 5th to 10th centuries) whose tribal organizations indirectly created the foundations for today’s Slavic nations (via the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages). Beginning in the 9th century, the Slavs gradually converted to Christianity (both Byzantine Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism). By the 12th century, they were the core population of a number of medieval Christian states: East Slavs in the Kievan Rus', South Slavs in the Bulgarian Empire, the Kingdom of Croatia, Banate of Bosnia and the Grand Principality of Serbia, and West Slavs in the Great Moravia, the Kingdom of Poland, Duchy of Bohemia and Principality of Nitra. Search for a Slavic "homeland"; Linguistic evidence; Historical evidence; Archaeological evidence
Sclaveni (in Latin) or Sklavenoi (in Greek): early Slavic tribes that raided, invaded and settled the Balkans in the Early Middle Ages and eventually became known as the ethnogenesis of the South Slavs.
Antes (people): early East Slavic tribal polity which existed in the 6th century lower Danube, on the regions around the Don river (Middle- and Southern Russia) and northwestern Black Sea region (modern-day Moldova and central Ukraine).
Wends: historical name for Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas. It does not refer to a homogeneous people, but to various peoples, tribes or groups depending on where and when it is used.

Francia, Merovingians, Carolingians (Carolingian Empire)Edit

Category:Carolingian period
Francia (Frankia, Kingdom of the Franks, Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Empire, Frankish Realm; 481–843): territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.
Merovingian dynasty: Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century, their territory largely corresponding to ancient Gaul as well as the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania. Merovingian dynasty was founded by Childeric I (c. 457 – 481), the son of Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks, but it was his famous son Clovis I (481–511) who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule. After the death of Clovis there were frequent clashes between different branches of the family, but when threatened by its neighbours the Merovingians presented a strong united front. During the final century of Merovingian rule, the kings were increasingly pushed into a ceremonial role. The Merovingian rule ended in March 752 when Pope Zachary formally deposed Childeric III; Zachary's successor, Pope Stephen II, confirmed and anointed Pepin the Short in 754, beginning the Carolingian monarchy.
Clovis I (c. 466–511.11.27): the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. He is considered to have been the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled the Frankish kingdom for the next two centuries. In 481, at the age of fifteen, Clovis succeeded his father; He conquered the remaining rump state of the Western Roman Empire at the Battle of Soissons (486), and by his death in 511 he had conquered much of the northern and western parts of what had formerly been Roman Gaul. His name is Germanic, composed of the elements hlod ("fame") and wig ("combat"), and is the origin of the later French given name Louis, borne by 18 kings of France. Clovis is also significant due to his conversion to Christianity in 496, largely at the behest of his wife, Clotilde, who would later be venerated as a saint for this act, celebrated today in both the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church; Clovis was baptized on Christmas Day in AD 508.
Charles Martel: (c. 688 or 686, 680 – 741.10.22) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who, as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
Battle of Tours (732.10): fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in north-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of Poitiers. Decisive Frankish victory, withdrawal of the Umayyad army.
Donation of Pepin (751): Pepin confirmed his Donations in Rome in 756, and in 774 his son Charlemagne again confirmed and reasserted the Donation.
 
Parting of Carolingian Empire by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Pink area indicates West Francia; Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks (→France). Green area indicates Middle Francia; Lothair I (eldest son), his kingdom lasted only until 869. Yellow area indicates East Francia; Louis the German (second son), King of the East Franks (→Kingdom of Germany → kernel of Holy Roman Empire → D-A-CH).
Carolingian Empire (800–888): final stage in the history of the early medieval realm of the Franks, ruled by the Carolingian dynasty. The size of the empire at its zenith around 800 was 1,112,000 km², with a population of between 10 and 20 million people.
Carolingian dynasty (Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings): Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The name "Carolingian" (Medieval Latin karolingi, an altered form of an unattested Old High German *karling, kerling, meaning "descendant of Charles", cf. MHG kerlinc) derives from the Latinised name of Charles Martel: Carolus.

From Medieval to pre-modern historyEdit

Mediteranean, Balkans, Anatolia (Small Asia):

Ottoman Greece: "tribute of (Greek) children" → Janissaries; wars between tiny (but powerful) Venice and the huge (but ever-declining) Ottoman empire; brutal war of independence between Ottomans and Greeks, where Greeks were aided by philhellenes (e.g. Byron) and later by Britain, France and Russia who had their own interests in the region {q.v. #Republic of Venice}
Mappa mundi: any medieval European map of the world. Such maps range in size and complexity from simple schematic maps an inch or less across to elaborate wall maps, the largest of which was 11 ft. (3.5 m.) in diameter. The term derives from the Medieval Latin words mappa (cloth or chart) and mundi (of the world).
T and O map: type of medieval world map, sometimes also called a Beatine map or a Beatus map because one of the earliest known representations of this sort is attributed to Beatus of Liébana, an 8th-century Spanish monk. The map appeared in the prologue to his twelve books of commentaries on the Apocalypse.
Portolan chart: navigational maps based on compass directions and estimated distances observed by the pilots at sea. They were first made in the 13th century in Italy, and later in Spain and Portugal, with later 15th and 16th century charts noted for their cartographic accuracy. With the advent of widespread competition among seagoing nations during the Age of Discovery, Portugal and Spain considered such maps to be state secrets. The English and Dutch relative newcomers found the description of Atlantic and Indian coastlines extremely valuable for their raiding, and later trading, ships. The word portolan comes from the Italian adjective portolano, meaning "related to ports or harbors", or "a collection of sailing directions".
Carta Pisana: map made at about 1275-1300. It was found in Pisa, hence its name. It shows the whole Mediterranean, the Black Sea and a part of the atlantic coast, from the north of present-day Morocco (down to roughly the 33rd parallel north, with the town of Azemmour) to the present-day Netherlands, but the accuracy of the map is mostly limited to the Mediterranean. It is the oldest surviving nautical chart (that is, not simply a map but a document showing accurate navigational directions). It is a portolan chart, showing a detailed survey of the coasts, and many ports, but bears no indication on the topography or toponymy of the inland.
 
A picture of the Carta Pisana, a map made at the end of the 13th century, about 1275-1300.
Catalan Atlas (Catalan: Atles català): the most important Catalan map of the medieval period (drawn and written in 1375). It was produced by the Majorcan cartographic school and is attributed to Cresques Abraham (also known as "Abraham Cresques"), a Jewish book illuminator who was self-described as being a master of the maps of the world as well as compasses. It has been in the royal library of France (now the Bibliothèque nationale de France) since the time of King Charles V.
 
Map of Europe and the Mediterranean from the copy to XIX century of Catalan Atlas of 1375, second chart, first cartography.
Carta marina: created by Olaus Magnus in the 16th century, is the earliest map of the Nordic countries that gives details and placenames. In production for 12 years, the first copies were printed in 1539 in Venice; 55x40 cm woodcut blocks to produce a document that is 1.70 m tall by 1.25 m wide. In 1886, Oscar Brenner found a copy at the Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in Munich, Germany, where it currently resides. In 1961, another copy was found in Switzerland, brought to Sweden the following year by the Uppsala University Library; as of 2007 is stored at Carolina Rediviva.
 
Carta Marina
 
Map of Europe, drawing of c. 1570.
Crisis of the Late Middle Ages: refers to a series of events in 14th and 15th c. that brought centuries of European prosperity and growth to a halt. Three major crises led to radical changes in all areas of society: demographic collapse, political instabilities and religious upheavals. Series of famines and plagues, beginning with the Great Famine of 1315–17 and especially the Black Death of 1348, reduced the population perhaps by half or more as the Medieval Warm Period came to a close and the first century of the Little Ice Age began. Popular revolts in late-medieval Europe and civil wars between nobles within countries such as the Wars of the Roses were common—with France fighting internally nine times—and there were international conflicts between kings such as France and England in the Hundred Years' War. The unity of the Roman Catholic Church was shattered by the Western Schism. The Holy Roman Empire was also in decline; in the aftermath of the Great Interregnum (1247–1273), the Empire lost cohesion and politically the separate dynasties of the various German states became more important than their common empire. Often known as the Malthusian limit, scholars such as David Herlihy and Michael Postan use this term to express and explain some tragedies as resulting from overpopulation. In his 1798 Essay on the Principle of Population, Thomas Malthus asserted that eventually humans would reproduce so greatly that they would go beyond the limits of necessary resources; once they reach this point, catastrophe becomes inevitable. In his book, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, professor David Herlihy explores this idea of plague as an inevitable crisis wrought on humanity in order to control the population and human resources.
Battle of Grunwald (1410.07.15): was fought during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War. The alliance of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led respectively by King Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) and Grand Duke Vytautas, decisively defeated the German–Prussian Teutonic Knights, led by Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen. Most of the Teutonic Knights' leadership were killed or taken prisoner. Although defeated, the Teutonic Knights withstood the siege of their fortress in Marienburg (Malbork; 1410.07.26-1401.09.19) and suffered minimal territorial losses at the Peace of Thorn (1411) (Toruń).
List of banners in the Battle of Grunwald

AmericasEdit

European colonization of the Americas: ES, EN, PT, FR
Columbian Exchange: contributed to demographic explosion in the Old World (populations started to increase exponentially in Eurasia). From the New World came: turkey, guinea pig, bell (chili) pepper, cocoa, coca, cotton, maize, manioc, peanut, pumpkin, rubber, strawberry, sunflower, tobacco, (sweet) potato

Areas less in contact with the rest of the worldEdit

Former states on the NileEdit

Nubia, nubiansEdit
Nubia: region along the Nile river located in what is today northern Sudan and southern Egypt. It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, with a history that can be traced from at least 2000 BC onward. There were a number of large Nubian kingdoms throughout the Postclassical Era, the last of which collapsed in 1504, when Nubia became divided between Egypt and the Sennar sultanate, resulting in the Arabization of much of the Nubian population. Nubia was again united within Ottoman Egypt in the 19th century, and within the Kingdom of Egypt from 1899 to 1956.
Nubians: ethnic group that originated in present-day Sudan and Egypt. Today, people of Nubian descent primarily live in Sudan, and inhabit the region between Wadi Halfa in the north and Al Dabbah in the south. A significant number of Nubians, estimated at 100,000, live in Kenya. The main Nubian groups from north to south are the Halfaweyen, Sikut, Mahas, and Dongola. 1.7 mln speakers of Nubian languages.
Makuria (Kingdom of Makuria; 340–1276, 1286–1317): kingdom located in what is today Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt. Makuria originally covered the area along the Nile River from the Third Cataract to somewhere between the Fifth and Sixth Cataracts. It also had control over the trade routes, mines, and oases to the east and west. By the end of 6th c. it had converted to Christianity, but in 7th c. Egypt was conquered by the Islamic armies, and Nubia was cut off from the rest of Christendom. Makuria expanded, annexing its northern neighbour Nobatia either at the time of the Arab conquest or during the reign of King Merkurios. The period from roughly 750 to 1150 saw the kingdom stable and prosperous, in what has been called the "Golden Age".
Old Dongola: deserted town in Sudan located on the east bank of the Nile opposite the Wadi Howar. An important city in medieval Nubia, and the departure point for caravans west to Darfur and Kordofan, from the fourth to the fourteenth century Old Dongola was the capital of the Makurian state.
Baqt: treaty between the Christian state of Makuria and the Muslim rulers of Egypt. Lasting almost 700 years it is by some measures the longest lasting treaty in history. The name comes either from the Egyptian's term for barter or the Greco-Roman term for pact.

Modern history {since 16th c.}Edit

Franco-Ottoman alliance: alliance established in 1536 between the king of France Francis I and the Turkish sultan of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent. The alliance has been called "the first non-ideological diplomatic alliance of its kind between a Christian and non-Christian empire". The strategic and sometimes tactical alliance was one of the most important foreign alliances of France and lasted for more than two and a half centuries, until the Napoleonic Campaign in Egypt, an Ottoman territory, in 1798–1801.
Ottoman wintering in Toulon (winter of 1543–44): following the Franco-Ottoman Siege of Nice, as part of the combined operations under the Franco-Ottoman alliance.
Habsburg–Persian alliance: was attempted and to a certain extent achieved in the 16th century between the Habsburg Empire and the Persian Empire in their common conflict against the Ottoman Empire.
Succession of states: theory and practice in international relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created sovereign state by other states, based on a perceived historical relationship the new state has with a prior state. The theory has its root in 19th century diplomacy. E.g.:
Russia and the United Nations agreed that it would acquire the USSR's seat as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. All Soviet embassies became Russian embassies.
contrasted with: UN refused to allow the federation of Serbia and Montenegro to sit in the General Assembly of the United Nations under the name of 'Yugoslavia'.
Modern history (16th c. and later): timeframe after the post-classical era (known as the Middle Ages)
1815 eruption of Mount Tambora: most powerful in human recorded history, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 7. Mount Tambora is on the island of Sumbawa in present-day Indonesia, then part of the Dutch East Indies. Although its eruption reached a violent climax in 1815.04.10, increased steaming and small phreatic eruptions occurred during the next six months to three years. The ash from the eruption column dispersed around the world and lowered global temperatures in an event sometimes known as the Year Without a Summer in 1816. This brief period of significant climate change triggered extreme weather and harvest failures in many areas around the world. Several climate forcings coincided and interacted in a systematic manner that has not been observed after any other large volcanic eruption since the early Stone Age.
Year Without a Summer (year 1816): severe climate abnormalities that caused average global temperatures to decrease by 0.4–0.7 °C. This resulted in major food shortages across the Northern Hemisphere.

Europeans in AmericasEdit

 
Non-Native-American Nation's Control over North America c. 1750-2008.

Early modern period {c. 1500 - c. 1800}Edit

Early modern period: follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era; variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, with the Renaissance period, and with the Age of Discovery (especially with the discovery of America, but also with the discovery of the ocean route to the East), and ending around the French Revolution in 1789.
Early modern Europe
Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17): second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire, which led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula as provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
Eighty Years' War (Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648))
Thirty Years' War (1618-1648): series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe; one of the most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history. War can be divided into four major phases: The Bohemian Revolt, the Danish intervention, the Swedish intervention, and the French intervention.
Peace of Westphalia: series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. Involved: Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, of the House of Habsburg; the Kingdom of Spain; the Kingdom of France; the Swedish Empire; the Dutch Republic; the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire; and sovereigns of the free imperial cities. Initiating a new system of political order in central Europe, later called Westphalian sovereignty, based upon the concept of a sovereign state governed by a sovereign and establishing a prejudice in international affairs against interference in another nation's domestic business. The treaty not only signaled the end of the perennial, destructive wars that had ravaged Europe, it also represented the triumph of sovereignty over empire,of national rule over the personal writ of the Habsburgs and the establishment of the first version of international order.
Second Hundred Years' War (c. 1689 - c. 1815): periodization or historical era term used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 (or some say 1714) to 1815. Many in Europe referred to Great Britain as "Perfidious Albion," suggesting that it was a fundamentally untrustworthy nation. People compared Britain and France to ancient Carthage and Rome, respectively, with the former being cast as a greedy imperialist state that collapsed, while the latter was an intellectual and cultural capital that flourished.
Great Northern War (1700–21; +Plague, +Great Frost): conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe. Initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony-Poland. Frederick IV and Augustus II were forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but rejoined it in 1709. George I of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) joined the coalition in 1714 for Hanover and in 1717 for Britain, and Frederick William I of Brandenburg-Prussia joined it in 1715. {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Work#Epidemiology Great Northern War plague outbreak; User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/Physical_sciences#Climate Great Frost of 1709}
Swedish invasion of Russia (1708–1709)
Battle of Poltava (1709.07.08): decisive victory of Peter I of Russia, also known as Peter the Great, over the Swedish forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld. The beginning of Sweden's decline as a Great Power, as the Tsardom of Russia took its place as the leading nation of north-eastern Europe.
War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714): major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, the infirm and childless Charles II. Charles II had ruled over a vast global empire, and the question of who would succeed him had long troubled the governments of Europe. Attempts to solve the problem by peacefully partitioning the empire among the eligible candidates from the royal houses of France (Bourbon), Austria (Habsburg), and Bavaria (Wittelsbach) ultimately failed, and on his deathbed Charles II fixed the entire Spanish inheritance on his grandnephew Philip, Duke of Anjou, the second-eldest grandson of King Louis XIV of France.
Seven Years' War (1754/56–1763): global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time except the Ottoman Empire and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain (inc. Prussia, Portugal, Hanover, and other small German states) on one side and the Kingdom of France (inc. Austria-led Holy Roman Empire, Russia, Spain, and Sweden) on the other. Meanwhile, in India, the Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal. Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies already began in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. The Seven Years' War was perhaps the first true world war, having taken place almost 160 years before WWI and influenced many major events later around the globe ("World War Zero"). The war restructured not only the European political order, but also affected events all around the world, paving the way for the beginning of later British world supremacy in the 19th century, the rise of Prussia in Germany, the beginning of tensions in British North America, as well as a clear sign of France's eventual turmoil.
Diplomatic Revolution: reversal of longstanding alliances in Europe between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War. Austria went from an ally of Britain to an ally of France, while Prussia became an ally of Britain
Stately quadrille: popularly used to describe the constantly shifting alliances between the Great Powers of Europe during 18th c.
Spanish invasion of Portugal (1762) (1762.05.05–11.24): main military episode of the wider Seven Years' War, where Spain and France were heavily defeated by the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (including broad popular resistance). It initially involved the forces of Spain and Portugal, before the French and British intervened in the conflict on the side of their respective allies. The war was also strongly marked by a national guerilla warfare in the mountainous country, cutting off supplies from Spain and a hostile peasantry that enforced a scorched earth policy as the invading armies approached, leaving the invaders starving and short of military supplies.
Fantastic War (1762–1763)
East Asian warsEdit
Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98): comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from the Korean Peninsula after a military stalemate in Korea's southern coastal provinces. The invasions were launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering the Korean Peninsula and China, which were ruled by the Joseon and by the Ming dynasty, respectively. Japan quickly succeeded in occupying large portions of the Korean Peninsula, but the contribution of reinforcements by the Ming, as well as the disruption of Japanese supply fleets along the western and southern coasts by the Joseon Navy forced a withdrawal of Japanese forces from Pyongyang and the northern provinces to the south, where the Japanese continued to occupy Hanseong (now Seoul) and the southeastern regions. Afterwards, with guerrilla warfare waged against the Japanese with righteous armies (Joseon civilian militias) and supply difficulties hampering both sides, neither the Japanese nor the combined Ming and Joseon forces were able to mount a successful offensive or gain any additional territory, resulting in a military stalemate in the areas between Hanseong and Kaesong.

RevolutionsEdit

Category:Revolution
Category:Revolutions
Category:Revolutions by type
Category:Revolutionary waves
Category:Changes in political power
Category:Rebellions by type
Revolutionary wave: series of revolutions occurring in various locations within a similar time span. In many cases, past revolutions and revolutionary waves have inspired current ones, or an initial revolution has inspired other concurrent "affiliate revolutions" with similar aims.

French revolution and English literature, feminism, philosophyEdit

Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution: onventional description of the results of a number of separate policies conducted by various governments of France between the start of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Concordat of 1801, forming the basis of the later and less radical laïcité policies. The goal of the campaign between 1793 and 1794 ranged from the public reclamation of the massive amounts of land, power, and money held by the Catholic Church in France to the termination of Catholic religious practice and of the religion itself. The new revolutionary authorities suppressed the church; abolished the Catholic monarchy; nationalized church property; exiled 30,000 priests and killed hundreds more. In October 1793 the Christian calendar was replaced with one reckoning from the date of the Revolution, and Festivals of Liberty, Reason and the Supreme Being were scheduled. New forms of moral religion emerged, including the deistic Cult of the Supreme Being and the atheistic Cult of Reason, with the revolutionary government briefly mandating observance of the former in April 1794.
FranceEdit
Emile:_or,_On_Education
Reflections on the Revolution in France
Britain: the writers, artist, philosopher, familyEdit
Mary Wollstonecraft
Henry Fuseli
Gilbert Imlay
William Godwin
Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Modern Morals and Manners
Mary Shelley : Frankenstein
Percy Bysshe Shelley

Late modern period {since c. 1800}Edit

List of active separatist movements in Asia
List of active separatist movements in Europe
Siege of Al-Karak (1834): 17-day siege imposed by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt on the Transjordanian town of Al-Karak. The Pasha laid the siege on the town in pursuit of Qasim al-Ahmad, the leader of the Peasants' revolt in Palestine, who had fled from Nablus to take shelter in Al-Karak. Egyptian troops looted the town and the countryside for five days, while Karak's famous fortifications were shelled with gunpowder and the town was reduced to ruins. The Karakis took vengeance upon the Pasha and his Egyptian army when Ibrahim Pasha was driven out of Syria, six years after the siege.
Egyptian–Ottoman War (1839–1841): was fought mainly in Syria, whence it is sometimes referred as the (Second) Syrian War. On 1 July, the Ottoman fleet sailed to Alexandria and surrendered to Muhammad Ali. Britain, Austria and other European nations, rushed to intervene and force Egypt into accepting a peace treaty. 1840.09-11, a combined naval fleet, made up of British and Austrian vessels, cut off Ibrahim's sea communications with Egypt, followed by the occupation of Beirut and Acre by the British. 1840.11.27, the Convention of Alexandria took place. British Admiral Charles Napier reached an agreement with the Egyptian government, where the latter abandoned its claims to Syria and returned the Ottoman fleet.

Age of EnlightenmentEdit

Encyclopédie (Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers)

History of Great Powers, or the 'main players'Edit

Modern world. The time of fast changing (and very important) alliances; the time of WWI and WWII. USA, Japan, Germany, Italy, and China were (newly) (re)formed in the 18th-20th centuries, whereas Britain/England, France, and Russia were long standing states without long occupation by others in 18th c. - present.

The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500 to 2000; 1987): by Paul Kennedy; forecasting the positions of PRC, Japan, EEC (EU), Soviet Union, USA.
The Rise of the Great Powers: PRC's view on the book and TV series.
Anglo-Portuguese Alliance: ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force – with the earliest treaty dating back to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373.
Portugal–United Kingdom relations: two countries now enjoy a healthy and close relationship.
Geostrategy in Central Asia: Central Asia has long been a geostrategic location because of its proximity to the interests of several great powers and regional powers.
The Great Game from ~Treaty of Gulistan of 1813 (Azerbaijan and Daghestan were born out of Persia) to ~Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907; RU and UK/GB: from 'enemies' to 'friends'; the future of Indo-Iranian (and some non-Indo-Iranians in these areas), Ottoman Empire (mainly Turkey (modern successor), also Arabic, Balkans, Persian) and Turkic (Azerbaijani, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Uyghur, Uzbeks, other) peoples
Holy Alliance 26 September 1815, stopping the (-alistic, -tarian, -atic) revolutions in Europe (and worldwide?), by Austrian and Russian Empires, and soon-to-be an empire (after German unification), Kingdom of Prussia
First Opium War UK vs Qing China, 1839 to 1842, HK to UK (only to go back to PR China on 1 July 1997)
Template:Great power diplomacy 1871-1913: Japan takes over Korea and Taiwan; British Empire is the biggest; Germany just after unification rises; France; Russia; USA rise; Italy; Austria-Hungary demise
Splendid isolation late 19th century, UK/GB
Scramble for Africa between the 1880s and the First World War in 1914, more or less no corner in Africa is left uncolonised; UK/GB, FR, DE, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Italy (RU, USA, Japan, China etc. missing... for the time being...)
League of the Three Emperors October of 1873, von Bismarck's game: DE, Austria-Hungary, RU
Reinsurance Treaty 18 June 1887, Germany (von Bismarck made it, but later was dismissed) and Russia trying, teaming up and then failing to team up because of RU-FR relations and over DE-UK/GB possible relations
Franco-Russian Alliance 1892 to 1917, stable almost till the end of WWI
First Sino-Japanese War 1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895
 
Satirical drawing in Punch Magazine[1] (29 September 1894), showing the victory of "small" Japan over "large" China.
Triple Intervention Russia, Germany, and France vs Japan on 23 April 1895, on the future of China
 
In this political cartoon, the United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, France, and Japan are dividing China
Spanish–American War (1898.04.25-08.12): conflict between Spain and USA, the result of USA intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. American attacks on Spain's Pacific possessions led to involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately to the Philippine–American War.
United States Protectorate over Cuba
Philippine–American War (1899.06.02-1902.07.04): American victory and occupation of the Philippines; dissolution of the First Philippine Republic.
History of the Philippines (1898–1946): Spanish-American War period (1898). Philippine–American War (1899–1902). Insular Government (1901–35): U.S. civil administration. Commonwealth era (1935–1946). Japanese occupation and World War II (1941–45). Independence (1946).
Boxer Rebellion between 1898 and 1901, religious Chinese guys and a bit of Qing Empire vs the big 8; big 8 wins
Eight-Nation Alliance August of 1900, the big 8
Anglo-Japanese Alliance 30 January 1902, extensions: 1905 and 1911, demise and termination: between 1921 and 1923 **
Washington Naval Conference Washington, D.C. from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922
Four-Power Treaty Washington Naval Conference on 13 December 1921
Nine-Power Treaty ("concluding remarks" of) Washington Naval Conference on 6 February 1922, on the future of China
Lansing-Ishii Agreement 2 November 1917
The New Great Game: conceptualization of modern geopolitics in Central Eurasia as a competition between the United States, the United Kingdom and other NATO countries against Russia, PRC and other Shanghai Cooperation Organisation countries for "influence, power, hegemony and profits in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus".
 
Eurasian geopolitical map (Brzezinski 1998).

WWI and the shortly afterwards following warsEdit

Conference of Ambassadors (Conference of Ambassadors of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers): inter-allied organization of the Entente in the period following the end of WWI. Formed in Paris in January 1920 it became a successor of the Supreme War Council and was later on de facto incorporated into the League of Nations as one of its governing bodies. It became less active after the Locarno Treaties of 1925 and formally ceased to exist in 1931 or 1935. The Conference consisted of ambassadors of Great Britain, Italy, and Japan accredited in Paris and French minister of foreign affairs. The ambassador of USA attended as an observer because USA was not an official party to the Treaty of Versailles. French diplomat René Massigli was its secretary-general for its entire existence. It was chaired by foreign minister of France. Some of the disputed regions handled by the Conference included Cieszyn Silesia (between Poland and Czechoslovakia), the Vilnius Region (between Poland and Lithuania), the Klaipėda Region (between Germany and Lithuania) and the Corfu Incident (between Italy and Greece). One of its major territorial decisions was made 1923.03.15, in recognizing the eastern borders of Poland created following the Polish–Soviet War of 1920. The Conference of Ambassadors of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers was appointed by the League of Nations to take charge of the Greek/Albanian border dispute that turned into the Corfu Incident of 1923.
Polish–Soviet War (1919.02 – 1921.03)
Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19
Battle of Warsaw (1920)
Battle of the Niemen River (1920.09.15 – 1920.09.25)
Polish–Ukrainian War (1918.11.1 – 1919.07.17): Result: Polish victory
Kiev Offensive (1920) (1920.04.24-06.13): Result: Decisive Red army strategic victory; start of the major Red army counter-offensive
Polish–Lithuanian War (Lithuanian historiography: 1919 Spring – 1920.11.29; Polish historiography: 1920.09.01-10.07): armed conflict between newly independent Lithuania and Poland in the aftermath of WWI. Result: Polish control of Suwałki and Vilnius Regions; no diplomatic relations between Poland and Lithuania until the ultimatum of 1938. Conflict was largely shaped by the progress in the Polish–Soviet War and international efforts to mediate at the Conference of Ambassadors and later the League of Nations.
Lithuanian–Soviet War (1918.12 – 1919.08; lt: karas su bolševikais): Result: Bolshevik forces driven out.

WWIIEdit

Lots of maneuvering just before WWII in East Asia and Europe - China from DE ally to JP enemy, relations between DE and UK, DE and USSR, DE and PL, ...:

Anglo-German Naval Agreement (1935.06.18): total tonnage of the Kriegsmarine was to be 35% of the total tonnage of the Royal Navy on a permanent basis; agreement was renounced by Adolf Hitler 1939.04.28. Ambitious attempt on the part of both London and Berlin to reach better relations, but it ultimately foundered because of conflicting expectations between the two states. Anglo-German Naval Agreement was highly controversial, both at the time and since, because the 35:100 tonnage ratio allowed Germany the right to build a Navy beyond the limits set by the Treaty of Versailles, and the British had made the agreement without consulting France or Italy first.
Anti-Comintern Pact (1936.11.25 : DE & JP): anti-communist pact concluded between Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan; in order to avoid damaging relations with the Soviet Union, the Pact was supposedly directed only against the Comintern, but in fact contained a secret agreement that in the event of either signatory power becoming involved with a war with the Soviet Union, the other signatory power would maintain a benevolent neutrality. Italy joined 1937.11.06.
Second Sino-Japanese War (7 July 1937 – 9 September 1945)
Soviet–German relations before 1941: USSR gave raw materials, buffer states between Nazis and Soviets were eliminated (Romania (nowadays Moldova) & Lithuania (Memel region) & Poland (Belorussian & Ukranian (by language) & other mixed lands) divided). Romani (and Sinti); homosexuals; Jews; political people (anti-Nazis, anti-Soviets/communists, others); Volksdeutsche; some nationals: too rich or too poor, random people were heavily affected, killed.
Viktor Suvorov:
Stalin's alleged speech of August 19, 1939
Molotov line
Stalin line
Battle of the Atlantic (1939.09.03–1945.05.08): longest continuous military campaign in WWII. At its core was the Allied naval blockade of Germany, announced the day after the declaration of war, and Germany's subsequent counter-blockade. It was at its height from mid-1940 through to the end of 1943. The Battle of the Atlantic pitted U-boats and other warships of the Kriegsmarine and aircraft of the Luftwaffe against the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Navy, US Navy and Allied merchant shipping. The convoys, coming mainly from North America and predominantly going to UK and USSR, were protected for the most part by the British and Canadian navies and air forces. These forces were aided by ships and aircraft of USA beginning 1941.09.13. As an island nation, the United Kingdom was highly dependent on imported goods. Britain required more than a million tons of imported material per week in order to be able to survive and fight. In essence, the Battle of the Atlantic was a tonnage war: the Allied struggle to supply Britain and the Axis attempt to stem the flow of merchant shipping that enabled Britain to keep fighting. From 1942 onwards, the Axis also sought to prevent the build-up of Allied supplies and equipment in the British Isles in preparation for the invasion of occupied Europe. The defeat of the U-boat threat was a pre-requisite for pushing back the Axis. The outcome of the battle was a strategic victory for the Allies—the German blockade failed—but at great cost: 3,500 merchant ships and 175 warships were sunk for the loss of 783 U-boats. After the improved radar came into action shipping losses plummeted, reaching a level significantly (p=0.99) below the early months of the war. The development of the improved radar by the Allies began in 1940, before USA entered the war, when Henry Tizard and A. V. Hill won permission to share British secret research with the Americans, including bringing them a cavity magnetron, which generates the needed high frequency radio waves . All sides will agree with Hastings that "... mobilization of the best civilian brains, and their integration into the war effort at the highest levels, was an outstanding British success story."
First Happy Time: early phase of the Battle of the Atlantic during which German Navy U-boats enjoyed significant success against the British Royal Navy and its allies was referred to by U-boat crews as "Die Glückliche Zeit".
Second Happy Time (also known among German submarine commanders as the American shooting season; 1942.01-1942.08): informal name for a phase in the Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping and Allied naval vessels along the east coast of North America.
First Vienna Award (First Vienna Arbitration)
Battle of the Netherlands (1940.05.10–14; 1940.05.10–17 (Zealand)): saw one of the first major uses of paratroopers to occupy crucial targets prior to ground troops reaching the area. The German Luftwaffe utilised paratroopers in the capture of several major airfields in the Netherlands in and around key cities such as Rotterdam and The Hague in order to quickly overrun the nation and immobilise Dutch forces. Battle ended soon after the devastating bombing of Rotterdam by the German Luftwaffe and the subsequent threat by the Germans to bomb other large Dutch cities if Dutch forces refused to surrender.
Battle of France (1940.05.10–06.25): successful German invasion of France and the Low Countries. German armoured units pushed through the Ardennes and then along the Somme valley to cut off and surround the Allied units that had advanced into Belgium. When British and adjacent French forces were pushed back to the sea by the highly mobile and well-organized German operation, the British government decided to evacuate the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) as well as several French divisions at Dunkirk in Operation Dynamo. German strategy: It was only after the defeat of France in 1940, that the German military pursued a "Blitzkrieg"-kind of warfare to achieve its ambitions in Europe.
Balkan Campaign (World War II)
Greco-Italian War (1940.10.28–1941.04.23): began the Balkans Campaign of WWII between the Axis powers and the Allies. It turned into the Battle of Greece when British and German ground forces intervened early in 1941. In 1940, there was a hostile press campaign in Italy and other provocations, culminating in the sinking of the Greek light cruiser Elli by the Italians on 15 August (the Christian Dormition of the Mother of God festival). On 28 October, Mussolini issued an ultimatum to Greece demanding the cession of Greek territory, which the Prime Minister of Greece, Ioannis Metaxas, rejected. With the failure of the Italian attack evident, in 1940.12 Adolf Hitler decided to come to the aid of his Axis ally. German build-up in the Balkans accelerated after Bulgaria joined the Axis on 1941.03.01. British ground forces began arriving in Greece the next day.
Invasion of Yugoslavia (1941.04.06–18): German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers
May 1940 War Cabinet crisis: confrontation between Winston Churchill, newly appointed as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and Viscount Halifax, the Foreign Secretary, which took place between 25 and 28 May. Halifax believed that in view of the imminent Fall of France and the encirclement of British forces at Dunkirk, the United Kingdom should explore the possibility of a negotiated peace settlement with Adolf Hitler, with the still-neutral Italian leader Benito Mussolini brokering the agreement. After apparently considering ending the war on 26 May, Churchill outmanoeuvred Halifax by calling a meeting of his 25-member Outer Cabinet two days later, to whom he delivered a passionate speech, saying "If this long island story of ours is to end at last, let it end only when each one of us lies choking in his own blood upon the ground", convincing all present that Britain must fight on against Hitler whatever the cost.
The Darkest Hour: phrase coined by British prime minister Winston Churchill to describe the period of World War II between the Fall of France in 1940.06 and the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.06 (totaling 363 days, or 11 months and 28 days), when the British Empire stood alone (or almost alone after the Italian invasion of Greece) against the Axis Powers in Europe. It is particularly used for the time when the United Kingdom appeared to be under direct threat of invasion (Operation Sea Lion); following the evacuation of the British Army from Dunkirk and prior to victory in the Battle of Britain. The darkest moment is usually considered to have been 1941.05.10, when over 1,500 civilians died in Luftwaffe bombing raids on London alone. British Empire was not the only major power fighting the Axis as a whole: China had been engaging the Japanese since 1937; Greece fought the Axis powers from 1940.10 when it defeated the Italian troops until 1941.06. USA did not formally become involved in the war on the Allied side until after the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese in 1941.12.07. However, President Franklin D. Roosevelt clearly sympathized with Britain and other opponents of Germany, and did what he could to quietly assist them within the confines of existing U.S. law, which mandated strict official neutrality, and in the face of strong isolationist sentiment, both among the public and Congress, which wanted the U.S. to stay out of the European and Asian conflicts.
German-occupied Europe
Lend-Lease (1941.03.11-1945): supplying of UK, USSR, China, Free France, and other Allies with materiel; total $50.1 ($647 bil today [2012]): $31.4 bil to UK, $11.3 bil to USSR, $3.2 bil to France, $1.6 bil to China.
Pacific Route: affected by the start of hostilities between Japan and the US in December 1941 (Pearl Harbor), but was not interrupted as Japan and the USSR maintained a strict neutrality towards each other for the duration of the conflict, changing only in 1945.08. Due to this neutrality the goods could be moved only in Soviet-flagged ships, and, as they were inspected by the Japanese, could not include war materials; overall accounted for some 50% of all Lend-lease goods to USSR.
Northwest Staging Route: series of airstrips, airport and radio ranging stations built in Alberta, British Columbia, the Yukon and Alaska during WWII; into USSR as ALSIB (ALaska-SIBerian air road).
Persian Corridor: supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to USSR during WWII.
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran (1941.08.25-1941.09.17): secure Iranian oil fields and ensure Persian Corridor
German–Turkish Non-Aggression Pact (1941.06.18): signed between Nazi Germany and Turkey in Ankara by German ambassador to Turkey Franz von Papen and Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs Şükrü Saracoğlu. It became effective on the same day. The pact, which was intended to be in force for a period of ten years, lasted until 1945.10.24, when Turkey joined UN. In 1941.06.22, only four days after the signing of the German–Turkish Non-Aggression Pact, German troops invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa.
Operation Barbarossa (de: Fall Barbarossa; 1941.06.22–12.05): Nazi Germany's invasion of USSR during WWII.
Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II (1940.06.10–1945.05.02)
Battle of the Mediterranean (1940.06.10–1945.05.02)
Siege of Malta (World War II) (1940.06.11–1942.11.20)
Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon (1942.11.27): on the order of the Admiralty of Vichy France to avoid capture by Nazi German forces during Operation Lila of the Case Anton takeover of Vichy France.
Battle of Stalingrad (1942.08.23-1943.02.02): higher estimates of combined casualties amounts to 2 mln. Turning point in the war; even though DE occupied about 90% of Stalingrad at times, the urban warfare continued. On 1942.11.19 the Red Army launched Operation Uranus: two-pronged attack from the flanks; these flanks were composed of the weaker Romanian and Hungarian troops. Paulus' VI army was cut off and surrounded inside Stalingrad.
Battle of Kursk (DE offensive: 1943.07.05-16; USSR offensive: 1943.07.12-08.23): Soviet intelligence on the Nazi plans and delay in DE offensive allowed the Red Army to construct a series of defense lines and gather large reserve forces for a strategic counterattack.
Battle of Prokhorovka (12 July 1943; German: tanks and assault guns; Soviet: about 610 tanks and self-propelled guns; Losses: German: 43–80 tanks and assault guns destroyed or damaged, Soviet: 300–400 tanks and self-propelled guns destroyed or damaged): near Prokhorovka, 87 kilometres southeast of Kursk in USSR. 5th Guards Tank Army of the Soviet Red Army attacked the II SS-Panzer Corps of the German Wehrmacht in one of the largest tank battles in military history. Misconceptions and disputations: Size of the tank battle and German losses.
Battle of the Dnieper (1943.08.24-1943.12.23): was one of the largest operations in WWII, involving almost 4,000,000 troops on both sides and stretching on a 1,400 km long front. Eastern bank of the Dnieper was recovered from German forces by five of the Red Army's Fronts, which conducted several assault river crossings to establish several bridgeheads on the western bank. Subsequently, Kiev was liberated in a separate offensive.
Battle of Manila (1945) (1945.02.03–03.03): fought by American and Filipino forces against Japanese troops in Manila, the capital city of the Philippines. The month-long battle, which resulted in the death of over 100,000 civilians and the complete devastation of the city, was the scene of the worst urban fighting in the Pacific theater. Japanese forces committed mass murder against Filipino civilians during the battle. Along with massive loss of life, the battle also destroyed architectural and cultural heritage dating back to the city's foundation.
Operation Keelhaul: carried out in Northern Italy by British and American forces to repatriate Soviet Armed Forces POWs of the Nazis to USSR between 1946.08.14-1947.05.09. OST-Arbeiters to USSR (not killed but denied basic rights and education); executed for treason: Cossacks and White émigré-Russians to USSR, Ustaše to Yugoslavia.
Repatriation of Cossacks after World War II (The Betrayal of Cossacks, Tragedy of Drau, Massacre of Cossacks at Lienz): forced repatriation to the USSR of the Cossacks and ethnic Russians who were allies of Nazi Germany during WWII.
Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin: book written by Timothy D. Snyder (October 28, 2010). About the mass killing of an estimated 14 million non-combatants by the regimes of Stalin (Soviet Union) and Hitler (Nazi Germany) in what is now Baltics, RU, PL, Belarus, Ukraine.
Collaboration with the Axis Powers: some citizens and organizations, prompted by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, antisemitism, opportunism, self-defense, or often a combination, knowingly collaborated with the Axis Powers. Collaboration is "a co-operation between elements of the population of a defeated state and the representatives of the victorious power". Stanley Hoffmann subdivided collaboration onto involuntary (reluctant recognition of necessity) and voluntary (an attempt of exploiting necessity); collaborationism can be subdivided onto servile and ideological, the former is a deliberate service to an enemy, whereas the latter is a deliberate advocacy of co-operation with the foreign force which is seen as a champion of some desirable domestic transformations. In contrast, Bertram Gordon used the terms "collaborator" and "collaborationist" for non-ideological and ideological collaborations, respectively.
Pursuit of Nazi collaborators
Rape during the occupation of Germany: Allied troops entered and occupied German territory during the later stages of WWII, mass rapes took place both in connection with combat operations and during the subsequent occupation. Most Western scholars agree that the majority of the rapes were committed by Soviet servicemen, while some Russian historians maintain that these crimes were not widespread. The wartime rapes had been surrounded by decades of silence.
  • Soviet troops: According to Antony Beevor, whose books were banned in 2015 from some Russian schools and colleges, NKVD (Soviet secret police) files have revealed that the leadership knew what was happening, including about the rape of Soviet women liberated from labour camps, but did nothing to stop it. Some Russian historians disagree, claiming that the Soviet leadership took swift action. The majority of the assaults were committed in the Soviet occupation zone; estimates of the numbers of German women raped by Soviet soldiers have ranged up to 2 million. According to historian William Hitchcock, in many cases women were the victims of repeated rapes, some as many as 60 to 70 times. At least 100,000 women are believed to have been raped in Berlin, based on surging abortion rates in the following months and contemporary hospital reports, with an estimated 10,000 women dying in the aftermath. Female deaths in connection with the rapes in Germany, overall, are estimated at 240,000. When Yugoslav politician Milovan Djilas complained about rapes in Yugoslavia, Stalin reportedly stated that he should "understand it if a soldier who has crossed thousands of kilometres through blood and fire and death has fun with a woman or takes some trifle." On another occasion, when told that Red Army soldiers sexually maltreated German refugees, he reportedly said: "We lecture our soldiers too much; let them have their initiative." However, the rapes continued until the winter of 1947–48, when Soviet occupation authorities finally confined Soviet troops (Red Army) to strictly guarded posts and camps, separating them from the residential population in the Soviet zone of Germany. Norman Naimark also notes the allegedly patriarchal nature of Russian culture, and of the Asian societies comprising the Soviet Union, where dishonor was in the past repaid by raping the women of the enemy. The fact that the Germans had a much higher standard of living visible even when in ruins "may well have contributed allegedly to a national inferiority complex among Russians". Combining "Russian feelings of inferiority", the resulting need to restore honor, and their desire for revenge may be the reason many women were raped in public as well as in front of husbands before both were killed. Historian Geoffrey Roberts writes that the Red Army raped women in every country they passed through, but mostly in Austria and Germany: 70,000–100,000 rapes in Vienna, and "hundreds of thousands" of rapes in Germany. He notes that the German Army probably committed tens of thousands of rapes on the Eastern Front, but that murder was the more typical crime for them. The number of babies, who came to be known as "Russian Children", born as a result is unknown. However, most rapes did not result in pregnancies, and many pregnancies did not result in the victims giving birth. Abortions were the preferred choice of rape victims, and many died as a consequence of internal injuries after being brutally violated, untreated sexually transmitted diseases due to a lack of medicine, badly performed abortions, and suicides, particularly for traumatized victims who had been raped many times. In addition, many children died in postwar Germany as a result of widespread starvation, scarce supplies, and diseases such as typhus and diphtheria. The infant mortality in Berlin reached up to 90 per cent.
  • USA troops: Although non-fraternization policies were instituted for the Americans in Germany, the phrase "copulation without conversation is not fraternization" was used as a motto by USA Army troops. Carol Huntington writes that the American soldiers who raped German women and then left gifts of food for them may have permitted themselves to view the act as a prostitution rather than rape. Citing the work of a Japanese historian alongside this suggestion, Huntington writes that Japanese women who begged for food "were raped and soldiers sometimes left food for those they raped.
  • British troops: A senior British Army chaplain following the troops reported that there was a 'good deal of rape going on'. He then added that "those who suffer [rape] have probably deserved it.'
  • French troops: According to Norman Naimark, French Moroccan troops matched the behavior of Soviet troops when it came to rape, in particular in the early occupation of Baden and Württemberg, providing the numbers are correct.
Battle of Berlin (1945.04.16–05.02): final major offensive of the European theatre of WWII. Following the Vistula–Oder Offensive of January–February 1945, the Red Army had temporarily halted on a line 60 km east of Berlin. On 9 March, Germany established its defence plan for the city with Operation Clausewitz. When the Soviet offensive resumed on 16 April, two Soviet fronts (army groups) attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. Before the main battle in Berlin commenced, the Red Army encircled the city after successful battles of the Seelow Heights and Halbe. On 20 April 1945, Hitler's birthday, the 1st Belorussian Front led by Marshal Georgy Zhukov, advancing from the east and north, started shelling Berlin's city centre, while Marshal Ivan Konev's 1st Ukrainian Front broke through Army Group Centre and advanced towards the southern suburbs of Berlin. On 23 April General Helmuth Weidling assumed command of the forces within Berlin. The garrison consisted of several depleted and disorganised Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS divisions, along with poorly trained Volkssturm and Hitler Youth members. Over the course of the next week, the Red Army gradually took the entire city. Before the battle was over, Hitler and several of his followers killed themselves. The city's garrison surrendered on 2 May but fighting continued to the north-west, west, and south-west of the city until the end of the war in Europe on 8 May (9 May in the Soviet Union) as some German units fought westward so that they could surrender to the Western Allies rather than to the Soviets.
A Woman in Berlin (Eine Frau in Berlin; 1959/2003): anonymous memoir by a German woman, revealed in 2003 to be journalist Marta Hillers. It covers the weeks 1945.04.20-1945.06.22, during the capture of Berlin and its occupation by the Red Army. The writer describes the widespread rapes by Soviet soldiers, including her own, and the women's pragmatic approach to survival, often taking Soviet officers for protection. When published in German in 1953, the book was either "ignored or reviled" in Germany. The author refused to have another edition published in her lifetime. The first English edition appeared 1954 in USA. Hillers showed her manuscript to friends, and author Kurt Marek (C. W. Ceram) arranged for the book's translation into English and publication in USA in 1954. Hillers married and moved from Germany to Geneva, Switzerland in the 1950s. She first had her book published in German in 1959 by the Swiss firm, Helmut Kossodo. Both editions were published anonymously, at her request. Her memoir was the only book she published. The writer is too reflective, too candid, too worldly for that,' one reviewer said." Harding noted that the author wrote: "I laugh right in the middle of all this awfulness. What should I do? After all, I am alive, everything will pass!"
Victory Banner (ru: Знамя Победы): banner raised by the Red Army soldiers on the Reichstag building in Berlin in 1945.04.30, the day that Adolf Hitler committed suicide.
Western betrayal: view that the United Kingdom and France failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish nations during the prelude to and aftermath of WWII. It also sometimes refers to the treatment of other Central and Eastern European nations at the time. However it was no secret to the Allies that before his death in July 1943 General Władysław Sikorski, Prime Minister of Poland's London-based government in exile had been the originator, and not Stalin, of the concept of a westward shift of Poland's boundaries along an Oder–Neisse line as compensation for relinquishing Poland's eastern territories as part of a Polish rapprochement with the USSR. Dr. Józef Retinger who was Sikorski's special political advisor at the time was also in agreement with Sikorski's concept of Poland's realigned post-war borders, later in his memoirs Retinger wrote: "At the Tehran Conference, in November 1943, the Big Three agreed that Poland should receive territorial compensation in the West, at Germany's expense, for the land it was to lose to Russia in Central and Eastern Europe. This seemed like a fair bargain." The Federal Republic of Germany, formed in 1949, was portrayed by Communist propaganda as the breeder of Hitler's posthumous offspring who desired retaliation and wanted to take back from Poland the "Recovered Territories". Giving this picture a grain of credibility was that the Federal Republic of Germany until 1970 refused to recognize the Oder-Neisse Line and that some West German officials had a tainted Nazi past. For a segment of Polish public opinion, Communist rule was seen as the lesser of the two evils. {sic: divide & conquer?} The chief American negotiator at Yalta was Alger Hiss, later accused of being a Soviet spy and convicted of perjuring himself in his testimony to the House Committee on Unamerican Activities. His espionage was later confirmed by the Venona tapes.
WWII: Eastern FrontEdit
Naliboki massacre (1943.05.08): mass killing of 129 Poles, including women and children, by Soviet partisans in the small town of Naliboki in German-occupied Poland (the town is now in Belarus).
Operation Hermann (1943.07.13-1943.08.11): German anti-partisan action in the Naliboki Forest area. The German battle groups destroyed settlements in the area. During the operation, German troops burned down over 60 Polish and Belarusian villages and murdered 4280 civilians. Between 21,000 and 25,000 people were sent to forced labour in the Third Reich.
Koniuchy massacre (1944.01.29): of Polish and Byelorussian civilians, mostly women and children, carried out in the village of Koniuchy (now Kaniūkai, Lithuania) by a Soviet partisan unit together with a contingent of Jewish partisans under Soviet command. At least 38 civilians who have been identified by name were killed, and more than a dozen were injured. Prior to the massacre and in response to raiding by Soviet partisans, the village had formed an armed self-defense force with the encouragement and backing of the Lithuanian Auxiliary Police, to defend from Partisan raids; according to partisan sources the force's operations hindered their activity in the vicinity of the village significantly, though some historians stress the token nature of the force.
Bielski partisans: unit of Jewish partisans who rescued Jews from extermination and fought the German occupiers and their collaborators around Nowogródek (Navahrudak) and Lida (now in western Belarus) in German-occupied Poland. The partisan unit was named after the Bielskis, a family of Polish Jews who organized and led the organization.
AxisEdit
Operation Achse (Fall Achse, "Case Axis"): was the codename of the German plans to forcibly disarm the Italian armed forces after their expected armistice with the Allied forces in 1943
Italian military internees (Italienische Militärinternierte, IMI): the Nazis considered the Italians as traitors and not as prisoners of war.
AlliesEdit
United States Office of War Information (OWI): US government agency created during WWII. OWI operated from June 1942 until September 1945. Through radio broadcasts, newspapers, posters, photographs, films and other forms of media, the OWI was the connection between the battlefront and civilian communities. The office also established several overseas branches, which launched a large-scale information and propaganda campaign abroad. European Theater: One of the most astounding of all OWI operations occurred in Luxembourg. Known as Operation Annie, the United States 12th Army Group ran a secret radio station from 2:00-6:30am every morning from a house in Luxembourg pretending to be loyal Rhinelanders under Nazi occupation. They spoke of Nazi commanders hiding their desperate position from the German public, which caused dissent among Nazi supporters. On the Eastern front, the OWI struggled not to offend Polish and Soviet Allies. As the Soviets advanced from the East towards Germany, they swept through Poland without hesitation. However, Poles considered much of the land of the Eastern front as their own. The OWI struggled to present the news (including the pronunciation of town names or and discussion of county or national boundaries) without offending either party. Pacific Theater: OWI was one of the most prolific sources of propaganda in “Free China.” They operated a sophisticated propaganda machine that sought to demoralize the Japanese army and create a portrait of US war aims that would appeal to the Chinese audience. OWI employed many Chinese, second-generation Japanese (Nisei), Japanese POWs, Korean exiles, etc. However, the OWI encountered public relations difficulties in China and India. In China, the OWI unsuccessfully attempted to stay removed from the Nationalist versus Communist conflict.
Politics of WWII (great powers)Edit
Fourth Moscow Conference
Percentages agreement ("Naughty document"): agreement between Soviet premier Joseph Stalin and British prime minister Winston Churchill about how to divide various European countries into spheres of influence during the Fourth Moscow Conference, in 1944; agreement was made public by Churchill.
Economics of WWIIEdit

What do you need for total war? Lots of people (human capital), steal (iron), energy (coal, oil), gas and to the lesser extent diesel.

Swedish iron mining during World War II: Allies and the Third Reich were keen on the control of the mining district in northernmost Sweden, surrounding the mining towns of Gällivare and Kiruna. In 1944.11 Sweden reduced and ended its iron ore trade with Germany. Sweden's iron ore was of the high grade quality, while Lorraine's (FR) and Germany's iron ore used by Germany was of the low grade.
Technology and machinesEdit
Tanks in World War II: UK, USA, the USSR, FR and IT produced significant numbers of tanks before and during World War II. DE tanks were inferior to many of their opponent's tanks in the areas of armour and firepower; however, it was in their tactical employment that German tanks dominated all rivals early in the war; DE doctrine stressed the use of rapid movement, mission-type orders and combined-arms tactics involving mobile infantry and air support; this doctrine was popularly called Blitzkrieg. This doctrine required the Germans to equip their tanks with radios, which provided unmatched command and control for flexible employment. In contrast, e.g., almost 80% of FR tanks lacked radios, essentially because their battle doctrine was based on a more slow-paced, deliberate conformance to planned movements. By 1943, two-way radio was nearly universal. Turrets which had always been considered, but were not previously a universal feature on tanks, were recognised as essential; most tanks retained a hull machine gun, and usually one or more machineguns in the turret, to protect them from infantry at short range. Tank destroyers and assault guns - armoured vehicles carrying large calibre guns, but often no turrets.
Border changesEdit

Many borders changed in the years 1930s-1940s; a few things followed, e.g. Indian Independence.

The last agreements on borders:

German–Polish Border Treaty (1990)
JewsEdit
Shanghai Ghetto
Post WWIIEdit
de:Special Film Project 186: filmten Kameraleute der United States Army Air Forces von März bis Mai den Vorstoß amerikanischer Truppen in Deutschland und danach die unmittelbare Nachkriegszeit in Europa.
Denazification (de: Entnazifizierung): was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of any remnants of the National Socialist (Nazi) ideology.

Cold WarEdit

Template:Cold War

Western betrayal
Operation Unthinkable: was a British plan to attack the Soviet Union.
Julian March: first huger conflict between the West (capitalist; US & UK) and the East (commmunist, Yugoslavia) after WWII. Free Territory of TriesteTreaty of Osimo: now Slovenia has very short coastline, while Croatia and Italy has huge coastlines. Trieste belongs to Italy.
Apollo–Soyuz Test Project: the end of Space Race?
Suez Crisis (Tripartite Aggression, Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Second Arab-Israeli War): diplomatic and military confrontation in late 1956 between Egypt on one side, and Britain, France and Israel on the other, with USA, USSR, and UN playing major roles in forcing Britain, France and Israel to withdraw.
Cold War: nuclear warEdit
Stanislav Petrov (1939.09.09 - ): retired lieutenant colonel of the Soviet Air Defence Forces. In 1983.09.26, just three weeks after the Soviet military had shot down Korean Air Lines Flight 007, Petrov was the duty officer at the command center for the Oko nuclear early-warning system when the system reported that a missile, followed by another one and then up to five more, were being launched from USA. Petrov judged the report to be a false alarm, and his decision is credited with having prevented an erroneous retaliatory nuclear attack on USA and its NATO allies that could have resulted in large-scale nuclear war. Investigation later confirmed that the satellite warning system had indeed malfunctioned.
Vasili Arkhipov (1926.01.30–1998.08.19) was a Soviet Navy officer. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, he prevented the launch of a nuclear torpedo and thereby prevented a nuclear war. Thomas Blanton (then director of the National Security Archive) said in 2002 that "a guy called Vasili Arkhipov saved the world".

PresentEdit

{q.v.:

}

Cold War II: popular term for the ongoing state of political and military tension between opposing geopolitical power-blocs, with one bloc typically reported as being led by Russia and the other led by USA, EU, and NATO; may also refer to growing tensions between USA and China. In 1998, George Kennan called the US Senate vote to expand NATO to include Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic as "the beginning of a new cold war", and predicted that "the Russians will gradually react quite adversely and it will affect their policies". The journalist Edward Lucas wrote his 2008 book The New Cold War: How the Kremlin Menaces both Russia and the West, claiming that a new cold war between Russia and the West had begun already. Michael Klare, a RealClearPolitics writer and an academic, in 2013.06 compared tensions between Russia and the West to the ongoing proxy conflict between Saudi Arabia and Iran.
Kuril Islands dispute: Northern Territories dispute, is a disagreement between Japan and Russia and also some individuals of the Ainu people over sovereignty of the South Kuril Islands. These islands, like other islands in the Kuril chain that are not in dispute, were annexed by the USSR in aftermath of the Kuril Islands landing operation at the end of WWII.
Aegean dispute: set of interrelated controversial issues for decades between Greece and Turkey over sovereignty and related rights in the area of the Aegean Sea. This set of conflicts has had a large effect on Greek-Turkish relations since the 1970s. It has twice led to crises coming close to the outbreak of military hostilities, in 1987 and in early 1996.
United States – Russia mutual detargeting: 1994.01.12-15, USA President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin negotiated an agreement between their respective countries not to target strategic nuclear missiles at each other. Detargeted missiles are reprogrammed to either have no target or, in the case of missiles that require a constant target (such as the Minuteman III), are set to open-ocean targets.
year 1968Edit
May 1968 in France: May 1968 in France#Slogans and graffiti, boredom - the uncurable disease?
Counterculture of the 1960s
USA warsEdit
War in AfghanistanEdit
Template:Afghanistan War
Maywand District murders: murder of at least three Afghan civilians perpetrated by a group of rogue U.S. Army soldiers in 2010. The soldiers, who referred to themselves as the "Kill Team", were members of the 3rd Platoon, Bravo Company, 2nd Battalion, 1st Infantry Regiment 5th Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division. They were based at FOB Ramrod at Maiwand, in the southern Kandahar Province of Afghanistan.
Russian (USSR) warsEdit

{q.v. #Conflicts in Caucasus}

WWIIIEdit
Norwegian rocket incident (1995.01.25): a team of Norwegian and American scientists launched a Black Brant XII four-stage sounding rocket from the Andøya Rocket Range off the northwestern coast of Norway. The rocket, which carried scientific equipment to study the aurora borealis over Svalbard, flew on a high northbound trajectory, which included an air corridor that stretches from Minuteman-III nuclear missile silos in North Dakota, all the way to the Russian capital city of Moscow.

History of regions, empires, ethnicities, (nation) states, countries of the worldEdit

Regions of the worldEdit

Divisions according to Eurocentrism:

Western world & Western culture
Eastern world:
Far East
Middle East (Eurocentric point of view) and Western Asia (Southwest Asia): Arabic peninsula, Iran, Turkey, (+Egypt?).
Central Asia: core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. It is also sometimes referred to as Middle Asia, and, colloquially, "the 'stans".
South Asia {q.v. #South Asia, Indian subcontinent}

European regionsEdit

Divided according to culture, language, common history, the most relevant to today (21st c.).

 
European regions as proposed by de:Ständiger Ausschuss für geographische Namen.
Central Europe (sometimes Middle Europe): based on "similarities emanating from historical, social and cultural characteristics", and it is identified as having been "one of the world's richest sources of creative talent" between the 17th and 20th centuries. Cross Currents: A Yearbook of Central European Culture characterizes Central Europe "as an abandoned West or a place where East and West collide"; "a part of Western Christianity". Holy Roman Empire (later German Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy), Kingdom of Hungary, Bohemia, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
 
Central Europe according to P. Jones (Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography). Many Central European countries and regions were parts of the German and the Austro-Hungarian empires (for extended periods, not just WWI or WWII); thus they also have historical and cultural connections.
 
Map of languages and dialects of Central and Eastern Europe.
Southeast Europe (Southeastern Europe; aka "Balkans"): at the North: Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, (+Croatia, Romania?, ++Slovenia??).
Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, CEEC): generic term meaning former communist states in Europe. Near to the bottom of the rankings for most Information Society indicators, such as e-governance, e-business or e-commerce. Sector of small retailers was hit the hardest by the unfavourable economic climate and reduced consumer spending accompanying the higher unemployment. Hypermarkets: British Tesco.
East-Central Europe (Middle Europe, Median Europe, FR: Europe médiane): countries located between German-speaking countries and Russia; "between two worlds, between two stages, between two futures". Paul Robert Magocsi: Northern zone (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Alpine-Carpathian zone (Habsburg Empire / Austro-Hungary), Balkan zone.
Category:House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg: one of the most influential royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England (Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of France (Queen consort), Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Empire of Russia, Kingdom of Croatia, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland (Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Portugal, and Habsburg Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities. From the sixteenth century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried.
Oñate treaty (1617.07.29): secret treaty between the Austrian and Spanish branches of the House of Habsburg.
Baltoscandia (Baltoscandian Confederation): geopolitical concept of a Baltic–Scandinavian union (consisting of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). The idea was proposed by a Swedish professor Sten de Geer (1886–1933) in the journal Geografiska Annaler in 1928 and further developed by Professor Kazys Pakštas (1893–1960), a Lithuanian scientist in the field of geography and geopolitics.
Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB8): regional co-operation format that includes Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, and Sweden. The Nordic countries were amongst the strongest supporters of the Baltic countries' independence and later they were the first to open their borders, introducing visa-free regimes with the Baltic countries. The Nordic countries actively assisted the Baltic countries in their preparations for integration into EU and NATO. On the political level, co-operation in the NB8 format is conducted primarily in the form of annual meetings of the Prime Ministers and Foreign Ministers. Since 2004.05.01, six Nordic and Baltic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) are EU members. Regular informal NB6 Prime Ministers’ meetings on EU matters take place on the eve of Council meetings as well as Foreign Affairs Ministers of these six countries meet on the eve of General Affairs Council and Foreign Affairs Council meetings. NB8 and Visegrad Group.
Visegrád Group: cultural and political alliance of four Central European states – the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, that are members of EU and NATO – for the purposes of advancing military, cultural, economic and energy cooperation with one another along with furthering their integration in the EU. Visegrád was chosen as the location for the 1991 meeting as an intentional allusion to the medieval Congress of Visegrád in 1335 between John I of Bohemia, Charles I of Hungary and Casimir III of Poland. Neighbor relations: Austria, Germany, Ukraine.

Far East, East AsiaEdit

East Asian cultural sphere (Sinosphere, Sinic world, the Confucian world, the Taoist world, the Chinese cultural sphere): grouping of countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture. The East Asian cultural sphere shares a Confucian ethical philosophy, Buddhism, Taoism and, historically, a common writing system. The core regions of the East Asian cultural sphere are Greater China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
Adoption of Chinese literary culture: Chinese writing, culture and institutions were imported as a whole by Vietnam, Korea, Japan and other neighbouring states over an extended period. Chinese Buddhism spread over East Asia between the 2nd and 5th centuries AD, followed by Confucianism as these countries developed strong central governments modelled on Chinese institutions. In Vietnam and Korea, and for a shorter time in Japan and the Ryukyus, scholar-officials were selected using examinations on the Confucian classics modelled on the Chinese civil service examinations. Shared familiarity with the Chinese classics and Confucian values provided a common framework for intellectuals and ruling elites across the region. All of this was based on the use of Literary Chinese, which became the medium of scholarship and government across the region. Although each of these countries developed vernacular writing systems and used them for popular literature, they continued to use Chinese for all formal writing until it was swept away by rising nationalism around the end of the 19th century.

Muslim nations (Arab world, Persian world, Turkic world, Indic world) and IsraelEdit

Arabized: North Africa, South Europe (Spain, Portugal & Reconquista), Western Asia (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq (Babylonia & co)), parts of Anatolia (Asia Minor) (later Turkics came). Indo-Iranians and Malay Archipelago (Maritime Southeast Asia) did not become hugely Arabicized.

Indonesia and Malaysia {q.v. #Malay Archipelago, Maritime Southeast Asia}
Turkics {q.v. #Turkic nations}
Indo-European speaking Muslims:
Indian subcontinent muslims {q.v. #South Asia, Indian subcontinent}
Iran {q.v. #Iran, Persia}
Kurds
{q.v. #Albania}
Muslim Slavs/Slavic Muslims (Bosniaks, Muslims (ethnic group), Bulgarian/Macedonian/Serb/Croat/Montenegrin/Slovenian Muslims, Gorani)
Greek Muslims
Arabization: describes a growing cultural influence on a non-Arab area that gradually changes into one that speaks Arabic and/or incorporates Arab culture and Arab identity. After the rise of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, Arab culture and language spread through trade with African states, conquest, and intermarriage of the non-Arab local population with the Arabs, in Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Iraq and the Sudan. Firstly the Arabian Peninsula; Fertile Crescent; Egypt; North Africa and Iberia.
Arab world: consists of the Arabic-speaking countries and populations in North Africa, Western Asia and elsewhere.
Muslim conquests (Islamic conquests; Arab conquests): began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Consequences: Islamization of the Western Asia, North Africa, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia; Fall of the Sassanid Empire:
Spread of Islam
Arab–Byzantine wars (629-1050)
Muslim conquest of the Levant (Muslim conquest of Syria; 634-638)
Arab conquest of Armenia (639-645)
Muslim conquest of Egypt (639-642)
Muslim conquest of the Maghreb (Muslim conquest of North Africa; 647-709)
Cyprus in the Middle Ages#Arab conquest and Arab-Byzantine condominium (650; 654-688) 688-958: condominium of Caliphate and Byzantine Empire.
Siege of Constantinople (674–78) (First Arab Siege of Constantinople)
Siege of Constantinople (717–18) (Second Arab Siege of Constantinople)
Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711-788)
Emirate of Tbilisi (736-1080(1122))
Marwan ibn Muhammad's invasion of Georgia (735-737)
Emirate of Crete (824/827-961)
History of Islam in southern Italy: Mazara: 827; Sicily: 902
Emirate of Sicily (831-1072)
Muslim conquest of Persia (633-654; Arab conquest of Iran): led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia). Rise of Muslims coincided with an unprecedented political, social, economic and military weakness in Persia. Once a major world power, the Sasanian Empire had exhausted its human and material resources after decades of warfare against the Byzantine Empire. Arab Muslims first attacked the Sassanid territory in 633, when general Khalid ibn Walid invaded Mesopotamia (Sassanid province of Asōristān; what is now Iraq), which was the political and economic center of the Sassanid state. Following the transfer of Khalid to the Byzantine front in the Levant, the Muslims eventually lost their holdings to Sassanian counterattacks. The second invasion began in 636 under Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, when a key victory at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah led to the permanent end of Sasanian control west of Iran. The Zagros mountains then became a natural barrier and border between the Rashidun Caliphate and the Sassanid Empire. Due to continuous raids by Persians into the area, Caliph Umar ordered a full invasion of the Sasanian empire in 642, which led to the complete conquest of the Sasanians around 651. Iranian historians have defended their forebears vis a vis Arab sources to illustrate that "contrary to the claims of some historians, Iranians, in fact, fought long and hard against the invading Arabs." By 651, most of the urban centers in Iranian lands, with the notable exception of the Caspian provinces (Tabaristan) and Transoxiana, had come under the domination of the Arab armies. Many localities fought against the invaders; ultimately, none were successful. In fact, although Arabs had established hegemony over most of the country, many cities rose in rebellion by killing the Arab governor or attacking their garrisons. Eventually, military reinforcements quashed the insurgency and imposed Islamic control. The violent subjugation of Bukhara is a case in point: Conversion to Islam was gradual, partially as the result of this violent resistance; however, Zoroastrian scriptures were burnt and many priests were executed.
Battle of Nahāvand (642): between Arab Muslims and Sassanid armies; battle is known to Muslims as the "Victory of Victories." On the long-term impact of this battle, Sir Muhammad Iqbal wrote: "If you ask me what is the most important event in the history of Islam, I shall say without any hesitation: “The Conquest of Persia.” The battle of Nehawand gave the Arabs not only a beautiful country, but also an ancient civilization; or, more properly, a people who could make a new civilisation with the Semitic and Aryan material. Our Muslim civilisation is a product of the cross-fertilisation of the Semitic and the Aryan ideas. It is a child who inherits the softness and refinement of his Aryan mother, and the sterling character of his Semitic father. But for the conquest of Persia, the civilisation of Islam would have been one-sided. The conquest of Persia gave us what the conquest of Greece gave to the Romans."
Islamic conquest of Afghanistan (642-870)
Muslim conquest of Transoxiana (7th - 8th c.)
Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent (13th - 16th c.)
Mawali (ar: موالي): term in Classical Arabic used to address non-Arab Muslims.
Modern Arab world and some Muslim nationsEdit
North Africa: northernmost region of Africa. Distinction between North Africa and much of Sub-Saharan Africa is historically and ecologically significant because of the effective barrier created by the Sahara Desert for much of modern history. From 3500 BCE, following the abrupt desertification of the Sahara due to gradual changes in the Earth's orbit, this barrier has culturally separated the North from the rest of the continent. As the seafaring civilizations of the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Muslims and others facilitated communication and migration across the Mediterranean Sea, the cultures of North Africa became much more closely tied to Southwestern Asia and Europe than Sub-Saharan Africa. The Islamic influence in the area is also significant, and North Africa is a major part of the Arab world.
MaghrebEdit
Maghreb (Tamazɣa; Amaḍal Amaziɣ, meaning: Berber World; previously known to Europeans as Barbary or Barbary States): usually defined as much or most of the region of western North Africa or Northwest Africa, west of Egypt. During the Al-Andalus era in Spain, the Maghreb's inhabitants, Maghrebis, were known as "Moors". The region was somewhat unified as an independent political entity during the rule of the Berber kingdom of Numidia, which was followed by Roman Empire's rule or influence. That was followed by the brief invasion of the Germanic Vandals, the equally brief re-establishment of a weak Byzantine rule by the Byzantine Empire, the rule of the Islamic Caliphates under the Umayyads, the Abbasids, and the Fatimids. The most enduring rule was that of the local Berber empires of the Almoravids, Almohads, Hammadids, Zirids, Marinids, and Wattasids (to name some of those among the most prominent) from the 8th to 13th centuries. The Ottoman Turks ruled the region as well.
Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System: world’s largest known fossil water aquifer system. It is located underground in the Eastern end of the Sahara Desert and spans the political boundaries of four countries in north-eastern Africa: north-western Sudan, north-eastern Chad, south-eastern Libya, and most of Egypt. Containing an estimated 150,000 km3 of groundwater, the significance of the NSAS as a potential water resource for future development programs in these countries is extraordinary.
Great Man-Made River: network of pipes that supplies water to the Sahara in Libya, from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System fossil aquifer. It is the world's largest irrigation project.
Middle EastEdit

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/Physical_sciences#Middle East: Geography, Mesopotamia}

Greater Middle East: the core of (traditional) Middle East:
Regional powers: Egypt, Iran, Israel (Jews & Arabs), Saudi Arabia, Turkey
Others: Bahrain, Cyprus, Iraq (potential regional power: huge country; Iraqi Kurdistan (autonomy within Iraq)), Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Northern Cyprus (Turkish Cyprus), Oman, State of Palestine, Qatar, Syria, UAE, Yemen
Arab Spring: term for the revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests (both non-violent and violent), riots, and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 2010.12.18.
Constitution of Tunisia: Constitution of 2014 (signed into law on 2014.01.26): new constitution makes Tunisia a decentralized and open government; recognizes Islam as the official state religion, but protects freedom of belief; provides for some restrictions on free speech, most notably in banning attacks on religion and accusations of being a non-believer; provides for gender equality, protects the nation's natural resources and demands the government take steps to fight corruption; executive power is divided between the president and prime minister

Political organizations unique to the region:

Muslim Brotherhood (Muslim Brotherhood; founded in 1928 in Egypt): transnational Islamic political organization which is considered a terrorist organization by both the Egyptian and Russian governments; Pan-Islamic, religious, and social movement by the Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna; stated goal is to instill the Quran and Sunnah as the "sole reference point for ...ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community ... and state". Movement officially renounced political violence in 1949, after a period of considerable political tension which ended in the assassination of Egyptian Prime Minister Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha by a young veterinary student who was a member of the Muslim Brotherhood. Arab Spring at first brought considerable success for the Brotherhood, but as of 2013 it has suffered severe reversals.
Salafi movement (Salafist movement): movement or sect within Sunni Islam that takes its name from the term salaf ("predecessors", "ancestors") used to identify the earliest Muslims, who, its adherents believe, provide the epitome of Islamic practice; movement is often described as related to, including, or synonymous with Wahhabism, but Salafists consider the term "Wahhabi" derogatory.
Levant
History of the ancient Levant
Eastern Mediterranean: geographic and cultural region consisting of the "eastern Mediterranean littoral between Anatolia and Egypt".
Syria (region) (Greater Syria; Syria-Palestine; Levant): usually defined as an area to the East of the Mediterranean Sea, West of the Euphrates River, North of the Arabian Desert and South of the Taurus Mountains.
Greater Syria: nationalist term that denotes a geographical definition of a hypothetical united Fertile Crescent state.
Former countries in the Middle EastEdit
Seljuk Empire (1037–1194): medieval Turko-Persian empire, originating from the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks; controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf. From their homelands near the Aral sea, the Seljuqs advanced first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. The Seljuqs united the fractured political scene of the Eastern Islamic world and played a key role in the first and second crusades. Highly Persianized in culture and language, the Seljuqs also played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition, even exporting Persian culture to Anatolia. The settlement of Turkic tribes in the northwestern peripheral parts of the empire, for the strategic military purpose of fending off invasions from neighboring states, led to the progressive Turkicization of those areas.
Seljuq dynasty
Sultanate of Rum (Anatolian Seljuk State (Sultanate of Konya); 1077–1307): medieval Turko-Persian, Sunni Muslim state in Anatolia. The term "Rûm" comes from the Persian word for the Roman Empire. The Seljuqs called the lands of their sultanate Rum because it had been established on territory long considered "Roman", i.e. Byzantine, by Muslim armies. Seljuq sultans successfully bore the brunt of the Crusades but in 1243 succumbed to the advancing Mongols; vassals of the Mongols.
Anatolian beyliks (Turkmen beyliks): small Turkish principalities or (petty kingdoms) governed by Beys, which were founded across Anatolia at the end of the 11th c. in a first period, and more extensively during the decline of the Sultanate of Rum during the second half of the 13th c.
Karamanids (1250-1487): one of the Anatolian beyliks, centered in south-central Anatolia around the present-day Karaman Province. One of the oldest and most powerful Turkish beyliks in Anatolia.
=Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (Christians; 1099-1291)=Edit
Kingdom of Jerusalem (Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem; 1099-1291, Jerusalem lost in 1187 (first kingdom: 1099-1187); Kingdom of Acre (1192-1291)): crusader state established in the Southern Levant in 1099 after the First Crusade. Reached its height in mid-12th c. The kingdom was ethnically, religiously, and linguistically diverse, although the crusaders themselves and their descendants were an elite Catholic minority. The native Christians (Greek and Syrian Orthodox) and Muslims, who were a marginalized lower class, tended to speak Greek/Syriac and Arabic, while the crusaders spoke Latin, French, and other Western European languages.
Two camps at the end of the 1st period of the kingdom:
1st camp:
Raymond III, Count of Tripoli (1140 – September/October 1187): was regent of Jerusalem while Baldwin IV was a child; did not want to go to Hattin battle to defend his wife at Tiberias castle. Died of pleurisy.
Balian of Ibelin (early 1140s—1193): participated in Baldwin IV's succession debates.
2nd camp:
Guy of Lusignan (c. 1150 – 18 July 1194): king of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1192 by right of marriage to Sibylla of Jerusalem (sister of Baldwin IV).
Gerard de Rideford (died October 1, 1189): Grand Master of the Knights Templar (the end of 1184 - death in 1189).
Raynald of Châtillon (c. 1125 – July 4, 1187): Prince of Antioch from 1153 to 1160 or 1161, and Lord of Oultrejordain from 1175 until his death. He was born as his father's second son into a French noble family. After losing a part of his patrimony, he joined the Second Crusade in 1147. He settled in the Kingdom of Jerusalem and served in the royal army as a mercenary; controlled the caravan routes between Egypt and Syria. Baldwin, who suffered from leprosy, made him regent in 1177. Raynald led the crusader army that defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard. He was the only Christian leader to pursue an offensive policy against Saladin, making plundering raids against the caravans travelling near his domains. He built a fleet of five ships which plundered the coast of the Red Sea, threatening the route of the Muslim pilgrims towards Mecca in early 1183. Saladin pledged that he would never forgive Raynald. Raynald was a firm supporter of Baldwin IV's sister, Sybilla, and her husband, Guy of Lusignan, during conflicts regarding the succession of the king. Battle of Hattin: Raynald was captured in the battlefield. Saladin personally beheaded him after he refused to convert to Islam. Most historians have regarded Raynald as an irresponsible adventurer whose lust for booty caused the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. On the other hand, Bernard Hamilton says that he was the only crusader leader who tried to prevent Saladin from unifying the nearby Muslim states. Prince of Antioch: Legacy: Most information on Raynald's life was recorded by Muslim authors who were hostile to him.
Battles and historical sources around the time of the fall of Jerusalem (kingdom almost completely overrun by Saladin):
Battle of Hattin (July 4, 1187): Saladin's victory and from this the conquering and of Kingdom of Jerusalem starts. Strategy of Saladin worked against crusaders. POWs: Guy, Raynald, Gerard (killed); Raymond III and Balian escaped.
Siege of Jerusalem (1187) (September 20 to October 2, 1187): the last stand of the crusaders in the holy place. Balian discussed with Saladin before and after the battle, Balian surrenders Jerusalem.
Assizes of Jerusalem: collection of numerous medieval legal treatises containing the law of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and Kingdom of Cyprus. 5 documents written by Balian of Ibelin's son John, by Philip of Novara, 2 different anonymous people, and the 5th consisting of small treatises by John's son and other person.
Muslim EgyptEdit
=Islamic Egypt (641–969)=Edit
=Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171)=Edit
=Ayyubid dynasty (1171–1260)=Edit
=Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517)=Edit
Bahri dynasty: Mamluk dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382.
Baibars (1223 – 1277.07.01): of Turkic Kipchak origin; fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty. He was one of the commanders of the Egyptian forces that inflicted a defeat on the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France. He also led the vanguard of the Egyptian army at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, which marked the first substantial defeat of the Mongol army and is considered a turning point in history; reign of Baibars marked the start of an age of Mamluk dominance in the Eastern Mediterranean and solidified the durability of their military system.
=Eyalet of Egypt (1517–1867)=Edit
Egypt Eyalet: result of the conquest of Mamluk Egypt by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516. Egypt was administered as an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire from 1517 until 1867, with an interruption during the French occupation of 1798 to 1801. Egypt was always a difficult province for the Ottoman Sultans to control, due in part to the continuing power and influence of the Mamluks, the Egyptian military caste who had ruled the country for centuries. As such, Egypt remained semi-autonomous under the Mamluks until it was invaded by the French forces of Napoleon I in 1798. After the French were expelled, power was seized in 1805 by Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian military commander of the Ottoman army in Egypt. Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty remained nominally an Ottoman province. It was granted the status of an autonomous vassal state or Khedivate in 1867.
=Modern Egypt (1882 - now)=Edit
Oxyrhynchus Papyri: group of manuscripts discovered during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by papyrologists Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt at an ancient rubbish dump near Oxyrhynchus in Egypt. The manuscripts date from the time of the Ptolemaic (3rd century BC) and Roman periods of Egyptian history (from 32 BC to the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640 AD). Only an estimated 10% are literary in nature. Most of the papyri found seem to consist mainly of public and private documents: codes, edicts, registers, official correspondence, census-returns, tax-assessments, petitions, court-records, sales, leases, wills, bills, accounts, inventories, horoscopes, and private letters. Since 1898 academics have puzzled together and transcribed over 5000 documents from what were originally hundreds of boxes of papyrus fragments the size of large cornflakes. This is thought to represent only 1 to 2 percent of what is estimated to be at least half a million papyri still remaining to be conserved, transcribed, deciphered and catalogued.
June 2013 Egyptian protests (2013.06.30–2013.07.03): mass protests; marking the one-year anniversary of Mohamed Morsi's inauguration as president. The events ended with 2013 Egyptian coup d'état after millions of protesters across Egypt took to the streets and demanded the immediate resignation of the president. According to the Egyptian military calculated numbers counted through helicopters scanning the demonstrations' perimeters across the country, this was "the biggest protest in Egypt's history", with 14 million protesters. Reasons for demanding Morsi's resignation included accusations of increasing authoritarianism and his pushing through an Islamist agenda disregarding the predominantly secular opposition or the rule of law.
2013 Egyptian coup d'état: Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi led a coalition to remove the President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi, from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution. The move came after the military's ultimatum for the government to "resolve its differences" with opponents during widespread national protests.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi (General Sisi; 1954.11.19-): Egyptian Field Marshal who has been Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, as well as Minister of Defence, since 2012.08.12. As head of the armed forces, he played the leading role in ousting Islamist President Mohamed Morsi, following mass protests against Morsi and his government.
Post-coup unrest in Egypt (2013–2014)
Arabian PeninsulaEdit
Pre-Islamic Arabia
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC): regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq. Its member states are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
Irrigation in Saudi Arabia: typical of many isolated irrigation projects scattered throughout the arid and hyper-arid regions of the Earth. Nonrenewable Fossil water is mined from depths as great as 1 km, pumped to the surface, and distributed via large centre pivot irrigation feeds. The circles of green irrigated vegetation may comprise a variety of agricultural commodities from alfalfa to wheat. Diameters of the normally circular fields range from a few hundred metres to as much as 3 km. The projects often trace out a narrow, sinuous, and seemingly random path. Actually, engineers generally seek ancient river channels now buried by the sand seas. The fossil waters mined in these projects accumulated during periods of wetter climate in the Pleistocene glacial epochs, between 10,000 and 2 million years ago, and are not being replenished under current climatic conditions.
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
=Yemen=Edit
South Yemen (1967–1990)
Yemeni Civil War (2015–present) (2015.03.19–): between two factions: the internationally recognized Yemeni government, led by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, and the Houthi armed movement, along with their supporters and allies. Both claim to constitute the official government of Yemen.
Blockade of Yemen: refers to a sea, land and air blockade on Yemen which started with the positioning of Saudi Arabian warships in Yemeni waters in 2015 with the Saudi invasion of Yemen. The United States had joined the blockade in 2016.10, and the blockade was further constricted following the November 2017 launch of a missile from Houthis in Yemen towards Riyadh. The blockade of Yemen has resulted in widespread starvation, to the extent that the United Nations has raised concerns about the possibility of it becoming the deadliest famine in decades.
Famine in Yemen (2016–present): started during the Yemeni Civil War. Over 17 million of Yemen's population are at risk; over 3.3 million children and pregnant or lactating women suffer from acute malnutrition.
Kurds, Kurdish people (Kurdistan)Edit

{q.v. #Modern wars in Syria, Iraq, Kurdistan, Turkey, ISIL}

 
Approximate distribution of the Kurdish languages.
 
Kurdish-inhabited areas of the Middle East and the Soviet Union in 1986.
 
Kurdish-inhabited area, by CIA (1992).
Kurdish people (30-38 mln; Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Armenia)
Kurdish language (L1: 20-30 mln (depends on source)): dialect continuum spoken by the Kurds in western Asia. Lots of "official" dialects:
Kurdish edition of Wikipedia
Soranî (Central Kurdish) edition of Wikipedia
Laki test of Wikipedia
Southern Kurdish test Wikipedia (Southern Kurdish edition of Wikipedia)
Kurmanji test of Wikipedia
Kurdistan
Turkish Kurdistan
Iranian Kurdistan
Republic of Mahabad (1946-1947; Republic of Kurdistan): There are opinions that Mahabad Republic was the first independent Kurdish state.
Iraqi Kurdistan (Southern Kurdistan): by the Iraqi constitution, is a proto-state located in the north of Iraq and constitutes the country's only autonomous region. The region is officially governed by the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), with the capital being Erbil. Kurdistan is a parliamentary democracy with its own regional Parliament that consists of 111 seats.
Iraqi Kurdistan independence referendum, 2017 (2017.09.25; Turnout=72.16%, YES=92.73%, NO=7.27%, Invalid=6.65%): The referendum's legality was rejected by the federal government of Iraq.
Syrian Kurdistan
small portions of Armenia
Al-Anfal campaign (1986–1989; Kurdish genocide): genocidal campaign against the Kurdish people (and other non-Arab populations) in northern Iraq, led by Ali Hassan al-Majid in the final stages of Iran–Iraq War. The campaign also targeted other minority communities in Iraq including Assyrians, Shabaks, Iraqi Turkmens, Yazidis, Mandeans, and many villages belonging to these ethnic groups were also destroyed. The campaign has been characterized as genocidal in nature. It is also characterized as gendercidal, because "battle-age" men were the primary targets, according to Human Rights Watch/Middle East. According to the Iraqi prosecutors and Kurdish officials, as many as 180,000 people were killed.
IraqEdit
Mamluk dynasty (Iraq)
=Iraqi Turkmens=Edit
Iraqi Turkmens (Turcomans): ethnic kin of the Turks and the third largest ethnic group in Iraq behind pan-ethnic Arabs and Kurds. They mainly reside in northern Iraq and share close cultural ties with Turkey and linguistic ties with South Azeri.
SyriaEdit
LebanonEdit
Lebanese Civil War (1975.04.13 - 1990.10.13): multifaceted; 120,000-150,000 fatalities; ~76,000 displaced within Lebanon; ~1 mln exodus from Lebanon. Government of Lebanon had been run under a significant influence of the elites among the Maronite Christians. The link between politics and religion had been reinforced under the mandate of the French colonial powers from 1920 to 1943, and the parliamentary structure favored a leading position for the Christians. The establishment of the state of Israel and the displacement of a hundred thousand Palestinian refugees to Lebanon during the 1948 and 1967 exoduses contributed to shifting the demographic balance in favor of the Muslim population. Cold War had a powerful disintegrative effect on Lebanon: Maronites sided with the West while leftist and pan-Arab groups sided with Soviet aligned Arab countries. During the course of the fighting, alliances shifted rapidly and unpredictably. Furthermore, foreign powers, such as Israel and Syria, became involved in the war and fought alongside different factions. Peace keeping forces, such as the Multinational Force in Lebanon & UNIFIL, were also stationed in Lebanon.
Sabra and Shatila massacre (1982.09.16 - 18): 762 - 3,500 Palestinian, Lebanese, Iranian, Syrian, Pakistani and Algerian civilians; retaliation for assassination of newly elected Lebanese president Bachir Gemayel (leader of Kataeb Party), but now assassination is generally attributed to native pro-Syrian militants; Kataeb Party militia ("the Young Men") under Elie Hobeika perpetrated; UN & Israeli Kahan Commission: Israel bore responsibility for the violence, Israeli military personnel, aware that a massacre was in progress, had failed to take serious steps to stop it.
Syrian occupation of Lebanon (1976-2005): began in 1976 as a result of the Syrian Ba'th Regime's bid to control Lebanon, and ended in 2005.04.26 as a result of the Cedar Revolution, after the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister, Rafic Hariri.
South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000): Israel Defense Forces and its Lebanese Christian proxy militias against Lebanese Muslim guerrillas led by the Iranian-backed Hezbollah, within what was defined by Israelis as the "Security Zone" in South Lebanon.
AssyriansEdit
Assyrian people (Ashuriyun, Atorayeh and Syriacs): Semitic people.
Assyrian–Chaldean–Syriac diaspora
Assyrian homeland
Proposals for an Assyrian autonomy or state
Assyrian continuity
Assyrian flag
 
Divisions between main Syriac Christian groups.
Names of Syriac Christians: Assyrian identity, Syriac identity, Chaldean and Chaldo-Assyrian identity, Aramean identity, Phoenician identity, ...
JordanEdit
Black September in Jordan (1970 - 1971): Jordanian Civil War; core: PLO (+Syria) vs Hashemite Monarchy (+Pakistan). Aftermath and consequences: Palestinians: group Black September: 4 of its members assassinated Wasfi al-Tal; Munich Massacre 1972; Lebanon: PLO moves to Southern Lebanon; Jordan: PLO was recognized as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people; Syria: Hafez al-Assad comes to power by deposing Salah Jadid; Pakistan: Zia ul-Haq staged coup d'etat and executed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, supported mujahideen during the Soviet Afghan war.
Red Sea–Dead Sea Water Conveyance: planned pipeline that runs from the coastal city of Aqaba by the Red Sea to the Lisan area in the Dead Sea. It will provide potable water to Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian territories, bring sea water to stabilise the Dead Sea water level and generate electricity to support the energy needs of the project. The project is going to be carried by Jordan and is entirely in Jordanian territory. The project will be financed by the government of Jordan and a number of international donors. The water level in the Dead Sea is shrinking at a rate of >1m/yr, and its surface area has shrunk by about 30% in the last 20 years. This is largely due to the diversion of over 90% of the water of the Jordan River. Dams, canals, and pumping stations built by Israel, Jordan and Syria now divert water for crops and drinking, and have reduced the flow to about 100 MCM/yr (mainly brackish water and sewage).
PalestineEdit
Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين Filasṭīn, Falasṭīn, Filisṭīn; Greek: Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Latin: Palaestina; Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina): geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River; name was used by Ancient Greek writers, and was later used for the Roman province Syria Palaestina, the Byzantine Palaestina Prima and the Umayyad and Abbasid province of Jund Filastin. Region is also known as the Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ־ישראל Eretz-Yisra'el), the Holy Land, the Southern Levant, Cisjordan, and historically has been known by other names including Canaan, Southern Syria and Jerusalem (Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem). Situated at a strategic location between Egypt, Syria and Arabia, and the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity, the region has a long and tumultuous history as a crossroads for religion, culture, commerce, and politics. The region has been controlled by numerous different peoples, including Ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, the Sunni Arab Caliphates, the Shia Fatimid Caliphate, Crusaders, Ayyubids, Mameluks, Ottomans, the British and modern Israelis and Palestinians.
Mandatory Palestine (1920-1948): geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after WWI.
Palestinian National Authority (1993-2013)
State of Palestine (2013-): sovereign state in the Levant that is recognized by the United Nations. In 2012, it was granted observer status by UN.
IsraelEdit
Balfour Declaration (dated 1917.11.02): letter from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland.
 
The Israeli West Bank barrier as of July 2011. The planned route, the part already completed, the part under construction as well as the Wall Gates where Palestinian access is controled by the Israeli army. (“United Nations OCHA oPt”)
Israeli West Bank barrier
Golan Heights
Gaza Strip
West Bank
East Jerusalem
Green Line (Israel)
War over Water (Jordan river) (1964.11 – 1967.05): series of confrontations between Israel and its Arab neighbors over control of water sources in the Jordan River drainage basin.
National Water Carrier of Israel: largest water project in Israel. Its main task is to transfer water from the Sea of Galilee in the north of the country to the highly populated center and arid south and to enable efficient use of water and regulation of the water supply in the country. Up to 72,000 m³ of water can flow through the carrier each hour, totalling 1.7 mln m³ / day. Early plans were made before the establishment of the state of Israel but detailed planning started only after nascent Israel's formation in 1948. The construction of the project, originally known as the Jordan Valley Unified Water Plan, started in 1953, during the planning phase, long before the detailed final plan was completed in 1956. The project was designed by Tahal and constructed by Mekorot. The National Water Carrier was inaugurated in 1964, with 80% of its water being allocated to agriculture and 20% for drinking water. As time passed however, increasing amounts were consumed as drinking water, and by the early 1990s, the National Carrier was supplying half of the drinking water in Israel. It was forecast that by the year 2010 80% of the National Carrier will be directed more at providing drinking water. The reasons for the increased demand for drinking water was twofold. Firstly, Israel saw rapid population growth, primarily in the center of the country which increased demands for water. Furthermore, as the standard of living in the country rose, there was increased domestic water use. As a result of the 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, among other items, Israel agreed to transfer 50 MCM of water annually to Jordan. Nowadays water from the Sea of Galilee supplies approximately 10% of Israel's drinking water needs. In recent years the Israeli government has undertaken extensive investments in water reclamation and desalination infrastructure in the country, while promoting water conservation. This has lessened the country's reliance on the National Water Carrier and has allowed it to significantly reduce the amount of water pumped from the Sea of Galilee annually in an effort to restore and improve the lake's ecological environment, especially in face of persistent severe droughts affecting the lake's intake basin in recent years.
Template:Demographics of Israel
Samaritans: Y-DNA and mtDNA comparisons: The study goes on to say that "Such a scenario could explain why Samaritan Y chromosome lineages cluster tightly with Jewish Y lineages, while their mitochondrial lineages are closest to Iraqi Jewish and Palestinian mtDNA sequences."
=The dark side=Edit
Operation Wooden Leg: attack by Israel on Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) headquarters in Hammam al-Shatt, near Tunis, Tunisia, in 1985.10.01. Target 2,060 km from the operation's starting point; Tunisian sources believed that USA must have known about the attack, even if it took place without its collaboration.
Modern conflicts in Middle EastEdit
Arab–Israeli conflict (1948.05–present; Main phase: 1948–1973)
1948 Arab–Israeli War
Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Mid-20th century – present; main phase: 1964–1993): world's "most intractable conflict". Since 2006, the Palestinian side has been fractured by conflict between the two major factions: Fatah, the traditionally dominant party, and its later electoral challenger, Hamas.
1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine: first phase of the 1948 Palestine war. It broke out after the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a resolution on 1947.11.29 recommending the adoption of the Partition Plan for Palestine.
Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present) (aka: Turkey–PKK conflict, Kurdish conflict/insurgency/rebellion/question, civil war (inside Turkey); 1978.11.27 (1984)–present): armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and various Kurdish insurgent groups, which have demanded separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan, or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds inside the Republic of Turkey. Although insurgents have carried out attacks in many regions of Turkey, the insurgency is mainly in southeastern Turkey. The PKK's presence in Iraq's Kurdistan Region, from which it has also launched attacks, has resulted in the Turkish military carrying out frequent ground incursions and air and artillery strikes in the region. The conflict has cost the economy of Turkey an estimated 300 to 450 billion dollars, mostly military costs. It has also affected tourism in Turkey. The group was founded in 1978 in the village of Fis (near Lice) by a group of Kurdish students led by Abdullah Öcalan. The initial reason given by the PKK for this was the oppression of Kurds in Turkey. By then, the use of Kurdish language, dress, folklore, and names were banned in Kurdish-inhabited areas. In an attempt to deny their existence, the Turkish government categorized Kurds as "Mountain Turks" until 1991. The words "Kurds", "Kurdistan", or "Kurdish" were officially banned by the Turkish government. The full-scale insurgency, however, did not begin until 1984.08.15, when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. The first insurgency lasted until 1999.09.01, when the PKK declared a unilateral ceasefire. The armed conflict was later resumed on 2004.06.01, when the PKK declared an end to its ceasefire. Since summer 2011, the conflict has become increasingly violent with resumption of large-scale hostilities. In 2013 the Turkish Government and the jailed PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan started talks. 2013.03.21 Öcalan announced the "end of armed struggle" and a ceasefire with peace talks. 2015.07.25 the PKK finally cancelled their 2013 ceasefire after a year of tension due to various events, including the Turks bombing PKK positions in Iraq, in the midst of the Kurds' battle against ISIS. Turkish authorities have destroyed substantial parts of many Kurdish inhabited cities including Diyarbakır, Şırnak, Mardin, Cizre, Nusaybin, and Yüksekova.
Solution process (Kurdish–Turkish peace process): was a peace process which aimed to resolve the long-running Kurdish–Turkish conflict. The 2013 truce was working until 2014.09, when the relations became strained due to spillover of the Syrian Civil War; the truce fully collapsed in July 2015, with the renewed full-scale warfare in South-Eastern Turkey.
Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict (1979.02.11 – ): ongoing struggle for influence in the Middle East and surrounding regions. The two countries have provided varying degrees of support to opposing sides in nearby conflicts, including the civil wars in Syria, Yemen, and Iraq. The rivalry also extends to disputes in Bahrain, Lebanon, Qatar, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Morocco, as well as broader competition in North and East Africa, parts of South Asia, Central Asia, and the Caucasus. USA support for Saudi Arabia and its allies, Russian support for Iran and its allies, and increasing Chinese involvement on both sides have drawn comparisons to the dynamics of the Cold War era. Bahraini uprising (2011–14); Syrian Civil War (2011–); Yemeni Civil War (2015–).
Iran–Israel proxy conflict (2005.08.03 – present): ongoing proxy war; conflict is bound in the political struggle between Iranian leadership and Israel, with the counter aim of Israel to prevent alleged nuclear weapons from the Iranian government and downgrading its allies and proxies such as Hezbollah party in Lebanon. Iranian forces are operating in Syria in support of Bashar al-Assad's government. According to Mossad chief Yossi Cohen, "As long as the current regime exists, with the nuclear agreement or without it, Iran will continue to serve as the main threat to Israel's security". Israel and Syria have observed a truce since Israel reaffirmed its control over most of the Golan Heights in the 1973 war, but the Syrian Civil War, which began in 2011, has led to several incidents of fire exchange across the once-peaceful borders. Iran declares its foreign policy is based on aiding the oppressed vulnerables around the world- not for material gains, but as a humanitarian religious positive action. In Iran's foreign policy Israel is conceptualized as a Zionist regime that threatens vulnerable people and Islamic religion itself. It is known as ideological enemy for Iran. Iran, in contact with USA over the fight against Islamic State in Iraq and Syria has said that Israel would be at risk if the USA and its coalition sought to topple Assad.
2017–18 Qatar diplomatic crisis: began in 2017.06, when Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain, Egypt, the Maldives, Mauritania, Senegal, Djibouti, the Comoros, Jordan, the Tobruk-based Libyan government, and the Hadi-led Yemeni government severed diplomatic relations with Qatar and banned Qatar airplanes and ships from entering their airspace and sea routes along with Saudi Arabia blocking the only land crossing. The Saudi-led coalition cited Qatar's alleged support for terrorism as the main reason for their actions, insisting that Qatar has violated a 2014 agreement with the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Saudi Arabia and other countries have criticized Al Jazeera and Qatar's relations with Iran. Initial supply disruptions were mitigated by additional imports from Iran and Turkey, and Qatar did not agree to any of the Saudi-led coalition's demands. The demands included reducing diplomatic relations with Iran, stopping military coordination with Turkey, and closing Al-Jazeera. Saudi Arabia and the UAE notified ports and shipping agents not to receive Qatari vessels or ships owned by Qatari companies or individuals. Saudi Arabia closed the border with Qatar. Saudi Arabia restricted its airspace to Qatar Airways. Instead, Qatar was forced to reroute flights to Africa and Europe through Iranian airspace. Saudi Arabia's central bank advised banks not to trade with Qatari banks in Qatari riyals. A number of countries in the region, including Turkey, Russia and Iran, called for the crisis to be resolved through peaceful negotiations. All GCC countries involved in the announcement ordered their citizens out of Qatar. Three Gulf states (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain) gave Qatari visitors and residents two weeks to leave their countries. Kuwait and Oman remained neutral.
=Iran-Iraq war=Edit
Iran–Iraq War (1980.09.22 – 1988.08.20): followed a long history of border disputes, and was motivated by fears that the Iranian Revolution in 1979 would inspire insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shi'ite majority, as well as Iraq's desire to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state. Conflict has been compared to WWI in terms of the tactics used, including large-scale trench warfare with barbed wire stretched across trenches, manned machine gun posts, bayonet charges, "human wave attacks", and extensive use of chemical weapons by Iraq, and later deliberate attacks on civilian targets. The world powers USA and USSR, together with many Western and Arab countries, provided support for Iraq, while Iran was largely isolated. A number of proxy forces participated in the war, most notably the Iranian People's Mujahedin of Iran siding with Ba'athist Iraq and Iraqi Kurdish militias of the Kurdistan Democratic Party and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan siding with Iran—all suffering a major blow by the end of the conflict. Iran–Iraq War was the deadliest conventional war ever fought between regular armies of developing countries.
French support for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq war: important element to strengthen Iraq for the Iran–Iraq war. Starting in roughly 1975, leading up to the Iran–Iraq War, as well as the war itself, the greatest amount of military equipment came to Iraq from the Soviet Union, but France was probably second, and generally provided higher-technology equipment than the Soviets.
=Modern wars in Syria, Iraq, Kurdistan, Turkey, ISIL=Edit

{q.v. #Present}

 
Map of countries surrounding Syria (red) with military involvement.
 
Local, regional and international actors involved in the Syrian civil war (2019.03.11).
Syrian Civil War (2011.03.15 – present [2019.04]): ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with domestic and foreign allies, and various domestic and foreign forces opposing both the Syrian government and each other in varying combinations; being fought by several factions: the Syrian Armed Forces and its international allies, a loose alliance of mostly Sunni opposition rebel groups (including the Free Syrian Army), Salafi jihadist groups (including al-Nusra Front), the mixed Kurdish-Arab Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), and ISIL, with a number of countries in the region and beyond being either directly involved or providing support to one or another faction (Iran, Russia, Turkey, USA, as well as others).

some analysts have interpreted the Syrian conflict as part of a regional proxy war between pro-opposition Sunni states (Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar) vs the Alawite-led Syrian government (Iran and Shi'ites in Iraq). Russia is supporting the Syrian government with arms, while USA (NATO? (at least Turkey)) indirectly supports the insurrection [2013]. In 2014.07, ISIL controlled a third of Syria's territory and most of its oil and gas production, thus establishing itself as the major opposition force. At the same time [2014.08], several senior UK and US figures urged Turkey to stop allowing ISIL to cross the border to Syria and Iraq. It was around this time that the Americans realized that the Turks had no intention of sealing their side of the border, and so Washington decided to work with the Syrian Kurds to close off the border on the Syrian side. A year later, with the Kurds in control of most of the Turkey–Syria border, and the Syrian army advancing under Russian air support to seal the remainder, the situation was causing great ructions in Ankara. 2016.08.24 Turkey′s armed forces invaded Syria in the Jarablus area controlled by ISIL starting what the Turkish president called the Operation Euphrates Shield, aimed against, according to his statement, both the ISIS and Kurdish "terror groups that threaten our country in northern Syria". Speaking in Ankara the same day, US vice president Joe Biden indirectly endorsed Turkey′s move and said that the U.S. had made it clear to the Syrian Kurdish forces that they should move back east across the Euphrates, or lose US support.

Russian naval facility in Tartus: hosted a Soviet-era naval supply and maintenance facility, under a 1971 agreement with Ba'athist Syria, which was until the third year of the Syrian civil war staffed by Russian naval personnel; only Mediterranean repair and replenishment spot, sparing Russia’s warships the trip back to their Black Sea bases through the Turkish Straits
Spillover of the Syrian Civil War (2011–present [2014.10]): ongoing armed conflict taking place in Syria, Iraq and Lebanon.
Syrian–Turkish border incidents during the Syrian Civil War
Inter-rebel conflict during the Syrian Civil War (2014.01.02 – ongoing [2014.10]): fighting erupted between the Syrian opposition groups: Free Syrian Army (FSA), the Army of Mujahedeen, and the Islamic Front, and the ISIL/ISIS.
Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War: Support for the Syrian Ba'athist government: Russia, Iran, Hezbollah, Iraq, Companies. Support for Syrian opposition: USA, UK, France, Turkey, Arab League (Qatar, Jordan, Saudi Arabia). Support to North Syrian Federation. Support for ISIL. Individual foreign nationals′ support for rebels/jihadist groups. Role of regional states: Israel, Lebanon.
Belligerents of the Syrian Civil War
Jaish al-Muhajireen wal-Ansar: Islamist jihadist group made up of Chechen and other Russian-speaking foreign fighters, and native Syrians, that has been active in the Syrian civil war against the Syrian Government. The group was briefly affiliated with the ISIL/ISIS. Members killed fighting for the group have included ethnic Azeris, Tajiks, Kazakhs and Dagestanis.
Green Battalion: formed in 2013 by a group of Saudi veterans of the Iraq War and Afghanistan war, the group has fought alongside Jabhat al-Nusra and the ISIL/ISIS against Syrian government forces, while remaining independent and neutral in the dispute between ISIL and other groups.
Al-Nusra Front: branch of al-Qaeda operating in Syria and Lebanon. Split with Islamic State of Iraq
Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army: partially reorganized as the Syrian National Army by the Republic of Turkey since 2017.05.30, is an armed Syrian opposition structure mainly composed of Syrian Arab and Syrian Turkmen rebels operating in Turkish-occupied northern Syria, originally as a part of Operation Euphrates Shield.
Free Syrian Army: loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 2011.07.29 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad. A formal organization at its founding, its structure gradually dissipated by late 2012, and the FSA identity has since been used by various opposition groups.
Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War
Russia–Syria–Iran–Iraq coalition (also referred to as 4+1 (in which the "plus one" refers to Hezbollah of Lebanon)): joint intelligence-sharing cooperation between opponents of ISIL with operation rooms in Syria's Damascus and Iraq's Green Zone in Baghdad. Iran's role: Other than being a crucial thoroughfare to Hezbollah in Lebanon, Syria has been the only consistent ally for Iran since the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran. Iran has provided significant support for the Syrian Government in the Syrian Civil War, including logistical, technical and financial support. In April 2014, Hossein Amir-Abdolahian, the Iranian deputy foreign minister, said: "We aren’t seeking to have Bashar Assad remain president for life. But we do not subscribe to the idea of using extremist forces and terrorism to topple Assad and the Syrian government."
Turkish military intervention in Syria: ongoing cross-border operation by the Turkish military and allied groups in the Syrian Civil War. Operations are ongoing in the region between the Euphrates river to the east and the rebel-held area around Azaz to the west. The Turkish military and Turkey-backed Syrian rebel groups, some of which use the Free Syrian Army label, have been fighting against forces of ISIL as well as against the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) since 2016.08.24.
2014 National Intelligence Organisation scandal in Turkey: military political scandal regarding the role of Turkish National Intelligence Organisation (MİT) in supplying weapons to neighboring Syria during the Syrian Civil War. A ban was placed on the footage of the lorries, which emerged to have transported 1,000 mortar shells, 1,000 rifled artillery shells, 50,000 machine gun rounds and 30,000 rifle bullets to what was alleged to be Al Qaeda and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Syria, but according to later academic study was the Free Syrian Army and rebel Syrian Turkmen.
Operation Shah Euphrates (2015.02.22)
Operation Euphrates Shield (2016.08.24–2017.03.29): cross-border operation by the Turkish military and Turkey-aligned Syrian opposition groups in the Syrian Civil War which led to the Turkish occupation of northern Syria. Operations were carried out in the region between the Euphrates river to the east and the rebel-held area around Azaz to the west. The Turkish military and Turkey-aligned Syrian rebel groups, some of which used the Free Syrian Army label, fought against forces of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) as well as against the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF).
Turkish occupation of northern Syria (aka Northern Syrian Security Belt): The Turkish Armed Forces and their proxy forces (Turkish-backed Turkmen and Arab (Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army)) have occupied areas of northern Syria since August 2016, during the Syrian Civil War. Though these areas nominally acknowledge a government affiliated with the Syrian opposition, they factually constitute a separate proto-state under the dual authority of decentralized native local councils and Turkish military administration. The majority of these settlements had been captured from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and the Syrian Democratic Forces, organisations considered terrorist by the Turkish government, although some towns such as Azaz were under the control of the Syrian opposition before Turkish intervention. The Syrian Interim Government moved into the Turkish-controlled territories and began to extend partial authority there, including providing documents to Syrian citizens. Since May 2017, Turkey begun considering the area a Safe Zone.
Turkish military operation in Idlib Governorate
Operation Olive Branch (formerly Turkish military operation in Afrin)(2018.01.20 - ): in the Kurdish-controlled Afrin District and the Tell Rifaat Subdistrict in Northern Syria. The offensive is against the Kurdish-led Democratic Union Party in Syria (PYD), its armed wing People's Protection Units (YPG), and Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) positions surrounding the Syrian city of Afrin. Turkey also claims it is fighting ISIL, though the group does not exist in Afrin. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has stated that the operation in Afrin would be followed by a push in the northern town of Manbij, which the US-backed Kurdish forces captured from ISIL in 2016. American generals said they will respond "aggressively" if such a provocation is made against them. The YPG announced that it would protect the people of Afrin and respond to the Turkish army. Erdoğan has threatened there will be a "heavy price" for those who have protested against the military offensive. Hundreds of individuals have been arrested for demonstrating against the operation. Over 800 social media users and nearly 100 politicians and journalists have been arrested for criticizing the operation. Turkish authorities have also arrested numerous leaders and high-ranking members of pro-Kurdish and left-wing political parties. Turkey objected to announced plans by the US to train and equip a 30,000 strong SDF border force, which Turkey claimed posed a direct threat to their security; "country we call an ally is insisting on forming a terror army on our borders," Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said in a speech in Ankara; "what can that terror army target but Turkey? Our mission is to strangle it before it's even born."
Battle of Khasham (2018.02.07–08): USA-led coalition, established in 2014 to counter ISIL, delivered massive air and artillery strikes on the Syrian pro-government forces near the town of Khasham, or Al Tabiyeh, both in the Deir ez-Zor Governorate. The United States explained the attack by stating that the pro-government forces had "initiated an unprovoked attack against well-established Syrian Democratic Forces headquarters" in the area, while Coalition service members were "co-located with SDF partners during the attack eight kilometers east of the agreed-upon Euphrates River de-confliction line". According to the Russian Defense ministry, the pro-Syrian forces, who included Russian citizens in their private capacity, were conducting a surveillance mission near the oilfields when they came under attack by ground forces and airstrikes. Incident caused a scandal in Russia and was billed by media as "the first deadly clash between citizens of Russia and the United States since the Cold War". Political ramifications in Russia and beyond: 2018.02.20 the Russian foreign ministry released a statement which while admitting that there had been citizens of Russia and "countries of the CIS" killed and wounded in the course of the "recent clash" in Syria, no Russian service members or their materiel had in any way been involved.

Syrian Kurdistan campaign (2012–present) [2012.07.23]→ 2012 Syrian Kurdish campaign [2012.07.23]→ 2012 Syrian Kurdistan campaign [2012.09.11] → 2012 Syrian Kurdistan rebellion [2012.11.08]→ Kurds during the Syrian civil war [2012.11.17]→ 2012 Syrian Kurdistan conflict [2013.01.02]→ 2012–2013 Syrian Kurdistan conflict [2013.02.13]→ Syrian Kurdistan conflict (2012–present) [2013.07.18]→ Syrian Kurdistan campaign (2012–present) [2015.01.27]→ Rojava campaign (2012–present) [2015.04.15]→ Rojava campaign [2015.07.31]→ Rojava Revolution [2015.09.29]→ Rojava conflict

Syrian Kurdistan campaign (2012–present): at the outset of the Syrian Civil War Kurds remained mainly inactive, with Kurdish militants sporadically clashing with both Assad government forces and the Free Syrian Army over control in north and north-eastern Syria.
Rojava conflict (Rojava Revolution): political upheaval, social revolution and military conflict taking place in Northern Syria, known as Rojava. During the Syrian Civil War, a coalition of Arab, Kurdish, Syriac and some Turkmen groups have sought to establish the Constitution of Rojava inside the de facto autonomous region, while military wings and allied militias have fought to maintain control of the region. The revolution has been characterized by the prominent role played by women both on the battlefield and within the newly formed political system, as well as the implementation of democratic confederalism, a form of grassroots democracy based on local assemblies. Rojava is under a severe embargo from all neighboring countries: Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and the various forces controlling nearby areas of Syria. YPG-Turkish Conflict
Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (commonly known as Rojava; Western Kurdistan (Kurdish: Rojavayê Kurdistanê) or Syrian Kurdistan): de facto autonomous region in northern Syria. It consists of three self-governing regions: Afrin Region, Jazira Region, and Euphrates Region. The region gained its de facto autonomy in 2012 as part of the ongoing Rojava conflict and the wider Syrian Civil War. While entertaining some foreign relations, the regions within the DFNS are not officially recognized as autonomous by the government of Syria or any international state or organization. For their part, supporters of its constitution consider their system a model for a federalized Syria as a whole, rather than independence.
Constitution of Rojava: provisional constitution of the self-proclaimed autonomous region of Syria known as Rojava. It was adopted on 2014.01.29, when the Democratic Union Party (PYD), claiming to represent the Rojavans, declared the three Rojavan cantons it controls autonomous from the Syrian government.
2017 Shayrat missile strike (morning 2017.04.07): involved the launch of 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles by USA from the Mediterranean Sea into Syria, aimed at the Shayrat Airbase controlled by the Syrian government. The strike was ordered by USA President Donald Trump, with no congressional approval, as a direct response to the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack that occurred on 4 April.
Iraqi insurgency (2011–present) (2011.12.18 – ongoing [2014.10]; Iraq Crisis): has escalated since the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 2011, resulting in violent conflict with the central government, as well as sectarian violence among Iraq's religious groups.
Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014): ISIL and aligned forces captured several cities and other territory, beginning with an attack on Samarra on 5 June followed by the seizure of Mosul on the night of 9 June and Tikrit on 11 June.
Northern Iraq offensive (August 2014): ongoing offensive military movement by the Sunni, Islamic extremist group ISIL/ISIS against Kurdish-held territory in northern Iraq. ISIL has proclaimed a caliphate—a government based on Islamic religious law—and has gained notoriety for its abduction (primarily of children) and executions (adults) of non-Muslims, which has led to a large exodus of the region's Yazidi and Christian population.
Islamic State of Iraq (ISI; 2006.10.15 – 2013.04.08): Sunni jihadist group that aimed to establish an Islamic state in Sunni Arab-majority areas of Iraq.
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (2013.04.08–present [2014.10]; ISIL; Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS); Islamic State): Ideology and beliefs: ISIL is a Sunni extremist group; "The group circulates images of Wahhabi religious textbooks from Saudi Arabia in the schools it controls. Videos from the group’s territory have shown Wahhabi texts plastered on the sides of an official missionary van." Governance: Ar-Raqqah in Syria is the de facto capital of the ISIL/ISIS and is said to be a test case of ISIL governance; Exporting oil from oilfields captured by ISIL brings in tens of millions of dollars; Much of the oil is sold illegally in Turkey. Equipment: most common weapons used against US and other Coalition forces during the Iraq insurgency were those taken from Saddam Hussein's weapon stockpiles around the country, these included AKM variant assault rifles, PK machine guns and RPG-7s; weaponry that ISIL has reportedly captured and employed include SA-7 and Stinger surface-to-air missiles, M79 Osa, HJ-8 and AT-4 Spigot anti-tank weapons, Type 59 field guns and M198 howitzers, Humvees, T-54/55, T-72, and M1 Abrams main battle tanks, M1117 armoured cars, truck-mounted DShK guns, ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft guns, BM-21 Grad multiple rocket launchers and at least one Scud missile; When ISIL captured Mosul Airport in 2014.06, it seized a number of UH-60 Blackhawk helicopters and cargo planes that were stationed there.
2014 ISIL beheading incidents
Dabiq (magazine): title of the monthly online magazine used by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/ISIS/IS) for propaganda and recruitment. It was first published in July 2014 in a number of different languages including English.
2014 military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (2014.06.16 – present [2014.10]): Other interventions across the conflict zone: Iraqi Kurdistan and Syrian Kurdistan have de facto governments autonomous from the national government with their own armies while in Iran and Turkey the Kurds maintain rebel armies. These various Kurdish forces have been crossing into Syria and Iraq to fight ISIL with local Kurds.
2014 Iranian-led intervention in Iraq (2014.06.13 - Present [2014.10])
2014 American-led intervention in Iraq (2014.06.16 – present [2014.10])
American-led intervention in Syria (2014.09.22 – ongoing [2014.10])
Siege of Kobanî (2014.09.13–2015.03.15): was launched by ISIL militants in order to capture the Kobanî Canton and its main city of Kobanî (also known as Kobanê or Ayn al-Arab) in northern Syria, in the de facto autonomous region of Rojava. 2015.01.26 the YPG and its allies, along with the continued US-led airstrikes, began to retake the city, driving ISIL into a steady retreat. The city of Kobanê was fully recaptured on 27 January; however, most of the remaining villages in the Kobanî Canton remained under ISIL control.
Yazidis: Kurdish ethno-religious community whose syncretic but ancient religion Yazidism (a kind of Yazdânism) is linked to Zoroastrianism and ancient Mesopotamian religions; live primarily in the Nineveh Province of Iraqi Kurdistan. Additional communities in Armenia, Georgia and Syria have been in decline since the 1990s as a result of significant migration to Europe, especially to Germany.
Persecution of Yazidis by ISIL: genocidal persecution of the Yazidi people of Iraq, leading to their exile, abduction of their women and massacres, during what has been called a "forced conversion campaign" being carried out in Northern Iraq by the militant organization ISIL/ISIS.
Central Asian Muslim countriesEdit
AfghanistanEdit

Afghanistan's history is intertwined with:

  • Pakistan (and by extension: India, Indian subcontinent)
  • Persia or Iran
  • Other central Asian Muslim countries

Multi-culti country

Afghanistan: The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and often fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire.
Ahmad Shah Durrani (c. 1722 – 1772.10.16): founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan. He began his career by enlisting as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose to become a commander of the Abdali Regiment, a cavalry of four thousand Abdali Pashtun soldiers. After the assassination of Nader Shah Afshar in 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani was chosen as King of Afghanistan. Rallying his Afghan tribes and allies, he pushed east towards the Mughal and the Maratha empires of India, west towards the disintegrating Afsharid Empire of Persia, and north toward the Khanate of Bukhara. Within a few years, he extended his control from Khorasan in the west to Kashmir and North India in the east, and from the Amu Darya in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south.
Geneva Accords (1988) (1988.04.14): between Afghanistan and Pakistan, with USA and USSR serving as guarantors.

AustraliaEdit

Immigration detention in Australia: policy and practice of the Australian Government of detaining in Australian immigration detention facilities non-citizens not holding a valid visa, suspected of visa violations, illegal entry or unauthorised arrival, and those subject to deportation and removal in immigration detention until a decision is made by the immigration authorities to grant a visa and release them into the community, or to repatriate them to their country of departure. Persons in immigration detention may at any time opt to voluntarily leave Australia for their country of origin, or they may be deported or given a bridging or temporary visa. In 1992, Australia adopted a mandatory detention policy obliging the Australian Government to detain all persons entering or being in the country without a valid visa, while their claim to remain in Australia is processed and security and health checks undertaken.
Operation Sovereign Borders: border protection operation led by the Australian Defence Force and headed by Major General Andrew Bottrell, aimed at stopping maritime arrivals of asylum seekers to Australia. The operation is the outcome of an election policy of the Coalition, which commenced in 2013.09.18 after the election of the Abbott Government at the 2013 federal election. The operation is an attempt to address issues surrounding people smuggling into Australia, by implementing a tough 'zero tolerance' posture towards illegal boat arrivals in Australia.

AustriaEdit

First Austrian Republic (1919-1934), Federal State of Austria (1934-1938)Edit

July Revolt of 1927: major riot starting on 1927.07.15 in the Austrian capital Vienna. It culminated in the firing by police forces into the outraged crowd, killing 84 protesters, while five policemen died. More than 600 people were injured.
Austrian Civil War (1934.02.12–1934.02.16): skirmishes between socialist and conservative-fascist forces
Heimwehr (Heimatschutz): nationalist, initially paramilitary group operating within Austria during the 1920s and 1930s; they were similar in methods, organisation, and ideology to Germany's Freikorps. Although opposed to parliamentary democracy, the Heimwehr maintained a political wing known as the Heimatblock, which cooperated with Engelbert Dollfuss' conservative government.

Second Austrian Republic (1945-)Edit

Austrian State Treaty

Baltics: Estonia, Latvia, LithuaniaEdit

{q.v.:

}

Journal of Baltic Studies: official quarterly journal of the Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies (AABS), peer-reviewed multidisciplinary academic journal founded in 1970, dedicated to the political, social, economic, and cultural life of the Baltic region and its history.
Livonian ConfederationTerra MarianaEstonian SSRDuchy of Livonia (1721–1917)Duchy of Livonia (1629–1721)Duchy of Livonia (1561–1621)Duchy of Estonia (1721–1917)Duchy of Estonia (1561–1721)Danish EstoniaDanish EstoniaEstoniaAncient EstoniaHistory of Estonia
Livonian ConfederationTerra MarianaLatvian SSRDuchy of Livonia (1721–1917)Duchy of Livonia (1629–1721)Duchy of Livonia (1561–1621)Courland GovernorateDuchy of Courland and SemigalliaLatviaHistory of Latvia

Sources:

Livonian Chronicle of Henry (la: Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae; Henry's chronicle of Livonia): describing historic events in Livonia (roughly corresponding to today's inland Estonia and north of Latvia) and surrounding areas from 1180 to 1227. Written by a priest Henry of Latvia. The Livonian Chronicle of Henry has been highlighted for the purpose of understanding the complexities of crusading ideology because it describes the religious motives used to justify the crusade as well as alluding to the potential economic and political benefits that were existent in the Christianization of Livonia by mentioning the fact that there were merchants who were present in the crusading army. An example of a crusader document that implements opinionated and demeaning rhetoric towards the people they were conquering, especially when describing the nature of the pagans when Bishop Meinhard initially fails to convert them without the use of force by promising to build them forts if they would accept baptism. Many of the pagans accepted this offer but didn't have intentions to change their faith to Christianity. When it was discovered that these people were still practicing their pagan beliefs and rituals, many of those involved in implementing the crusade, including Henry himself, expressed their disapproval and judgments of these individuals. The specific ethnic groups that intermingled and traded with the Germans, Danish, Swedish, and Russians here included the Wends, who were merchants from Lübeck, the Estonians, the Karelians, the Kuronians, the Lettgallians, the Semgallians (sometimes known as the Letts), the Livonians and the Lithuanians. The Western merchants would trade silver, textiles, and other luxury goods for furs, beeswax, honey, leather, dried fish, and amber. Livonia had been an especially promising location in terms of resources, and Arnold of Lübeck, in his Chronicle of the Slavs wrote that the land was "abundant in many riches" and was "fertile in fields, plentiful in pastures, irrigated by rivers", and "also sufficiently rich in fish and forested with trees". Eventually, the Scandinavian rulers and German military knightly orders led by the German Prince-Bishops conquered and resettled the Baltic world and drew it into the Western orbit. The Livonian Chronicle of Henry utilizes two major points of justification for the conquest of Livonia: that it was the Land of the Virgin Mary, which began after Bishop Meinhard, the first Bishop who attempted to spread Christianity to Livonia, established a Cult of Mary convent in Livonia. Following this, Albert of Riga also helped perpetuate this association by naming the Episcopal Cathedral in Livonia as the church of the Virgin Mary in the early 1200s. The second main justification was that Livonia was comparable to Jerusalem. Pope Innocent III granted the absolution of sins for those taking Pilgrimage to Livonia after tensions arose between the German Christians and the pagans. Four books: "On Livonia" (1186-1196), "On bishop Berthold" (1196-1198), "On bishop Albert" (1198-1208), "On Estonia" (1208-1226).
Sudovian language (Yotvingian, Yatvingian, or Jatvingian): extinct western Baltic language of Northeastern Europe. Closely related to the Old Prussian language, it was formerly spoken southwest of the Nemunas river in what is now Lithuania, east of Galindia and north of Yotvingia, and by exiles in East Prussia. Sudovia and neighboring Galindia were two Baltic tribes or nations mentioned by the Greek geographer Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD as Galindai and Soudinoi, (Γαλίνδαι, Σουδινοί). Although Sudovian and Yotvingian were separate dialects of the same language, Sudovian and Yotvingian merged as a common dialect in the 10th century when the two nations created a Federation together with the Dainavians (Dainowe, Deynowe, Denowe, i.e. of Dainava). Chronicon terrae Prussiae - Sudovites. In Belarus, a young man named Vyacheslav Zinov, an amateur collector, bought a book of Catholic prayers from an old man from Novy Dvor village in the depths of Białowieża Forest, which held a small manuscript titled Pogańskie gwary z Narewu ("Pagan Speeches of Narew"). It was written partly in Polish, and partly in an unknown, "pagan" language. Unfortunately, Zinov's parents threw away the book. However, before the manuscript was destroyed, Zinov had made notes of it which he sent to Vilnius University in 1983. Even though Zinov's notes were riddled with errors, it has been proven beyond doubt that the notes are indeed a copy of an authentic Yotvingian text.
Galindians: two distinct, and now extinct, tribes of the Balts. Most commonly, Galindians refers to the Western Galindians who lived in the southeast part of Prussia. Less commonly, it is used for a tribe that lived in the area of what is today Moscow.
Northern Crusades (Baltic Crusades): crusades undertaken by the Christian kings of Denmark, Poland and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. Swedish and German Catholic campaigns against Russian Eastern Orthodox Christians are also sometimes considered part of the Northern Crusades.
Lithuanian Crusade: series of campaigns by the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order, two crusading military orders, to convert the pagan GDL into Roman Catholicism. The Livonian Order settled in Riga in 1202 and the Teutonic Order arrived to Culmerland in 1230s. They first conquered other neighboring Baltic tribes – Curonians, Semigallians, Latgalians, Selonians, Old Prussians. The first raid against the Lithuanians and Samogitians was in 1208 and the Orders played a key role in Lithuanian politics, but they were not a direct and immediate threat until 1280s. By that time the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was already an established state and could offer organized defense. Thus for the next hundred years the Knights organized annual destructive reise (raids) into the Samogitian and Lithuanian lands but without great success: border regions in Samogitia and Suvalkija became sparsely inhabited wilderness, but the Order gained very little territory. Christianization of Lithuania in 1387; Battle of Grunwald in 1410; final peace was reached by the Treaty of Melno (1422).
Caupo of Turaida (died 1217.09.21): leader of the Finnic-speaking Livonian people in the beginning of the 13th century, in what is now part of Latvia and Estonia. Chronicle of Henry of Livonia calls him quasi rex, 'like a king'. First prominent Livonian to be christened. He was probably baptized around 1191 by a priest called Theoderic. He became an ardent Christian and friend of Albert of Buxhoeveden, Bishop of Riga, who took him 1203-1204 all the way to Rome and introduced him to Pope Innocent III. Modern Estonians, Latvians, and the remaining few Livonians do not have consensus view about the historical role of Caupo. Latvian legends, however, are unequivocal: there he is named "Kaupo the accursed, the scourge of the Livs,... Kaupo who has sold his soul to the foreign bishops."
Henry of Latvia (Latin: Henricus de Lettis, German: Heinrich von Lettland; Henry of Livonia; before 1188 – after 1259): a priest, missionary and historian. He wrote the Livonian Chronicle of Henry which describes the evangelization of the regions which are now part of Estonia and Latvia during the Northern Crusades. Chronicles say that Henry was a Catholic priest who witnessed most of events described. He had a thoroughly German and Catholic education and as a youth was attached to the household of the Prince-Bishop Albert of Buxhoeveden, was ordained a priest in 1208, founded a parish and lived out his life in peace.
William of Modena (c. 1184 – 1251.03.31): Born in Piedmont and named bishop of Modena in May 1222, William was sent as Papal legate to resolve differences that resulted from the outcome of the Livonian Crusade in Livonia in 1225. The Prince Bishop Albert and the semi-monastic military Order, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, the Teutonic crusaders and the Russians, all had claims, which were made more difficult by language barriers. William soon earned the confidence of all sides, arranging diplomatic compromises on boundaries, overlapping ecclesiastical and territorial jurisdictions, taxes, coinage, and other subjects, but he could not resolve the basic quarrel: who was to be master in Livonia. William sought to remove Estonia from contention by placing it directly under papal control, appointing his own vice-legate as governor, and by bringing in German knights as vassals. But the vice-legate subsequently turned the land over to the Brothers of the Sword. The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia was written probably as a report for him, giving him the history of the Church in Livonia up to his time. It relates how in 1226, in another stronghold, called Tarwanpe, William of Modena successfully mediated peace between Germans, Danes and Estonians.
Livonia: historic region along the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. It was once the land of the Finnic Livonians inhabiting the principal ancient Livonian County Metsepole with its center at Turaida. During the Livonian Crusade: name Livonia came to designate a much broader territory: Terra Mariana on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea, in present-day Latvia and Estonia.
Livonian people (Livonians, Livs; de:Liven: map): spoke Uralic Livonian language, a language which was closely related to Estonian and Finnish.
Livonian language: belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages. It is a severely endangered language, with its last native speaker having died in 2013. Closely related to Estonian. The native land of the Livonian people is Livonia, located in Latvia, in the north of the Kurzeme peninsula.
Danish Estonia (Duchy of Estonia; 1219-1346)
Terra Mariana (Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia; Alt-Livland, EST: Vana-Liivimaa, LAV: Livonija; 1207-1561): Livonian Crusade & establishment; Livonian civil wars & St. George's Night Uprising (Estonian uprising); part of State of the Teutonic Order, but after Battle of Grunwald: Livonian Confederation. → Courland and Semigallia + Livonia
Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1562-1795)
Duchy of Livonia (Polish Livonia or Inflanty; 1561-1621)
 
Map of Old Livonia: Part of the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Abraham Ortelius, published in Antwerp between 1573 and 1598 (the information in the map is older). 22 x 24 cm, scale varies.
Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia (1710): the Swedish dominions Estonia and Livonia were integrated into the Russian Empire following their conquest during the Great Northern War. {q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Work#Epidemiology Great Northern War plague outbreak}
Baltic nobility: was the privileged social class in the territories of today's Estonia and Latvia. At first from Baltic Germans, but later Polish, Swedish, and Russian families also became part of the Baltic nobility.
Governorate of Estonia (1721-1917; Governorate of Est(h)onia): governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia. Russia gained from Sweden during the Great Northern War in 1721.
Governorate of Livonia (1721-1918; ): The population in 1846 was estimated at 553,300.
Occupation of the Baltic states: Russia started to withdraw its troops from the Baltics (starting from Lithuania) in August 1993. The full withdrawal of troops deployed by Moscow was completed in August 1994. Russia officially ended its military presence in the Baltics in August 1998 by decommissioning the Skrunda-1 radar station in Latvia; last Russian soldier leaving Baltic soil in October 1999. Different historiographies:
  • The Baltic states, USA and its courts of law, the European Parliament, the European Court of Human Rights and UN Human Rights Council: the Baltic states were invaded, occupied and illegally incorporated into USSR under provisions of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, first by the Soviet Union, then by Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1944, and again by the Soviet Union from 1944 to 1991
  • Russian historiography and school textbooks continue to maintain that the Baltic states voluntarily joined USSR after their peoples all carried out socialist revolutions independent of Soviet influence
Background of the occupation of the Baltic states: covers the period before the first Soviet occupation in 1940.06.14, stretching from independence in 1918 to the Soviet ultimatums in 1939–1940. The Baltic states gained their independence during and after the Russian revolutions of 1917; Lenin's government allowed them to secede. They managed to sign non-aggression treaties in the 1920s and 1930s.
Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940): covers the period from the Soviet–Baltic mutual assistance pacts in 1939, to their invasion and annexation in 1940, to the mass deportations of 1941
June deportation (1941.06.14-): ###?? from Baltics, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova were deported. Men went to GULAGs, women and children to "inhospitable areas" of USSR. Smaller scale than "Priboi".
Occupation of the Baltic states by Nazi Germany: occurred during Operation Barbarossa from 1941 to 1944
Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1944): USSR reoccupied most of the territory of the Baltic states in its 1944 Baltic Offensive during WWII (except for the Courland Pocket). Stalin talked about "liberation" of Ukraine, Belarus, Leningrad and Kalinin, Crimea, LT, LV, EE, Moldavia and Karelo-Finnish Republic. USA and Britain signed the Baltic states and Eastern Europe to Stalin in order to keep Soviet support to finish WWII in Europe and East Asia.
Forest Brothers (1940-1941: 1st Soviet occupation; 1944-1956: 2nd Soviet occupation): Finnland (Continuation War, supporting Karelians and Estonians) and Baltics. MI6's Operation Jungle got compromised (Cambridge Five working for USSR) and this compromised activities of huger partizan/guerilla organizations in the Baltics.
Lithuanian partisans: guerrillas against USSR occupation.
Swedish extradition of Baltic soldiers: controversial political event in Sweden that took place in 1945-1946, when Sweden extradited some 150 Latvian and Estonian former soldiers who had been drafted by Nazi Germany against the USSR in WWII.
Operation Priboi (March deportation, 1949.03.25-28): ~90,000 Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians deported to inhospitable areas of USSR. All numbers and stats are available unlike for 1941... Families were NOT separated.
Sovietization of the Baltic states: The last large-scale operation ("mass deportation") was planned for the night of 27–28 June 1941. It was postponed until after the war when the Germans invaded the USSR on June 22, 1941 - Operation Barbarossa. Between July and August 1940, Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian envoys to the United States and the United Kingdom made official protests against Soviet occupation and annexation of their countries.
Territorial changes of the Baltic states: redrawing of borders of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia after 1940. Estonia and Latvia have Russia as neighbor and border disputes; Lithuania ratified with all it's neighbors the borders (esp. Poland and Belarus).
Russians in the Baltic states: mainly in big cities: @LT (Vilnius - 12%, Klaipėda - 19%, Visaginas) - 4.9% ethnic RU; @LV (Riga - ~50%, Daugavpils - majority (>50%)) - 27.6% ethnic RU; @EE (Tallinn - 38.5% {46.7% spoke RU as mother tongue}, Tartu - 16%, Narva - 82%, Sillamäe - 82%, Kohtla-Järve - 70%) - 24% ethnic RU (proportion of Russophones is higher, because Russian is the mother tongue of many ethnic Ukrainians, Belarusians and Jews who live in the country). In 2017, there were 0.9 million ethnic Russians in the Baltic States, having declined from 1.7 million in 1989, the year of the last census during the Soviet era.
Russians in Lithuania (2011: 177k): First early settlements of Ruthenians in what is now Lithuania date back to late medieval ages when the first proto-Russian merchants and craftsmen began to permanently reside in several Lithuanian towns. In the late 17th century they were joined by many Russian Old Believers who settled in eastern Lithuania, escaping religious persecution in Russia. The second, larger, influx of Russians followed the annexation of Lithuania by the Russian Empire during the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century. Immediately after the war, Joseph Stalin carried out a major resettlement campaign in the three Baltic Soviet republics. After Stalin's death in 1953, the government of the Lithuanian SSR, led by the "communist nationalist" Antanas Sniečkus, objected to the resettlement policies and managed to slow down the influx of Russians by letting Lithuanians fill some of the higher party positions. The flow of immigrants did not stop entirely, and there were further waves of Russian workers who came to work on major construction projects, such as power plants.
Non-citizens (Latvia) (nepilsoņi): in Latvian law are individuals who are not citizens of Latvia or any other country but, who, in accordance with the Latvian law "Regarding the status of citizens of the former USSR who possess neither Latvian nor other citizenship", have the right to a non-citizen passport issued by the Latvian government as well as other specific rights. Approximately two thirds of them are ethnic Russians, followed by ethnic Belarusians, ethnic Ukrainians, ethnic Poles and ethnic Lithuanians. Non-citizens cannot vote, although they can participate to a lesser degree in public policy through NGOs. Pension rights are limited, and non-citizens cannot hold certain positions in local and national government, the civil service, and other governmental entities. Non-citizens are exempt from military service, which was compulsory for male Latvian citizens until 2006.
Andrejeva v. Latvia: proceedings and discrimination in calculating retirement pensions for non-citizens of Latvia.
Russian School Defense Staff (Headquarters for the Protection of Russian Schools, RU: Штаб защиты русских школ): As a result, the Education law was amended in February 2004, allowing to teach up to 40% in the forms 10-12 in minority languages. The proportion of teaching 60% of subjects in Latvian and 40% in Russian, according to BISS research, was supported by 20% of the teachers, 15% of pupils and 13% of parents in minority schools and most stated that they would rather support bilingual instruction in all subjects; only 15% of teachers thought that no reform was needed, while this opinion was expressed by 36% of parents and 44% of pupils.
ru:Перевод школ нацменьшинств на латышский язык (Латвия)
Singing Revolution: commonly used name for events between 1987 and 1991 that led to the restoration of the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Baltic Way (1989.08.23): peaceful political demonstration. ~2 mln. people joined their hands to form a human chain spanning 675.5 km. Marked the 50th anniversary of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between USSR and Nazi Germany. In 1989.08.08, Estonians attempted to amend election laws to limit voting rights of new immigrants (mostly Russian workers). This provoked mass strikes and protests of Russian workers. Moscow gained an opportunity to present the events as an "inter-ethnic conflict" – it could then position itself as "peacemaker" restoring order in a troubled republic. At the same time fears grew of violent clampdown. Erich Honecker from East Germany and Nicolae Ceauşescu from Romania offered USSR military assistance in case it decided to use force and break up the demonstration.
January Events (Lithuania) (1991.01.11-13): the aftermath of the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania. As a result of Soviet military actions, 13 civilians were killed and around 700 injured. The events were centered in its capital, Vilnius, along with related actions in its suburbs and in the cities of Alytus, Šiauliai, Varėna, and Kaunas.
The Barricades (1991.01.13-27): series of confrontations between Latvia and forces loyal to USSR which took place mainly in Riga. After attacks by the Soviet OMON on Riga in early January, the government called on people to build barricades for protection of possible targets.
Soviet OMON assaults on Lithuanian border posts (1990.12-1991.08): the newly declared Republic of Lithuania began establishing the State Border Guard Service, which also became a symbol of its striving for independence. The USSR government viewed the customs posts as illegal and sent the OMON (Special Purpose Police Unit) troops against the posts, especially those along the eastern border with Belarus. Following the attacks Lithuanian Prime Minister Gediminas Vagnorius officially complained to Boris Pugo, Soviet Minister of Internal Affairs in charge of OMON troops. Moscow denied responsibility for the attacks and claimed that the OMON troops acted without their approval.
Rail Baltica: project to link Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland with a European standard gauge rail line, providing passenger and freight service between the countries and improving rail connections between Central and Northern Europe. The first phase, known as Rail Baltica I, extends from the Poland-Lithuania border to Kaunas; inaugurated on 2015.10.16. Construction of Rail Baltica II, the second phase connecting Kaunas, Riga, and Tallinn, is planned to start construction in 2019.
Pope Francis's visit to the Baltic states (2018.09.22-25): Pope called for unity between Catholics, Lutherans, and followers of Eastern Orthodox in the country; also visited the Divine Mercy Shrine. Pope honored the Jews who suffered oppression during the Nazi occupation between 1941 and 1944. Commemorating the Lithuanian Holocaust Memorial Day, the Pope condemned anti-Semitism which fueled Holocaust propaganda. He also paid tribute to Lithuanians who were deported to Siberian gulags or tortured and oppressed during five decades of Soviet occupation. He later returned to Vilnius to hold three-minutes of silent prayer at the Vilnius Ghetto's Holocaust memorial on the date which marked the 75th anniversary of the liquidation of Jews in the area and also laid flowers. He afterwards visited Vilnius' Museum of Occupations and Freedom Fights, a Museum containing items and papers detailing the long history of Soviet oppression in Lithuania and which once served as headquarters for the local branch of the now defunct Soviet KGB, where he also spoke in the outside square to praise Lithuanians who stood up for their faith and described the country as a potential "beacon of hope."

(Old) Prussia, East PrussiaEdit

{q.v. #Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918)}

 
Prussian clans during the 13th century. Areas shaded in grey reached further south than shown on this map. Prussian clans of Galindians, Sudovians, Sasna and Lubavia as well as Kulmerland had become subjected to numerous incursions and conquests by recently arriving Slavs.
 
Map of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights 1260.
Chronicon terrae Prussiae ("The Chronicle of the Prussian Land"): chronicle of the Teutonic Knights, by Peter of Dusburg, finished in 1326. First major chronicle of the Teutonic Order in Prussia and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, completed some 100 years after the conquest of the crusaders into the Baltic region. It is a major source for information on the Order's battles with Old Prussians and Lithuanians. Peter takes no interest in domestic policy of the Order; he does not describe cities, trade, or colonization. Rather the chronicle describes minor raids and clashes with great detail. While narratives of events and battles are considered to be reliable, ethnographic data is ideologically charged. As a priest Peter tried to teach the reader. Pagan Prussians and Lithuanians are presented as a moral example. They are pious in their own way, and Christians should be ashamed of their disobedient and sinful ways.
Prussia (region): At first the Old Prussians, then Teutons/Germans, then "Lithuanians" and (Slavs?) came. After WWI, a small piece after uprising went to Lithuania. After WWII the large piece was divided between USSR and Poland, German-speaking (and minorities which were mainly bilingual in DE) were ousted.
Template:History of Brandenburg and Prussia
Old Prussians
Prussian Crusade: series of 13th-century campaigns of Roman Catholic crusaders, primarily led by the Teutonic Knights, to Christianize the pagan Old Prussians. Invited after earlier unsuccessful expeditions against the Prussians by Polish princes, the Teutonic Knights began campaigning against the Balts in 1230. By the end of the century, having quelled several Prussian Uprisings, the Knights had established control over Prussia and administered the Prussians through their monastic state.
Battle of Krücken (1249): fourth largest defeat of the Teutonic Knights in the 13th c.
Prussian uprisings: two major and three smaller uprisings by the Prussians against the Teutonic Knights that took place in the 13th c. during the Prussian Crusade. The Great Prussian Uprising (1260–1274);
Livonian Brothers of the Sword (1204-1237): in Terra Mariana; participated in Livonian Crusade.
State of the Teutonic Order (Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici) or Ordensstaat; Deutschordensland; 1224-1525): Livonian Brothers of the Sword controlling Livonia were incorporated into the Teutonic Order as its autonomous branch Livonian Order in 1237. Danish Estonia →& Terra Mariana → State of Teutonic Order → Duchy + Royal Prussia.
Thirteen Years' War (1454–66): fought between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.
Duchy of Prussia (Ducal Prussia; 1525–1701)
Royal Prussia (Polish Prussia; 1466-1772)
Battle of Durbe (1260.07.13): medieval battle fought near Durbe, 23 km east of Liepāja, in present-day Latvia during the Livonian Crusade. Samogitians soundly defeated the joint forces of the Teutonic Knights from Prussia and Livonian Order from Livonia. Some 150 knights were killed, including Livonian Master Burchard von Hornhausen and Prussian Land Marshal Henrik Botel. The largest defeat of the knights in the 13th c. Battle inspired the Great Prussian Uprising (ended in 1274) and the rebellions of the Semigallians (surrendered in 1290), the Couronians (surrendered in 1267), and the Oeselians (surrendered in 1261).
Prussian Lithuanians (Lietuvininkai): Lithuanians, originally Lithuanian language speakers, who formerly inhabited a territory in northeastern East Prussia called Prussian Lithuania, or Lithuania Minor (Lithuanian: Prūsų Lietuva, Mažoji Lietuva, German: Preußisch-Litauen, Kleinlitauen), instead of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, later, the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuania Major, or Lithuania proper). Prussian Lithuanians contributed greatly to the development of written Lithuanian, which for a long time was considerably more widespread and in more literary use in Lithuania Minor than in Lithuania proper. Unlike most Lithuanians, who remained Roman Catholic after the Protestant Reformation, most Lietuvininkai became Lutheran-Protestants (Evangelical-Lutheran). There were 121,345 speakers of Lithuanian in the Prussian census of 1890. Almost all Prussian Lithuanians fled or were expelled after WWII, when East Prussia was divided between Poland and the Soviet Union. The northern part became the Kaliningrad Oblast, while the southern part was attached to Poland. Only the small Klaipėda Region (German: Memelland) was attached to Lithuania. The term Preußische Litauer appeared in German texts of the 16th c. The term Kleinlitaw was first used by Simon Grunau between 1517 and 1527. Prussian Lithuanians used various names for themselves: Prussians (Lithuanian: Prūsai, German: Preusch), Prussian Lithuanians (Lithuanian: Pruſû Lietuwiai, Pruſû Lietuvininkai, Pruſißki Lietuvininkai, German: Preußische Litauer), or simply Lithuanians (Lithuanian: Lietuw(i)ni(n)kai, German: Litauer). Local self-designating terms found in literature, such as Sziszionißkiai ("people from here"), Burai (German: Bauern), were neither politonyms nor ethnonyms. Another similar term appeared in the Klaipėda Region (Memelland) during the interwar years – Memellanders (Lithuanian: Klaipėdiškiai, German: Memelländer). For Prussian Lithuanians loyalty to the German state, strong religious beliefs, and the mother tongue were the three main criteria of self-identification. Due to differences in religion and loyalties to a different state, the Prussian Lithuanians did not consider Lithuanians of the Grand Duchy to be part of their community. They used the exonym Samogitians (Lithuanian: Źemaicziai, German: Szameiten) to denote Lithuanians of Lithuania Major. Antagonism was frequent between the Lutheran Prussian Lithuanians and the Catholic Lithuanians of the Grand Duchy, despite the common language. For example, inhabitants of Lithuania did not trust Prussian Lithuanians in the Klaipėda Region and tended to eliminate them from posts in government institutions. When Prussian Lithuanian writer Ieva Simonaitytė (Ewa Simoneit) chose the side of the Lithuanian Republic, she was condemned by relatives, friends and neighbours. Only one Prussian Lithuanian, Dovas Zaunius, worked in the government of Lithuania[citation needed] between WWI and WWII. The antagonism persisted until the end of WWII. The area between the rivers Alle and Neman became almost uninhabited during the 13th-century Prussian Crusade and wars between the pagan GDL and the Teutonic Order. This uninhabited area was named the wilderness in chronicles. Local tribes were resettled, either voluntary or by force, in the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After the 1422 Treaty of Melno, a stable border between the two states was established. Better living conditions in the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights attracted many Lithuanians and Samogitians to settle there. Masurians and Curonians began moving into Prussia around the same time. Although Lithuanians who settled in Prussia were mainly farmers, in the 16th century there was an influx of educated Protestant immigrants from Lithuania, such as Martynas Mažvydas, Abraomas Kulvietis and Stanislovas Rapolionis, who became among the first professors at Königsberg University, founded in 1544. Martynas Mažvydas was a zealous Protestant and urged citizens to stop all contact between Prussian Lithuanians and Lithuanians living in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in a bid to curtail Catholic influence in the country. From mid-18th c., a majority of Prussian Lithuanians were literate; in comparison, the process was much slower in GDL. The nationalistic Lithuanian national revival in the late 19th century was not popular with Prussian Lithuanians. To them integration with Lithuania was not understandable and not acceptable. The idea of Lithuanian–Latvian unity was more popular than idea of Lithuanian-Prussian Lithuanian unity during the Great Seimas of Vilnius, a conference held in 1905. There was no national Germanisation policy until 1870; Prussian Lithuanians voluntarily adopted German language and culture. After the Unification of Germany in 1871, when part of Lithuania became integrated with the new nation of Germany, learning the German language was made compulsory in state schools. Studying the German language provided the possibility for Prussian Lithuanians to become acquainted with Western European culture and values. However, Germanization also provoked a cultural movement among Prussian Lithuanians. In 1879 and 1896, petitions for the return of the Lithuanian language to schools was signed by 12,330 and 23,058 Prussian Lithuanians from the districts of Memel, Heydekrug, Tilsit and Ragnit. The Prussian Lithuanians could publish own newspapers and books, even helping Lithuanians in Russia to bypass their press ban by publishing their newspapers, such as Auszra and Varpas. Since the end of 18th and the beginning of 19th c., Prussian Lithuanians have typically been bilingual. The Prussian Lithuanian orthography was based on the German style, while in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania it was primarily based on the Polish style. Prussian Lithuanians used Gothic script. Lithuanians did not read Prussian Lithuanian publications and vice versa; the cultural communication was very limited. After 1905, modern Lithuanian orthography was standardized while Prussian Lithuanian orthography remained the same – German Gothic script, a noun was begun with a capital letter, the letters ſ, ß, ʒ were used, and the construction of sentences was different from Lithuanian.
Bruno Sutkus#Memorable quotation: Lithuanian-German sniper, allegiance: Nazi Germany.
{q.v. Vydūnas}
List of cities and towns in East Prussia: →Kaliningrad, →Klaipėda County (Memelland), →Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship (& a bit to Pomeranian Voivodeship)
Act of Tilsit: act, signed in Tilsit by 24 members of the National Council of Lithuania Minor (Lithuanian: Mažosios Lietuvos tautinė taryba) 1918.11.30. Signatories demanded unification of Lithuania Minor and Lithuania Proper into a single Lithuanian state. This would mean detaching the northern areas of East Prussia, inhabited by Prussian Lithuanians, from the German Empire. The part of East Prussia north of Neman River, the Memel Territory up to the city of Memel (Klaipėda), was detached by Polish efforts by the Treaty of Versailles and placed under the supervision of the League of Nations. The rest of East Prussia, located south of the Neman River, including the town of Tilsit, where the act was signed, remained within Germany. The Act was not signed by the main pro-Lithuanian oriented Prussian Lithuanian leaders Wilhelm Storost (Vydūnas) and Wilhelm Gaigalat. Eventually, the Act of Tilsit became an important propaganda tool during the staged Klaipėda Revolt of 1923, after which Memel Territory (Klaipėda Region) was annexed by Lithuania. In 1939.03, Lithuania was forced to cede Klaipėda Region to Nazi Germany. lt:Tilžės aktas: 1918.11 Vokietijos imperijai pralaimėjus WWI, žlugus Vokietijos monarchijai ir valdžią Berlyne perėmus kairiosioms jėgoms, visoje Vokietijoje, įskaitant ir Rytų Prūsiją, prasidėjo politinė suirutė. Tuo metu Lietuvos valstybėje jau veikė laikinoji vyriausybė, kuri siūlė mažlietuvių veikėjams jungtis prie gimstančios Lietuvos valstybės. Spaudimą didino ir Tilžės spaudoje paskelbta žinia, esą JAV prezidentas Woodrow Wilson Amerikos lietuvių delegacijai pažadėjęs pasirūpinti, jog Mažoji Lietuva iki pat Karaliaučiaus būtų įjungta į atkuriamą Lietuvos valstybę. Pasirašė: Jonas Vanagaitis, Viktoras Gailius, Martynas Jankus, Mikelis Deivikas, Mikas Banaitis, A. Smalakys, Kristupas Paura, Mikelis Lymantas, D. Kalniškys, Fridrikas Zubaitis, Kristupas Kiupelis, Enzys Jagomastas, Jurgis Arnašius, Jurgis Lėbartas, Liudvikas Deivikas, Jonas Užpurvis, Jurgis Gronavas, Mikelis Mačiulis, Emilis Bendikas, Mikelis Reidys, Valteris Didžys, Jokūbas Juška, Mikelis Klečkus, Jurgis Margys. Panašu, kad Lietuvos politikai, nesuprasdami per šimtmečius susiklosčiusių skirtumų tarp mažlietuvių ir didlietuvių, Prūsų lietuvių tautos tarybą išties traktavo kaip lietuvininkų interesų reiškėją, nors iš tikro dauguma lietuvininkų tiek 1918 m., tiek ir vėliau liko ištikimi savo ankstesnei politinei orientacijai į Vokietiją. Vokietija daugumai Klaipėdos krašto lietuvių buvo sava valstybė.

LithuaniaEdit

General topics (not only strictly history)Edit
Template:Lithuania topics: Early {q.v. #Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL), #Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (PLC): PL+GDL}, Revival and independence, WWII and occupations, Restoration.
Lithuania proper (Latin: Lithuania propria; Lithuanian: Didžioji Lietuva, literally: "Genuine Lithuania"; Yiddish: ליטע, Lite): refers to a region which existed within GDL, and spoke Lithuanian language. The primary meaning is identical to GDL, a land around which GDL evolved. The territory can be traced by Catholic Christian parishes established in pagan Baltic lands of GDL subsequent to the Christianization of Lithuania in 1387; they were quite distinguishable, as the Ruthenian parts of the Duchy were already baptized in orthodox manner. Already during GDL times, Lithuania Proper was a term designated to land where Lithuanians live; administratively it consisted of Vilnius Voivodeship and Trakai Voivodeship. Present border between Lithuania and Latvia is the oldest national border in Europe and has not changed since the battle of Saule in 1236 and the subsequent merger of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword and the Teutonic order. For centuries, eastern and southern lands of this territory, that had direct contacts with Ruthenia and Poland, initially inhabited by ethnic Lithuanians were slowly Ruthenised, Polonised and Russified, and the Lithuanian-speaking territory shrunk; Deluge, Great Northern War, plague epidemic in 1710-1711. De-Lithuanisation during Lithuanian press ban (1864) and Polish rule. Nowadays significant "islands" of Lithuanian-speaking people remain in what is now Western Belarus (see Gerviaty) and Northern Poland (see Punsk); people of these territories now speaking Belarusian still refer to themselves as Lithuanians.
 
Lithuanian language areas in the 16th century.
Ethnographic Lithuania (extreme nationalism & "geneticism"?): early 20th century concept that defined Lithuanian territories as significant part of the territories that belonged to GDL and Lithuanians as all people living on them, regardless of whether those people spoke Lithuanian language and considered themselves Lithuanian; concept was in contrast to those of "historic Lithuania" - the territories of the Duchy - and the "linguistic Lithuania", the area where Lithuanian language was overwhelmingly spoken. The concept of ethnographic Lithuania clashed with the right for self determination of people living in that large territory, particularly Poles and Belarusians, who according to the supporters of the ethnographic Lithuania, were "slavicized Lithuanians" who needed to be re-Lithuanized. They argued that an individual cannot decide on his ethnicity and nationality, that it is not related to the language but to their ancestry.
lt:Žemės reformos Lietuvoje: XIII-XIV a. žemdirbystė jau buvo pagrindinis žmonių verslas, XV a. atsirado baudžiava, tačiau žemdirbystė dar nebuvo pakankamai efektyvi. Pirmoji žemės (agrarinė) reforma Lietuvoje – feodalinė Valakų reforma, įvykdyta XVI a. antrojoje pusėje, ilgam įtvirtinusi feodalinius santykius, perėjimą prie taisyklingo trilaukio. Svarbi reforma – baudžiavos panaikinimas XIX amžiuje (1807-1850 m. Klaipėdos krašte; 1864 m. Užnemunėje; 1861-1863 m. kitose Lietuvos dalyse), taip pat Stolypino reforma (1906-1914), kuria naikinti Valakų reforma nustatyti rėžiai, tarpurėžiai bei laukų išmėtymas, dalis kaimų išskirstyta į vienkiemius. Radikalios reformos įstatymas parengtas 1920 m. liepą, o seime priimtas 1922 m. vasario 15 d; Nustatyta didžiausia nenusavinama žemės norma (80 h), viršijanti normą žemė imama į fondą (kompensuojant už ją savininkams), iš kurio žemė buvo dalinama – pirmiausiai savanoriams, po to valstiečiams, kurie turėjo žemę išpirkti per 36 metus. Vilniaus krašte nuo 1920 iki 1936 m. žemės reformą vykdė Lenkijos valdžia. Tarybinės reformos. 1991 m. liepos 25 d. Aukščiausioji Taryba – Atkuriamasis Seimas – priėmė „Žemės reformos įstatymą“, kuris kartu su LR įstatymu „Dėl piliečių nuosavybės teisių į išlikusį nekilnojamąjį turtą atstatymo tvarkos ir sąlygų“ nustatė pagrindus, pagal kuriuos Tarybų Sąjungos neatlygintinai nacionalizuota 1940 metais turėta nuosavybės teisė buvo iš dalies atkuriama.
lt:Valakų reforma: žemės reforma dalyje LDK (Lietuvoje, Žemaitijoje ir dalyje Baltarusijos), vykdyta XVI a. antrojoje pusėje. Svarbiausias šios reformos tikslas – padidinti iždo pajamas, tolygiai paskirstyti valstiečiams feodalines prievoles. Nuo XV a. grūdai tampa paklausia preke Vakarų Europoje, o nuo XVI a. į šią prekybą įsitraukė Lietuva. 1529 m. Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis išleido instrukciją didžiojo kunigaikščio dvarų valdytojams, kurios tikslas buvo didinti grūdų auginimo plotus. Turėjo būti permatuoti ir perskirstyti kaimai, kiekvienam ūkiui skiriant po valaką žemės. Įtvirtinta ir trilaukė sistema. Šios instrukcijos tapo pagrindu didžiajai valakų reformai 1557 m. Reformos rezultatai – įsigalėjo baudžiava, sueuropinta žemėtvarka, žemėvalda bei žemdirbystė. Valstybiniuose dvaruose (jų pavyzdžiu pasekė bajorų ir bažnyčiai priklausantys dvarai) buvo steigiami palivarkai. Palivarkas - dvaro dirbamos žemės, kuriose valstiečiai atlikdavo lažą.
lt:Baudžiavos panaikinimo reforma {q.v. Emancipation reform of 1861}: reformą nusakančiais įstatymais numatyta asmens laisvė valstiečiams, teisė disponuoti savo turtu, įsigyti turtą, kreiptis į teismą, laisvai kurti šeimą. Taip pat nustatyta valstiečių savivaldos (valsčių, teismo, seniūnijos) tvarka. Žemė liko dvarininkams, bet šie privalėjo leisti valstiečiams naudotis skirtine žeme už lažą ar piniginę duoklę. Duoklė už 1,09 ha lietuviškose gubernijose neturėjo viršyti 3 rublių, lažas – 23 vyro ir moters darbo dienų per metus.
lt:Stolypino reforma {q.v. Stolypin reform}
lt:1918–1919 m. žemės reforma
lt:1919–1939 m. žemės reforma: pagrindinis tikslas buvo išdalinti dvarams priklausiusią žemę bežemiams ir mažažemiams valstiečiams. 1922.04.03 paskelbtas Žemės reformos įstatymas, kuriame nurodyta nusavinti didesnių kaip 80 ha ūkių žemę, savininkams paliekant 80 ha minimumą, už nusavinimą skirti kompensacijas; taip pat numatyta nusavinti ir išdalinti kitų šalių kariuomenėse tarnavusių ar prieš Lietuvos nepriklausomybę veikusių savininkų valdas. Iš suvalstybintos žemės buvo formuojami 8-20 ha ūkiai, visų pirma išdalinti bežemiams ir mažažemiams, kurių valdos buvo konfiskuotos 1861 m., bei kariams savanoriams.
Poles in Lithuania (2011: 200k): largest ethnic minority in the country and the second largest Polish diaspora group among the post-Soviet states. Poles are concentrated in the Vilnius Region (Polish: Wileńszczyzna). Poland was highly supportive of Lithuanian independence, and became one of the first countries to recognise independent Lithuania, despite apprehensions over Lithuania's treatment of its Polish minority.
lt:Vilniaus rajono savivaldybė: 2011: 52% (49.6k) lenkai, 32.5% (31.0k) lietuviai
lt:Šalčininkų rajono savivaldybė: 2011: 77.8% (26.9k) lenkai, 10.8% (3.7k) lietuviai
lt:Trakų rajono savivaldybė: 2011: 56.3% (19.4k) lietuviai, 30.1% (10.4k) lenkai
lt:Švenčionių rajono savivaldybė: 2011: 52.8% (14.7k) lietuviai, 26.0% (7.2k) lenkai
Ukrainians in Lithuania (2011: 16.4k): Many prominent figures of Ukraine such as Taras Shevchenko, Meletius Smotrytsky, Yakiv Holovatsky, St. Yosafat (in the world — Ivan Kuntsevich, a religious figure of Greco-Catholic church canonized in 1967) and others stayed and created in Lithuania.
Lithuania in Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL)Edit

{q.v. #Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL)}

Lithuania in Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthEdit

{q.v. #Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (PLC): PL+GDL}

Lithuania in Russian and German EmpiresEdit

{q.v.:

}

Lithuania during interwar periodEdit
Vilnius Conference (1917.09.18 - 1917.09.22): began the process of establishing a Lithuanian state based on ethnic identity and language that would be independent of the Russian Empire, Poland, and the German Empire. It elected a twenty-member Council of Lithuania that was entrusted with the mission of declaring and re-establishing an independent Lithuania.
1919 Polish coup d'état attempt in Lithuania (1919.08-09): Result: Coup discovered, Polish plotters arrested by Lithuanian authorities. Failed attempt by Polish statesman Józef Piłsudski to overthrow the existing Lithuanian government of Prime Minister Mykolas Sleževičius, and install a pro-Polish cabinet that would agree to a union with Poland. The coup was designed to seem to be an initiative by local Lithuanians aiming to free their government of German influence.
Vydūnas (Wilhelm Storost; artistic name Vilius Storostas-Vydūnas; Vydūnas; 1868.03.22 – 1953.02.20): Prussian-Lithuanian teacher, poet, humanist, philosopher and Lithuanian writer and philosopher, a leader of the Prussian Lithuanian national movement in Lithuania Minor, and one of leaders of the theosophical movement in East Prussia. "Vydūnas" was added to his surname as a pseudonym when he was about 40 years old. 1932 he wrote a book Sieben Hundert Jahren Deutsch-Litauischer Beziehung. His idea of understanding between folks groups did not please the Nazis and in 1933 the book was outlawed. 1938 he was shortly incarcerated, but because of protests released after two months. His grand nephews, Jürgen Storost, recently explained, that Wilhelm Storost's answered his friend Viktor Falkenhahn, that "his use of the pen name Vydunas was his chosen anthroposophic mission; that he did not want to be a "pavydunas", but a "vydunas" (one who wishes everyone everything good). Vydūnas was active in the old Lithuanian pagan religion (see Romuva). However, he never declared the revival of the pagan religion as either his personal goal or a goal of Lithuanians, remaining a national leader but not a religious one. His moral influence transcended the confines of being a typical political leader or a writer at his time. He was compared by later biographers with national leaders in India of his time, such as Rabindranath Tagore or Mahatma Gandhi. Pantheistic universalism, not predefined with participating in any obligatory religious practice, was one of the leading ideas of his philosophy, and gained him later fame as a pioneer of both pagan revival and theosophy in Lithuania. Vydūnas was an ethical vegetarian, and wrote several essays about his ethical choices.
Lithuanian Nationalists Union (Lietuvių tautininkų sąjunga or tautininkai): was a nationalist, right-wing political party in Lithuania, founded in 1924; ruling party of Lithuania from the 1926 Lithuanian coup d'état in December 1926 to the Soviet occupation in June 1940 (leadership: Antanas Smetona and Augustinas Voldemaras). 1926 Smetona became the new President and Voldemaras the new Prime Minister of LT (till 1940).
Augustinas Voldemaras (1883.04.16-1942.05.16): LT nationalist political figure. Served as the first Prime Minister in 1918, and again from 1926 to 1929. Survived an assassination attempt in Kaunas in 1929, and later while attending a meeting of the League of Nations, he was ousted in a coup by President Smetona, who now ruled as dictator alone until the Soviet invasion in 1940. After failed coup d'etat against Smetona Voldemaras was arrested in 1934, then in 1938 he was pardoned, released, and exiled.
Iron Wolf (Lithuania) (Geležinis Vilkas, also known as the Iron Wolf Association or the Iron Wolves; lt:Geležinis Vilkas (organizacija)): LT fascist movement formed by Augustinas Voldemaras in 1927. After 1929 Voldemaras' removal from office, the Association went underground and received aid and encouragement in its activities from Germany. In 1934 its members attempted a failed coup d'etat against the president Antanas Smetona (former honorary leader who broke with the organizations earlier) and tried to set Voldemaras as the new leader.
lt:Voldemarininkai: 1929 m. nušalinto Lietuvos ministro pirmininko Augustino Voldemaro šalininkai. Jų politinė srovė nepriklausomoje Lietuvoje veikė slaptai, o 1941 m. birželio sukilime ir nacių okupacijos pradžioje veikė legaliai. Voldemarininkai buvo itin nusistatę prieš lenkus ir žydus, taip pat prieš visas Lietuvos partijas. Voldemarininkai labai siekė Vokietijos ir Lietuvos bendradarbiavimo. 1939 m. birželio mėn. jie Vokietijos užsienio reikalų ministerijos prašė 100 000 litų (41 000 reichsmarkių) „visų pirma žydų pogromams rengti“. Iš Lietuvos pasitraukę voldemarininkai dalyvavo Lietuvių aktyvistų fronto (LAF) steigime ir veikloje, vadovavo organizacinei komisijai (Klemensas Brunius).
Lithuanian Riflemen's Union: nationalistic paramilitary organisation with historical significance. Members of the organization participated in the Klaipėda Revolt of 1923, when Klaipėda Region was annexed by Lithuania. Some of its members volunteered to serve the Germans, forming a core of the infamous Ypatingasis būrys of 40–50 men.
Template:Ultimatums presented to Lithuania in 1938-1940
1938 Polish ultimatum to Lithuania: regarding reestablishing diplomatic relations
1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania: Memel (Klaipėda) Region
1940 Soviet ultimatum to Lithuania (before midnight of 1940.06.14): occupation of Lithuania. Rigged "election" on 1940.06.14-15 ⇒ People's Seimas.
Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty (October 10, 1939): Soviet troops positioned in Lithuania, part of Vilnius region is given from the occupied Poland to Lithuania).
lt:Antrojo pasaulinio karo pradžia ir Lietuvos nepriklausomybės praradimas
Lithuanian SSR (1940–1990)Edit

Making of Lithuanian SSR:

Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty
People's Government of Lithuania (Liaudies vyriausybė): was a puppet cabinet installed by USSR in Lithuania immediately after Lithuania's acceptance of the Soviet ultimatum of 1940.06.14.
People's Seimas (lt:Liaudies Seimas): was a puppet legislature organized in order to legitimize the occupation and annexation of Lithuania by USSR. 1940 July 11, 12 - 15 elections were rigged.
lt:Naikintojų batalionai (истребительные батальоны): WWII pokario metais TSRS egzistavę sukarinti, paprastai vietinių komunistų ir komjaunuolių, būriai, sudaryti kovoti su antisovietiniais partizanais, savigynos būriais, vietinių gyventojų pasipriešinimo tarybinei valdžiai darinių dalyviais, bandžiusiais išlaisvinti šalis nuo sovietų kariuomenės prieš atvykstant vokiečių kariuomenei. Naikintojų batalionai pradėti sudarinėti 1941 m. vasarą priefrontės rajonuose. Įsakai pradėti formuoti naikintojų batalionus buvo išleisti 1941.06.24 TSRS mastu (Об охране предприятий и учреждений и создания истребительных батальонов; Apie įmonių ir įstaigų apsaugą ir naikintojų batalionų įkūrimą') ir 1941.07.06 – Baltarusijos TSR mastu. Naikintojų batalionų uždavinius apibrėžė TSRS Liaudies komisarų tarybos nutarimas „Apie priemones kovai su parašiutininkų desantais ir priešininko diversantais pafrontės juostoje“ (О мероприятиях по борьбе с парашютными десантами и диверсантами противника в прифронтовой полосе). Maskvoje buvo centrinis naikintojų batalionų štabas, kuriam vadovavo generolas Dmitrijus Kramarčiukas. Stribai Lietuvoje: Lietuvoje naikintojų batalionai buvo vadinami stribai, skrebai, šie pavadinimai kilę iš iškraipyto rusiško pavadinimo истребители (istrebiteli) 'naikintojai'. 1945 m. spalio 18 d. okupacinė Lietuvos valdžia nutarė stribus vadinti ne „naikintojais“, o „liaudies gynėjais“. 1951–1954 m. stribų būriai palaipsniui buvo mažinami ir galiausiai panaikinti.
Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (Lithuanian SSR, 1940–1990)
Rainiai massacre (night of 1941.06.24–25): mass murder of between 70 and 80 Lithuanian political prisoners by the NKVD, with help from the Red Army, in a forest near Telšiai, Lithuania.
lt:Lietuvos elektrinė (1962): didžiausia Lietuvoje šiluminė elektrinė, Lietuvos energetikos sistemos pagrindinė elektrinė, pastatyta Elektrėnuose, mieste, kuris iškilo specialiai aptarnauti elektrinei. Šalia elektrinės užtvenktas Strėvos upelis, dėl to susidarė Elektrėnų marios.
1972 unrest in Lithuania (Kaunas' Spring; 1972.05.18-19): sparked by the self-immolation of a 19-year-old student named Romas Kalanta and prohibition to take part in R. Kalanta’s funeral by the officials. As a result thousands of young demonstrators gathered in the central street of Kaunas, Laisvės alėja in anti-government protests.
lt:Lituanika (festivalis): pirmasis tarptautinis roko ir džiazo festivalis Lietuvoje. Festivalius 1985-1988 m. organizavo klubas „Lituanika“.
Lithuania in WWII: Lithuanian SSR, Nazi occupation, extermination of Jews (1939-1944)Edit
Lithuanian Activist Front (lt:Lietuvių aktyvistų frontas; LAF): dėl įsikūrimo Berlyne ir bendradarbiavimo su nacistinės Vokietijos valdžios organais, LAF veikla buvo traktuojama nevienareikšmiškai. Žydų vertinimu, tai buvo marionetinė organizacija, padėjusi įgyvendinti nacių užmačias. Buvusio prezidento A. Smetonos vertinimu, jos veikla buvo inspiruota Vokietijos.
June Uprising in Lithuania: brief period in the history of Lithuania between the first Soviet occupation and the Nazi occupation in late June 1941. When Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union on 1941.06.22, a diverse segment of the Lithuanian population rose up against the Soviet regime, declared renewed independence, and formed the short-lived Provisional Government. Two large Lithuanian cities, Kaunas and Vilnius, fell into the hands of the rebels before the arrival of the Wehrmacht. Within a week, the German Army took control of the whole of Lithuania. The Lithuanians greeted the Germans as liberators from the repressive Soviet rule and hoped that the Germans would re-establish their independence or at least allow some degree of autonomy (similar to the Slovak Republic). 1940.06.14 just before midnight, the last meeting of the Lithuanian Government was held in the Presidential Palace, in Kaunas. During it, the Soviet's ultimatum was debated. In the morning, the Lithuanian Government resigned while the president left the country to avoid the fate of the Soviet's puppet and hoping to form the Government in exile. Soon the Red Army flooded Lithuania through the Belarus–Lithuania border with more than 200,000 soldiers and took control of the most important cities, including Kaunas where the heads of state resided. After the occupation, the Soviets had immediately taken brutal actions against the high-ranking officials of the state. Soldiers, officers, senior officers and generals of the Lithuanian Army and LRU members, who were seen as a threat to the occupants, were quickly arrested, interrogated and released to the reserve, deported to the concentration camps or executed, trying to avoid this many joined the Lithuanian partisans forces. The LAF established its military–political headquarters in Vilnius and organizational headquarters in Kaunas. The communication and coordination between these centers in Berlin, Kaunas, and Vilnius was rather poor. The headquarters in Vilnius suffered heavily from Soviet arrests, especially in early June 1941, and became largely defunct. Most of those arrested activists were executed in 1941.12, in Russia. German advances and Soviet retreat. Lithuanian revolt: In Kaunas, In Vilnius, Elsewhere and summary. Independence and Provisional Government
lt:1941 m. birželio sukilimas (1941.06.22–28): Lietuvių aktyvistų fronto vadovaujamas sukilimas atkurti Lietuvos nepriklausomybę, prasidėjęs 1941.06.22 nacių Vokietijai užpuolus Sovietų Sąjungą.
Provisional Government of Lithuania
lt:Lietuvių frontas (LF): pogrindinė antinacinė organizacija Lietuvoje.
Template:Holocaust Lithuania & The Holocaust in Lithuania & lt:Holokaustas Lietuvoje:
Lithuanian Security Police (Saugumas): was a Lithuanian Nazi collaborationist police force that operated from 1941 to 1944. Many of its members came from the fascist Iron Wolf organisation.
Lithuanian Jews (Litvaks)
History of the Jews in Lithuania
List of massacres in Lithuania
Rainiai massacre
Kaunas pogrom (lt:Lietūkio garažo žudynės; 1941.06.25-29): massacre of Jewish people living in Kaunas, Lithuania during the first days of the Operation Barbarossa and of Nazi occupation of Lithuania. The most infamous incident occurred in the Lietūkis garage, where several Jews were publicly tortured and executed on June 27.
Kaunas massacre of October 29, 1941 (Great Action): largest mass murder of Lithuanian Jews; murdered 2,007 Jewish men, 2,920 women, and 4,273 children in a single day at the Ninth Fort, Kaunas, Lithuania.
Koniuchy massacre
Ponary massacre (Paneriai massacre; 1941.07-1944.08): was the mass murder of up to 100,000 people, mostly Jews, but also Russians, Poles, Lithuanians and others, by German SD, SS and Lithuanian Nazi collaborators, such as the Ypatingasis būrys units, during World War II and the Holocaust in Reichskommissariat Ostland.
Kazimierz Sakowicz (?-1944): Polish journalist. A witness to the prolonged Ponary massacre, he chronicled much of it in his diary, which became one of the best known testaments to that atrocity of WWII, in which about 100 000 Jews, Poles and Russians were murdered by Germans and Lithuanian collaborators.
Glinciszki massacre (1944.06.20): of 37 mostly Polish villagers including women and children were killed by Nazi subordinated Lithuanian Security Police retaliating for the death of four policemen (from the 258th Police battalion) that occurred during a fight with element of the 5th Brigade of the Polish resistance of Armia Krajowa earlier that day.
Dubingiai massacre (1944.06.23): mass murder of between 20 and 27 Lithuanian civilians in the town of Dubingiai by a unit of the Armia Krajowa, a Polish resistance group, in a reprisal action for the Glinciszki (Glitiškės) massacre of 20 June.
Lithuanian partisans (1941): generic term used during World War II by Nazi officials and quoted in books by modern historians to describe Lithuanian collaborators with the Nazis during the first months of the occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany.
group led by Nazi agent Algirdas Klimaitis and active in Kaunas at the end of June 1941
lt:Tautinio darbo apsaugos batalionas (Tautinio Darbo Apsaugos Batalionas): lietuvių savanorių ginkluotas karinis dalinys nacių okupuotoje Lietuvoje ir kitur sušaudęs tūkstančius žydų, kovojęs su sovietiniais partizanais ir gynęs karinius objektus.
lt:1941 m. liepos 4 d. ir 6 d. žudynės VII Kauno forte: 1941 m. Lietuvoje buvo įkurta pirmoji koncentracijos stovykla nacių okupuotose teritorijose. Būtent Lietuvoje įvyko pirmosios nuo karo tarp nacistinės Vokietijos ir SSRS pradžios planinės masinės civilių žudynės.
Rollkommando Hamann (lt:Hamano skrajojantis būrys): small mobile unit that committed mass murders of Lithuanian Jews in the countryside in July–October 1941.
Lithuanian Police Battalions formed in Vilnius from 3,600 deserters from the 29th Lithuanian Territorial Corps of the Red Army
Ypatingasis būrys (Special SD and German Security Police Squad; lt: Vokiečių Saugumo policijos ir SD ypatingasis būrys; 1941-1944): Lithuanian killing squad also called the "Lithuanian equivalent of Sonderkommando", operating in the Vilnius Region. The unit, primarily composed of Lithuanian volunteers, was formed by the German occupational government and was subordinate to Einsatzkommando 9 and later to Sicherheitsdienst (SD) and Sicherheitspolizei (Sipo). Together with German police, the squad participated in the Ponary massacre, where some 70,000 Jews were murdered, along with estimated 20,000 Poles and 8,000 Russian POWs, many from nearby Vilnius.
Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force (lt:Vietinė rinktinė): short-lived, Lithuanian, volunteer armed force created and disbanded in 1944 during the German occupation of Lithuania; goal was to fight the approaching Red Army, provide security and conduct anti-partisan operations within the territory, claimed by Lithuanians.
Battle of Murowana Oszmianka (1944.05.13-14): largest clash between the Polish resistance movement organization Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK) and the Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force (LTDF); a Lithuanian volunteer security force subordinated to Nazi Germany occupational administration. The outcome of the battle was that the 301st LTDF battalion was routed and the entire force was disbanded by the Germans soon afterwards.
Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania (lt:Vyriausiasis Lietuvos išlaisvinimo komitetas, VLIK): was an organization seeking independence of Lithuania; established 1943.10.25 during Nazi occupation.
Restoration of independenceEdit
Template:Restoration of Baltic independence:
Baltic Appeal (45 pabaltijiečių memorandumas): (1979 Aug 23; 40th of Molotov-Ribbentrop) public letter to the general secretary of the United Nations, Soviet Union, East and West Germany, and signatories of the Atlantic Charter by 45 Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian citizens
Lithuanian Liberty League (LLL: Lietuvos laisvės lyga): (1978, limited popularity in 1987-1989). Leader: Antanas Terleckas. Pro-independence LLL published anti-Soviet literature and organized protest rallies. <LLL was more willing to confront and Sąjūdis preferred to compromise. The League was a "doer" while Sąjūdis was the "talker.">
lt:Antanas Terleckas: LT dissident. Exiled in 1958 for 4 y. to Tayshet (Siberia); 1979 exiled again for 3 y. to Ural for hard labor and just exile to Magadan (Far Eastern Siberia). One of the signatories of Baltic Appeal.
Roko Maršas lt:Roko Maršas: 1987: Antis; 1988: Antis; 1989: Antis, Foje. The green and political freedom movements were supported by rock, metal, punk groups.
Sąjūdis (Reform Movement of Lithuania) lt:Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdis
Vytautas Landsbergis (lt:Vytautas Landsbergis: signataras): one of the founders of Sąjūdis; chairman of the council of Sąjūdis; 1990 elections - Chairman of the Supreme Council of Lithuania (when Sąjūdis won majority vote)
lt:Ekonominė blokada (1990) (1990.04.18-1990.07.02): TSRS valdžia sustabdė žaliavų (pirmiausia naftos) tiekimą Lietuvai. Lietuvai nutrauktas visas naftos tiekimas, 80 % sumažintas dujų tiekimas, apribotas degalų pardavimas, sustabdyti ešelonai su jau siunčiamomis prekėmis ir žaliavomis. Iš viso buvo nustota tiekti 40-60 rūšių žaliavos ir produktų.
Poles in Lithuania: mainly at the border region with Belarus, 6.74%.
Yedinstvo (Lithuania): was a pro-Moscow and anti-Sąjūdis movement in the Lithuanian SSR during the Perestroika era; In addition to ethic Russians, the organization had some success among the Polish minority in Lithuania, many of whom preferred Lithuania as a member of USSR.
Polish National-Territorial Region: was an autonomous region in Lithuania, self-proclaimed by the local Poles on 6 September 1990. After the August Coup of the Soviet hardliners had failed, the Lithuanian parliament suspended on 3 September 1991 the democratically elected local councils that had sought autonomy or secession from Lithuania.
lt:Sausio įvykiai (1991 m.) (January Events (Lithuania)): kurių metu Lietuvoje buvo mėginta įvykdyti valstybės perversmą panaudojant SSRS ginkluotąsias pajėgas, Vidaus reikalų ministerijos vidaus kariuomenę ir SSRS Valstybės saugumo komitetą (KGB), siekiant atkurti SSKP politinę valdžią Lietuvos Respublikoje.


Independent Lithuania, modern Lithuania, LietuvaEdit
 
Lietuvos seniūnijos.
Elderships of Lithuania ([16/11/09] 546): smallest administrative division of Lithuania. An eldership could either be a very small region consisting of few villages, one single town, or part of a big city. Elderships vary in size and population depending on their place and nature.
Municipalities of Lithuania ([16/11/09] 60)
Counties of Lithuania ([16/11/09] 10): named after their capitals.
List of renamed cities in Lithuania:
  • Georgenburg → Jurbarkas
  • Memel → Klaipėda (1923)
  • Pašešupys → Starapolė (1736) → Marijampolė (1758) → Kapsukas (1956) → Marijampolė (1989)
  • Šilokarčema → Šilutė (1923)
  • Vilkmergė → Ukmergė (1920s)
  • Medininkai → Varniai (16th century)
  • Sniečkus → Visaginas (1992)
  • Duoliebaičiai → Władysławów/Vladislavovas (1639) → Naumiestis → Kudirkos Naumiestis (1934)
  • Zarasai → Novoalexandrovsk (1836) → Ežerėnai (1919) → Zarasai (1929)
  • Mažeikiai → Muravyov (1899) → Mažeikiai (1918)
lt:Pakaunės savanorių maištas (Coup of the Volunteers): nepaklusnumo akcija, įvykdyta 1993 m. rugpjūčio–rugsėjo mėn. grupės ginkluotų Savanoriškosios krašto apsaugos tarnybos (SKAT) savanorių, savavališkai pasitraukusių iš dislokacijos vietų į miškus Kauno rajone, vadovaujamų Jono Maskvyčio.
lt:Tarptautinė komisija nacių ir sovietinio okupacinių režimų nusikaltimams Lietuvoje įvertinti: tarptautinė komisija sudaryta 1998.09.07 Lietuvos prezidento Valdo Adamkaus dekretu.
Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania (Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras)
Lithuanian Special Archives: archive in Lithuania for the storage of documents from the period 1940-1991. Numerous KGB and Lithuanian SSR Ministry of Interior documents were left in Lithuania after it gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, and are now held here. Around 18,000 linear metres of records are stored.
lt:Dvigubo genocido požiūris: teiginys, jog žydų, lietuvių ir kitų Rytų Europos tautų nuo nacių ir sovietų patirtos skriaudos Antrojo pasaulinio karo metu yra savo esme bei mastu panašios bei palyginamos.
lt:Lietuvos savivaldybių reforma: buvo įgyvendinta siekiant performuoti Lietuvos administracinio suskirstymo sistemą.
lt:Lietuvos administracinis suskirstymas: Lietuva yra suskirstyta į 60 savivaldybių, kurios savo ruožtu suskirstytos į 546 seniūnijas (2007 m.). Nuo 1995 m. savivaldybės buvo pavaldžios 10 apskričių.
lt:Lietuvos savivaldybės
lt:Lietuvos seniūnijos
List of cities in Lithuania: 103 cities; city - compact areas populated by more than 3,000 people of whom at least two thirds work in the industry or service sector; settlements which have a population of less than 3,000 but historically had city status are still considered to be cities; miestelis, kaimas; gyvenvietė. Most of the cities in Lithuania are old, established before the 18th century. Newer cities: Kaišiadorys, Vievis, Radviliškis, Ignalina or Mažeikiai; industry centers: Visaginas, Elektrėnai or Naujoji Akmenė. Resorts: Birštonas, Druskininkai, Neringa, Palanga and Anykščiai. [2014] Vilnius 540k, Kaunas 304k, Klaipėda 157k, Šiauliai 105k, Panevėžys 96.3k, Alytus 56.4k, Marijampolė 39.5k, Mažeikiai 36.3k, Jonava 34.1k, Utena 28.4k, Kėdainiai 26k, Telšiai 24.5k, Tauragė 24k, Ukmergė 23k, Visaginas 20k, Plungė 19k...
lt:Sąrašas:Lietuvos miestai pagal gyventojus
Miestas 2017 m. 2011 m. 2005 m. 2001 m. 1989 m. 1970 m.
Vilnius 574221 542932 541278 542287 576747 370153
Kaunas 292677 336912 364059 378650 419745 305600
Klaipėda 151227 177812 188767 192954 202929 140342
Šiauliai 101210 120969 130020 133883 145629 92375
Panevėžys 91106 109028 116247 119749 126483 74497
Alytus 52933 63642 69859 71491 73015 28165
Marijampolė 36628 44885 47693 48675 50887 29073
Mažeikiai 34152 38819 41389 42675 43547 13313
Jonava 27809 33172 34782 34954 36520 14563
Utena 26491 31139 33086 33860 34430 13309
Kėdainiai 24177 29824 31613 32048 33840 19795
Telšiai 22709 29107 30539 31460 33351 20145
Visaginas 19076 26804 28438 29554 32438 0
Tauragė 22645 26429 28504 29124 30119 19814
Ukmergė 21226 25866 28006 28759 30410 21284
Plungė 18042 22287 23246 24436 22535 13826
Kretinga 17786 20748 21425 21423 19516 13091
Šilutė 15902 19720 21258 21476 21179 12347
Radviliškis 15643 18436 19883 20339 21263 17118
Palanga 15732 17234 17611 17623 17571 8091
Gargždai 14404 16281 15510 15212 12511 7520
Druskininkai 12803 15544 16890 18233 18943 8315
Rokiškis 12738 14937 16118 16746 17826 9376
Biržai 10954 13762 14999 15262 15907 11160
Elektrėnai 11156 13248 13819 14050 15871 6730
Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania: state-funded research institute in Lithuania dedicated to "the study of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes in Lithuania; the study of the persecution of local residents by occupying regimes; the study of armed and unarmed resistance to occupying regimes; the initiation of the legal evaluation of the activities of the organisers and implementers of genocide; and the commemoration of freedom fighters and genocide victims." The centre was founded in 1992.10.25 by the Supreme Council of the Lithuanian Republic as the "State Genocide Research Centre of Lithuania". The Center is a strong advocate of the "Lithuanian genocide thesis" and sees itself as a "guardian" of Lithuanian memory. The Center uses a broadened definition of "genocide" including the targeting of social, political, and economic groups by Stalin. The center declares an equivalence between Nazi and Soviet crimes, this "double genocide" formulation is common in Eastern Europe, particularly the Baltic States. However, in practice the Nazi genocide of the Jews and Lithuanian collaboration is minimized, while the "genocide" of Lithuanians by Soviet partisans is described extensively. In 1998, Lithuania passed a law restricting employment in the public sector for former employees of the KGB, the MGB, and other Soviet security institutions. The centre and the State Security Department had the authority to determine whether a person was an employee of the KGB.
lt:Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras (LGGRTC): tarpžinybinė valstybės institucija, tirianti genocido bei nusikaltimų žmonijai ir žmoniškumui apraiškas, Lietuvos gyventojų persekiojimą okupacijų metais. Labai svarbi Memorialinio departamento veiklos sritis – muziejinė veikla, vykdoma žinybiniame Genocido aukų muziejuje ir jo padalinyje – Tuskulėnų rimties parko memorialiniame komplekse.
lt:Lietuvos žmogaus teisių centras: žmogaus teisių apsaugos ir švietimo nevyriausybinė organizacija. Nuo įsteigimo 1994 metais LŽTC telkė savo narių ir ekspertų pastangas, įgyvendinant teisėkūros ir švietimo projektus Lietuvos žmogaus teisių apsaugos srityje.
lt:Žinių radijas: nacionalinė radijo programa, pradėta transliuoti iš Vilniaus Spaudos rūmų 2000.03.07. Informacinio formato radijo stotis. >90% viso eterio sudaro informacija, likusį muzikiniai intarpai, reklama.
lt:Lietuvos energija: Lietuvos valstybės valdoma energetikos įmonių grupė. Įmonių grupės veikla apima elektros ir šilumos energijos gamybą, tiekimą, elektros energijos importą, eksportą, prekybą ir skirstymą, gamtinių dujų tiekimą, skirstymą, taip pat elektros energetikos ūkio aptarnavimą ir plėtrą.
lt:Litgrid: Lietuvos akcinė bendrovė, valdanti Lietuvos elektros perdavimo tinklą.
NordBalt: submarine power cable between Klaipėda in Lithuania and Nybro in Sweden. The aim of the project is to promote trading between Baltic and Nordic electricity markets, as also to increase the security of power supply in both markets. Operations started on 2016.02.01 with an initial power transmission at 30 MW.
LitPol Link: Lithuania–Poland interconnection, 1000 MW electricity link between the Baltic transmission system and the synchronous grid of Continental Europe.
lt:Valstybinė maisto ir veterinarijos tarnyba: LT institucija, formuojanti valstybės politiką maisto ir veterinarijos srityse.
Nacionalinis maisto ir veterinarijos rizikos vertinimo institutas: sukurtas po 2008 m. Lietuvos valstybinė veterinarijos preparatų inspekcijos prijungimo prie Nacionalinės veterinarijos laboratorijos.

Šiauliai:

lt:Geležinė lapė (2009): lapės skulptūra, stovinti Šiauliuose, prie Talšos ežero, pietvakarinėje kranto dalyje. Autorius – Vilius Puronas.

Religija Lietuvoje:

lt:Tiberiados bendruomenė: vyrų ir moterų vienuolija, kurią 1979 metais Lavaux-Sainte-Anne kaimelyje, Belgijos pietuose įkūrė brolis Morkus. Tiberiados bendruomenės įsikūrusios ir Lietuvoje (Baltriškių kaime, Zarasų raj.) bei Konge.
lt:Vilniaus brigada: organizuota nusikalstama grupuotė, veikusi daugiausiai Vilniaus mieste. 1991–1993 m. ypač suaktyvėjo nusikaltėlių siautėjimas Lietuvoje. Gaujos vykdė verslininkų reketą, duokles turėjo mokėti dauguma verslininkų – pradedant stambiaisiais, baigiant kioskininkais. Nusikaltėlių grupuotės dalyvavo valstybės turto privatizavime, ieškojo ryšių politiniuose sluoksniuose. Pagrindinį kapitalą „Vilniaus brigados“ vadeivos susikrovė per nekilnojamojo turto privatizacijos laikotarpį (t. y., apie 1990–1993 m.). Apie „Vilniaus brigados“ ir kitų nusikalstamų grupuočių veiklą bei ryšius su politikais daug rašė „Respublikos“ dienraščio žurnalistas Vitas Lingys, kuris 1993 m. spalio 12 d. buvo nužudytas, kaip manoma, dėl savo straipsnių ciklo apie mafijos užuomazgas Lietuvoje. Straipsnių cikle buvo įvardyti ne tik nusikalstamų grupuočių, bet ir verslo bei politikos sluoksnių atstovai.
lt:Henrikas Daktaras (Henytė; 1957.12.12-): vienas žinomiausių visų laikų Lietuvos nusikaltėlių, Lietuvos žiniasklaidoje dažnai vadinamas nusikalstamo pasaulio autoritetu. Vadinamojoje Daktarų byloje yra sukaupta apie 200 nusikaltimų, tarp jų – daugiau kaip 30 žmogžudysčių. Daktarui inkriminuojama daugybė nusikaltimų už turto prievartavimą, kūno sužalojimus, žmogžudystes. Spėjama, kad jis gali būti nužudęs savo pusbrolį ir kitus jam pasipriešinusius jo suburtos gaujos narius.
lt:Tulpiniai: viena žiauriausių Lietuvoje nusikalstamų grupuočių. Veikė Panevėžyje. Nusikaltimai išaiškinti tik kai po Kiesų ir Galmino nužudymo tyrimui ėmė vadovauti pareigūnai iš Vilniaus. Gaujos vadeivos – Virginijus Baltušis, Algimantas Vertelka ir Audrius Andrušaitis – nuteisti laisvės atėmimo bausmėmis iki gyvos galvos . V. Baltušis dalyvavo nužudant 22 žmones, A. Vertelka – 11, A. Andrušaitis – 20 žmonių. Prie 12 nužudymų prisidėjo Dainius Skačkauskas (2 metų laisvės apribojimo bausmė).
Referendums in Lithuania
# Date Topic Voter turnout (%) Voted "Yes" (%) Voted "No" (%)
from total[2] from voters[2] from total[2] from voters[2]
1 February 9, 1991 Demand independence from the Soviet Union 84.74 76.46 90.24 5.54 6.54
2 May 23, 1992 Restore the institution of the President of Lithuania 59.18 40.99 69.27 15.13 25.57
3 June 14, 1992 Demand immediate withdrawal of Russian troops and compensation for damages from the Soviet Union 76.05 68.95 90.67 5.51 7.25
4 October 25, 1992 Approve the Constitution of Lithuania 75.26 56.75 75.42 15.78 20.98
5 August 27, 1994 Pass Law on Illegal Privatization, Depreciated Deposits, and Broken Laws 36.89 30.85[3] 83.63[3] 3.81[3] 10.34[3]
6 October 20, 1996 Amend Articles 55, 57, and 131 of the Constitution of Lithuania 52.11 33.86[4] 65.00[4] 9.18[4] 17.63[4]
7 October 20, 1996 Should the deposits be compensated by funds acquired from privatization 52.46 38.97 74.31 10.01 19.10
8 November 10, 1996 Amend Article 47 of the Constitution of Lithuania 39.73 17.24 43.41 15.91 40.05
9 May 10–11, 2003 Approve Lithuania's membership in the European Union 63.37 57.00 89.95 5.59 8.82
10 October 12, 2008 Extend the operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant 48.44 42.91 88.59 4.03 8.32
11 October 14, 2012 Approve the construction of Visaginas Nuclear Power Plant 52.58 18.52 35.23 34.05 64.77
12 June 29,2014 Ban sale of Lithuanian land to non-citizens 14.98 10.60 70.77 3.95 26.40
Lithuanians, lietuviaiEdit
Abraomas Kulvietis (c. 1509 – 1545.06.19): Lithuanian jurist and a professor at Königsberg Albertina University, as well as a reformer of the church. Between 1528 and 1537 he studied in Cracow Academy, later Catholic University of Leuven, where he studied the works of Desiderius Erasmus, in Wittenberg, where he studied Martin Luther's teachings. In 1536 he moved to Leipzig and finally Siena, where in 1537 he was granted the title Doctor of Law. In 1540 Kulvietis founded his own school where he taught about 60 pupils In Lithuanian. He was generally unpopular among the Roman Catholic hierarchy because of his Lutheran beliefs, and when the queen was away in 1542 Kulvietis was forced to leave the country; invited by Albert, Duke of Prussia together with other Lithuanian Lutherans, and together with them helped in the creation of the Königsberg Albertina University, and later he was the first professor of classic Hebrew and Greek. He was also the first translator of Lithuanian Evangelical songs.
lt:Kazys Grinius (1866.12.17-1950.06.04): Lietuvos politikas, visuomenės ir kultūros veikėjas, humanistas, vienas pirmųjų Lietuvos demokratų, varpininkas, gydytojas, švietėjas, visuomenės sveikatos aktyvistas, publicistas, knygnešys.
lt:Kazys Pakštas (1893.06.29 – 1960.09.11 Chicago) – Lietuvos geografas, keliautojas, visuomenės veikėjas, profesionaliosios geografijos Lietuvoje pradininkas. 1914 m. išvyko į JAV. 1915 m. įstojo į Valparaiso universitetą (Indianos valstija). Tų pačių metų rudenį įstojo į jėzuitų išlaikomą Lojolos universitetą, kuriame studijavo sociologiją ir politiką. Vėliau perėjo į Fordhamo universiteto (Niujorkas) Sociologijos fakultetą, kurį baigė 1918 m. 1919 m. grįžęs į Lietuvą dirbo ryšių karininku Prancūzijos, JAV ir Anglijos karinėse misijose. 1919–1923 m. Université de Fribourg/Universität Freiburg studijavo gamtos mokslus, apgynė daktaro disertaciją „Lietuvos klimatas“. Daug keliavo, aplankė Braziliją (1927 m.), Palestiną, SSRS (1933 m.), 1930–1931 m. laivu keliavo aplink Afriką, pabuvojo beveik visose Europos šalyse. Intensyviai dirbo mokslinį darbą: nustatė Lietuvos klimatines juostas, pradėjo sistemingus ežerų tyrimus. Jis rašė, kad didžiosios valstybės auga horizontaliai – plėsdamos savo teritoriją. Tuo tarpu mažosios valstybės, norėdamos atsilaikyti, yra priverstos „augti vertikaliai“, t. y. didinti gyventojų išsilavinimą, savo kultūrinį svorį. „Prieš horizontalių erdvių platybę reikia pastatyti aukštą vertikalinį Baltijos tautų ūgį. Tik šis beveik vienintelis būdas ir tėra reikiamai pusiausvyrai palaikyti Baltijos pajūryje“. Profesorius pažymi, kad ekonominės galybės savo pradžią ir įsibėgėjimą gavo „moralinėse versmėse“. Čia autorius kaip pavyzdį pateikia mažąsias Europos valstybes – Daniją, Belgiją, Nyderlandus, Šveicariją. Faktiškai tai pirmasis toks praktinis švietimo ir mokslo būtinumo aiškinimas Lietuvoje. Baltoskandia/Baltoscandia.
lt:Juozas Ambrazevičius-Brazaitis (Juozas Ambrazevičius or Juozas Brazaitis; 1903.12.09-1974.11.28): Lietuvos literatūrologas, pedagogas, antinacistinės ir antisovietinės rezistencijos dalyvis, visuomenės veikėjas. 1941 m. birželio sukilime ėjo Lietuvos laikinosios vyriausybės ministro pirmininko pareigas. 1944 m. gegužės-birželio mėnesiais Gestapas suėmė dalį VLIK-o žmonių. Vengdamas suėmimo, J. Ambrazevičius pakeitė dokumentus ir toliau jau gyveno ir veikė Juozo Brazaičio pavarde. Tais pačiais metais, gresiant antrajai sovietų okupacijai, pasitraukė į Vokietiją.
lt:Adolfas Damušis (iki 1939: Domaševičius; 1908.06.16-2003.02.27): Lietuvos chemikas, mokslininkas išradėjas, pasipriešinimo sovietiniam ir naciniam okupaciniams režimams veikėjas. Profesorius Pranas Jodelė paskatino susidomėti cemento gamybos galimybėmis Lietuvoje. 1936–1940 m. vasaromis prie Kauno ir Papilės-Akmenės bei Karpėnų-Vegėsių apylinkėse tyrė kreidos ir klinčių klodus, o žiemą medžiagas analizavo laboratorijoje. Buvo tikėtasi, kad 1941 m. vasarą fabrikas jau pradės veikti, deja, baigti darbus sutrukdė sovietų okupacija ir karas. Naujojoje Akmenėje cemento gamykla pradėjo veikti tik 1952 m.
lt:Gintė Damušytė
lt:Silvestras Žukauskas (1860.12.31 - 1937.11.26): Lietuvos valstybės ir karinis veikėjas, generolas.
lt:Mykolas Biržiška (1882.08.24 – 1962.08.24): Lietuvos literatūros istorikas, nepriklausomybės akto signataras.
lt:Matas Šalčius (1890.09.20 – 1940.05.26): Lietuvos žurnalistas, rašytojas, keliautojas, visuomenės veikėjas.
Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas (1880.04.07 [O.S. March 23] – 1935.02.17): Lithuanian communist political activist and revolutionary. As an active member of the Lithuanian National Revival, he wrote for and edited many Lithuanian publications and joined the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party. As his views turned from socialism to communism, he became one of the founders and leaders of the Lithuanian Communist Party and headed the short-lived Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic and Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (Litbel) in 1918–19. Between 1937 and 1953, Mickevičius was on Stalin's "gray list," not officially an "enemy of state," but not to be mentioned in public. After Stalin's death in 1953, the communist government of Lithuania, especially the first secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party, Antanas Sniečkus, started reviving the memory of Mickevičius.
Zigmas Angarietis (1882.06.25–1940.05.22): Lithuanian communist, Russian revolutionary, one of the leaders of the Communist Party of Lithuania. He was one of the main people behind the short-lived Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (1918–1919) and Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (Litbel). Angarietis was arrested in 1938 during the Great Purge and executed two years later.
Povilas Plechavičius (lt:Povilas Plechavičius; 1890-1973): Imperial Russian and then Lithuanian military officer and statesman; best known for his actions during the Lithuanian Wars of Independence, for organizing the 1926 Lithuanian coup d'état and for leading a Lithuanian self-defence force during the German occupation of Lithuania.
Antanas Sniečkus (1903.01.07 [O.S. 1902.12.25] – 1974.01.22): First Secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party from 1940.08 to 1974.01.22. In 1944, due to the advance of the Red Army, his mother fled Lithuania to the West, and disowned her son. Two brothers and three sisters of Antanas Sniečkus also fled to the West. Sniečkus returned from Russia in 1944 with the Communist officials who had retreated during the German invasion of 1941.06.22. Lithuania was the only republic of USSR where not only mass persecution of old communists did not happen and not even one communist of pre-Soviet times was accused and arrested. At around this time his policies started to gain a national character. This policy had the form of sabotaging some orders of Moscow, demanding some privileges for Lithuania, and others.
lt:Antanas Maceina (1908.01.27, Marijampolės apskritis – 1987.01.27, Münster, DE): vienas žymiausių Lietuvos filosofų. „filosofavo lietuviškai“. Antano Maceinos kūryboje ryškus du tarpsniai: iki nepriklausomybės netekimo ir jos netekus. Prasidėjus sovietinei okupacijai 1940 m. šeima su dviem mažamečiais vaikais pasitraukė į Vokietiją. 1942 m., Lietuvą okupavus vokiečiams, grįžo į tėvynę. 1944 m. pasitraukė į Vakarų Europą.
lt:Eduardas Vilkas (1935.10.03–2008.05.1; Gargžduose) – mokslininkas, akademikas, signataras.
lt:Vytautas Kavolis (1930.10.08 in Kaunas – 1996.06.25): sociologas, visuomenės veikėjas. Lietuvių liberaliosios minties išeivijoje ugdytojas, daugybės darbų anglų ir lietuvių kalbomis autorius.

Artists:

lt:Domantas Razauskas (1983.03.24) – dainų autorius ir atlikėjas, poetas, gitaristas, kompozitorius. Dainuojamosios poezijos atlikėjas
Modern politicians and modern parties in LithuaniaEdit
Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party (Lietuvos krikščionių demokratų partija, LKDP): was a Christian-democratic political party in Lithuania; established in Lithuania in 1890 by a group of Roman Catholic clergy and intellectuals. The party was re-established in 1989, and won two seats in the 1990 Supreme Soviet elections. For the 1992 elections the LKDP ran in an alliance with the Lithuanian Union of Political Prisoners and Deportees and the Lithuanian Democratic Party. The party ran alone in the 1996 elections, winning 16 seats and becoming the second-largest party; following the elections it formed a coalition with the Homeland Union; however, the coalition broke up in June 1999. After winning only two seats in the 2000 elections, the party merged with the Christian Democratic Union in 2001 to form the Lithuanian Christian Democrats.
Lithuanian Christian Democrats (Lietuvos krikščionys demokratai, LKD): established in 2001 by a merger of the Christian Democratic Union and the Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party, who between them held three seats in the Seimas. In 2008.05.17 the LKD merged with the Lithuanian Nationalist Union, which was renamed Homeland Union - Lithuanian Christian Democrats as a result.
Christian Democratic Union (Lithuania) (Krikščionių demokratų sajunga, KDS; formerly LKDS): it contested the 1992 elections in an alliance with Young Lithuania, with the alliance winning a single seat, taken by the LKDS. In 2001 it merged with the Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party to form the Lithuanian Christian Democrats.
Lithuanian Union of Political Prisoners and Deportees (Lietuvos politinių kalinių ir tremtinių sąjunga, LPKTS): was a political party in Lithuania between 1990 and 2004. It represented interest of those repressed by the Soviet regime, particularly political prisoners and deportees to Siberia. The party ran in alliance with the Homeland Union in the 2000 elections, with 19 of its candidates on the Homeland list. In 2004 it merged into the Homeland Union.
Homeland Union (Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats; Tėvynės sąjunga – Lietuvos krikščionys demokratai, TS-LKD): centre-right political party in Lithuania. The main centre-right party, with a particularly liberal conservative and Christian democratic, but also nationalist oriented and economically liberal ideology. Its current leader is MEP Gabrielius Landsbergis who replaced Andrius Kubilius in 2014. Founded in 1993.05 by the right wing of the Reform Movement of Lithuania, led by Vytautas Landsbergis, who had led Lithuania to independence. Until the merger with Lithuanian Union of Political Prisoners and Deportees and Right Union of Lithuania), it was known just as Homeland Union (Lithuanian Conservatives). The last change of the name was a result of the merger with the Lithuanian Nationalist Union in 2008.03.11, and the Lithuanian Christian Democrats on 2008.05.17, after which the Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats became Lithuania's largest party with more than 18,000 members.
Democratic Labour Party of Lithuania (Lietuvos demokratinė darbo partija, LDDP): was a social democratic political party in Lithuania, that emerged from the Lithuanian section of the CPSU in 1989.12 LDDP was led by Algirdas Brazauskas, the first president of independent Lithuania. Because Brazauskas was elected as the first president, he was required to stop his activities in any parties. Adolfas Šleževičius became the party leader and the Prime Minister. After Šleževičius was charged with corruption, he was replaced by Česlovas Juršėnas. In 2001, LDDP merged with LSDP.
Social Democratic Party of Lithuania (Lietuvos socialdemokratų partija, LSDP): social-democratic political party in Lithuania; was founded as an underground Marxist organization in 1896. In 1999, the party's congress elected a new leader, Vytenis Andriukaitis and merger negotiations with the reform communist LDDP began. Members of the party opposing the merger left to establish "Social democracy 2000" (later renamed "Social Democratic Union of Lithuania"). The coalition led by Social Democrats and LDDP won 51 of the 141 seats in the elections in 2000 (with 19 going to the Social Democrats). In 2001, LSDP and LDDP merged. After the merger, Algirdas Brazauskas was elected leader of the Social Democratic Party. Brazauskas resigned as the chairman of the party in 2007.05.19 and was replaced by Gediminas Kirkilas. In 2009.03.07 the party's congress elected a new leader, Algirdas Butkevičius. He was the party's candidate at the Lithuanian presidential election, 2009, coming in second place with 11.83% of the vote.
lt:Linas Balsys (1961) (1961.05.01 Vilniuje-): Lietuvos radijo ir televizijos žurnalistas, redaktorius, LR Seimo narys. Nuo 2012 m. Lietuvos žaliųjų partijos pirmininkas, Seimo narys; 2014 m. Lietuvos Respublikos Prezidento rinkimų dalyvis (jam nepavyko surinkti būtino parašų kiekio).
lt:Lietuvos žaliųjų partija (įregistruota 2011.05.11 Vilniuje, Šermukšnių g. 6A): Partijos pirmininkas: Linas Balsys. Žaliųjų partija kelia ekologijos, žaliosios energetikos plėtros problemas.
Lithuanian Peasant and Greens Union: Agrarian political party in Lithuania led by industrial farmer Ramūnas Karbauskis. In 2006.02, the Peasants and New Democratic Party Union led by Lithuanian politician Kazimiera Prunskienė chose to rename itself after the pre-war Lithuanian Popular Peasants' Union.
lt:Lietuvos valstiečių ir žaliųjų sąjunga (LVŽS): Ramūno Karbauskio vadovaujama centro kairioji Lietuvos politinė partija. 2014 m. Europos Parlamento rinkimuose partija surinko 6,62 proc. rinkėjų balsų ir gavo mandatą. EP nariu tapo ilgametis Ignalinos meras Bronis Ropė. 2005 m. partijos pirmininke išrinkta buvusios Naujosios demokratijos (moterų) partijos vadovė, pirmoji atkurtos Lietuvos premjerė, prof. habil. dr. Kazimiera Prunskienė. 2004-2008 m. Seime Valstiečių liaudininkų sąjungos frakcijoje buvo 14 narių, partija buvo valdančiosios koalicijos dalis, XIV vyriausybėje buvo partijos deleguoti trys ministrai (užsienio reikalų, žemės ūkio, ūkio). Partija 2004-2009 m. turėjo ir savo atstovą Europos Parlamente - Gintarą Didžioką. 2008 m. Seimo rinkimai partijai buvo nesėkmingi: daugiamandatėje apygardoje neperkoptas 5 % barjeras, o vienmandatėse gautos 3 vietos Seime.
Lithuanian Peasants Party (Lietuvos valstiečių partija, LVP): party was established in 1990 as the Lithuanian Peasants Union, before becoming the Lithuanian Peasants Party in 1994. It won a single seat in the 1996 elections and four seats in the 2000 elections. In 2001 the party merged with the New Democracy Party to form the Union of Peasants and New Democracy Parties.
lt:Naujoji demokratija - Moterų partija (New Democracy Part): 1995–1998 m. Moterų partija. 2001 m. Naujosios demokratijos partija. 2001 m. susijungusi su Lietuvos valstiečių partija ir sudariusi Valstiečių ir Naujosios demokratijos partijų sąjunga (VNDS). Tarp lyderių buvo partijos pirmininkė ir LMA prezidentė profesorė Kazimiera Prunskienė, Tarybos pirmininkė poetė, verslininkė Dalia Teišerskytė, vicepirmininkės – verslininkų asociacijos viceprezidentė Valerija Brazienė Gitelman (Panevėžys) ir Kauno technologijos universiteto docentė, socialinių mokslų daktarė Ž. Simonavičienė. 2001.12.15 Valstiečių ir Naujosios demokratijos partijų suvažiavime buvo pasirašyta jungimosi sutartis tarp Valstiečių ir Naujosios demokratijos partijų; Valstiečių ir Naujosios demokratijos partijų sąjungos pirmininke išrinkta prof. Kazimiera Danutė Prunskienė.
lt:Lietuvos liberalų sąjunga (LLS; EN: Liberal Union of Lithuania) – Lietuvos dešinioji politinė partija, veikusi 1990–2002 m. 1990 m. Vilniaus Universitete veikė liberalų klubas, kuriame studentai ir dėstytojai diskutuodavo politikos klausimais. Kaune įsikūrė klubas „Liberalija“. 1990.06.21 Liberalų klube susibūrė Liberalų sąjungos iniciatyvinė grupė. Pagrindinė LLS steigėjus vienijusi mintis – kad Tėvynės laisvė yra tik prielaida asmens laisvei užtikrinti. Dauguma LLS steigėjų prieš tai aktyviai dalyvavo Sąjūdžio veikloje. 2001.12.21 Rolandas Paksas ir 10 Seimo narių pasitraukė iš Liberalų frakcijos Seime; 2002.01 dalis šių Seimo narių išstojo iš LLS, kiti buvo pašalinti už elgesį, nesuderinamą su Sąjungos tikslais ir įstatais. 2002.04.10 Seimo Liberalų frakcijos seniūnu išrinktas Eligijus Masiulis. 2002.04.20 Liberalų sąjungos pirmininkas Eugenijus Gentvilas partijos kongrese patvirtintas LLS kandidatu į Lietuvos Respublikos Prezidentus. Pirmuoju LLS pirmininko pavaduotoju patvirtintas Vilniaus meras Artūras Zuokas, o pirmininko pavaduotoju – Šiaulių liberalų lyderis Arvydas Salda. Prasidėjo suartėjimas su žymia dalimi Lietuvos centro sąjungos narių ir buvo nutarta abi partijas sujungti. Prie naujosios partijos prisijungė ir modernieji krikščionys demokratai.
lt:Lietuvos Respublikos liberalų sąjūdis: liberalios krypties LT politinė partija, susikūrusi 2006.02.25. 1990-2003 m. Liberalų Sąjūdžio pirmtake buvo Lietuvos liberalų sąjunga. 2005 m. gruodį naujos partijos steigimo iniciatoriai paskelbė Liberalų sąjūdžio Steigimo manifestą: tarp iniciatorių buvo Eugenijus Gentvilas, Petras Auštrevičius, Gintaras Steponavičius, Eligijus Masiulis, Dalia Teišerskytė, Algirdas Gricius, Dainius Pūras ir daugelis kitų; LLRS partijos programoje "PILIEČIŲ RESPUBLIKA" įsipareigojo siekti teisingos Lietuvos, išsilavinusios visuomenės ir pasiturinčio žmogaus. Pirmininkai: 2006–2008 m. Petras Auštrevičius; 2008–2016 m. Eligijus Masiulis; 2016.05.12-18 Antanas Guoga (laikinai einantis pareigas); nuo 2016.06 Remigijus Šimašius (nuo 2016.05.18 laikinai einantis pirmininko pareigas).
Liberal Movement (Lithuania) (Liberalų Sąjūdis; formally the Liberals' Movement of the Republic of Lithuania Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublikos Liberalų sąjūdis (LRLS)): conservative-liberal political party in Lithuania; previously participated in a governing coalition, along with the Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats and Liberal and Centre Union. Party was founded in 2006 by dissident members of the Liberal and Centre Union that were unhappy with Artūras Zuokas's leadership. After party's leader Eligijus Masiulis allegedly took a bribe of 100,000 euro, Antanas Guoga took his position. But he was the chairman for 4 days only, and has resigned. The mayor of Vilnius, Remigijus Šimašius, is the current chairman of the party.
lt:Lietuvos laisvės sąjunga (liberalai): Lietuvos politinė partija, įkurta 2014.07.12, jungiamajame suvažiavime susijungus Liberalų ir centro sąjungai bei politinei partijai „Sąjunga TAIP“. Partijos pirmininku išrinktas tuometinis Vilniaus miesto meras Artūras Zuokas.
Liberal and Centre Union (Liberalų ir centro sąjunga, LiCS): was a conservative-liberal political party in Lithuania active between 2003 and 2014. Formed in 2003 by a merger of the Liberal Union of Lithuania, Centre Union of Lithuania and Modern Christian Democratic Union.
lt:TAIP (Tėvynės atgimimas ir perspektyva; EN: YES – Homeland Revival and Perspective): Sąjungos-judėjimo „TAIP“ pirmininkas yra Vilniaus meras Artūras Zuokas. 2011.11.19 partijos steigiamajame suvažiavime pirmininko pavaduotojais išrinkti Žilvinas Šilgalis, Donatas Pilinkus, Miroslavas Monkevičius.
Labour Party (Lithuania) (Darbo Partija, DP): anti-immigrant, centre-left populist political party in Lithuania; party was founded in 2003 by the Russian-born millionaire businessman Viktor Uspaskich. In 2011, the New Union (Social Liberals) merged with the party.
New Union (Social Liberals) (Naujoji sąjunga (socialliberalai), NS): was a social-liberal political party in Lithuania. It was founded in 1998 and is led by Artūras Paulauskas. In 2000 it formed a coalition government with the Liberal Union, and in 2001 a new coalition with the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party (LSDP) and later on in 2004 a coalition with the LSDP and the Labour Party, which lasted until 2008.
Order and Justice (Partija tvarka ir teisingumas, PTT; formerly the Liberal Democratic Party Liberalų Demokratų Partija, LDP): right-wing national liberal political party in Lithuania. Achieved almost immediate success with the election of leader Rolandas Paksas as President of Lithuania within its first year. Paksas's impeachment led to the party reorganising itself as 'Order and Justice' to compete in the 2004 parliamentary election. Since then, it has been the fourth-largest party in the Seimas, and finished third in the elections to the European Parliament and to the presidency.
Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania (Lietuvos lenkų rinkimų akcija or LLRA; Akcja Wyborcza Polaków na Litwie or AWPL): represents the Polish minority and positions itself as Christian democratic. Formed in 1994 from the political wing of the Association of Poles in Lithuania, LLRA experienced a surge in support in the 2000s, under the leadership of Waldemar Tomaszewski.
lt:Kategorija:Vilniaus merai
Category:Mayors of Vilnius
lt:Nijolė Oželytė-Vaitiekūnienė (1954.03.31-): Lietuvos aktorė, politinė bei visuomenės veikėja, TV laidų vedėja; signatarė.
Rolandas Paksas (1956.06.10-)
Petras Auštrevičius (1963.05.16-)
Artūras Zuokas (1968.02.21-)
lt:Remigijus Šimašius (1974.01.12-; Tauragėje): teisininkas, Lietuvos politikas, Vilniaus meras, buvęs Lietuvos teisingumo ministras ir Seimo narys.
Ramūnas Karbauskis (1969.12.05-; Naisiai): Lithuanian businessman, politician and philanthropist. Participating in politics since mid-1990s, Karbauskis has been elected to the national parliament, the Seimas, on three occasions: elections of 1996, he ran as an independent and was elected to the Seventh Seimas in the single-seat constituency of Šiauliai (rural) (45); elections of 2000 Karbauskis was reelected in his single-seat constituency, representing Lithuanian Peasants Party; 2016.
de:Česlovas Vytautas Karbauskis (1945 bei Varniai-): litauischer Manager und Unternehmer, ehemaliger sowjetlitauischer Agronom, Kolchos-Leiter und Politiker. Seit 2005 ist er Ehrenbürger des Dorfs Naisiai. Vater von Ramūnas und Mindaugas.
lt:Mindaugas Karbauskis (1972.01.28-; Naisiai): lietuvių teatro režisierius, kuriantis Maskvoje.
lt:Naglis Puteikis (1964.09.02-): 1997.02.04–1997.04.24 Seimo narys. 2011.07.17 priešlaikiniuose rinkimuose Danės vienmandatėje apygardoje išrinktas Seimo nariu, prisiekė 2011.09.12. 2012.10.28 eilinių Seimo rinkimų pakartotinio balsavimo metu 2-e ture Danės vienmandatėje apygardoje įveikęs buvusį Klaipėdos m. merą R.Taraškevičių vėl išrinktas Seimo nariu.
lt:Lietuvos centro partija: centristinės krypties Lietuvos politinė partija.
lt:Aušra Maldeikienė (1958.06.04-): ekonomistė, politikė, publicistė, ekonomikos vadovėlių autorė. 2015 išrinkta į Vilniaus miesto savivaldybės tarybą nuo politinės partijos „Lietuvos sąrašas“.
Education in LithuaniaEdit
lt:Šablonas:Lietuvos aukštosios mokyklos
Vilnius University Institute of International Relations and Political Science (lt:Vilniaus universiteto Tarptautinių santykių ir politikos mokslų institutas (VU TSPMI)): branch of Vilnius University which prepares political science and international relations specialists and carries out policy research. This is one of the most prominent social science institutions in Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic sea region. While first focusing mostly on educating the future members of the Lithuanian diplomatic corps, the Institute has gradually enlarged its program to include subjects relevant to public administration, non-governmental and private institutions.
lt:Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Politikos mokslų ir diplomatijos fakultetas (VDU PMDF)
lt:Lietuvos edukologijos universitetas (1992-2011: Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas; 2011-): 1935–1939 m. Respublikos pedagoginis institutas; 1939–1992 m. Vilniaus (Tautų draugystės ordino valstybinis) pedagoginis institutas.
Lithuanian governmentEdit
lt:Policijos departamentas (Policijos departamentas prie Lietuvos Respublikos vidaus reikalų ministerijos; PD prie LR VRM): vidaus reikalų sistemos centrinė įstaiga, kurios paskirtis – organizuoti ir kontroliuoti policijos sistemos veiklą, siekiant užtikrinti asmens, visuomenės saugumą ir viešąją tvarką.
lt:Lietuvos kriminalinės policijos biuras: specializuota policijos įstaiga, kriminalinės policijos organizacija Lietuvoje, kurios tikslas yra apsaugoti visuomenės interesus nuo nusikalstamo poveikio, užkardant, atskleidžiant ir tiriant baudžiamąsias veikas. Įstaiga įkurta 2001 m. kaip Nacionalinė kriminalinės žvalgybos valdyba, sujungus Organizuoto nusikalstamumo tyrimo, Kriminalinių nusikaltimų tyrimo, Ekonominių nusikaltimų tyrimo, Operatyvinės veiklos tarnybas ir Interpolo Lietuvos nacionalinis biurą; tais pačiais metais valdyba pervadinta į Lietuvos kriminalinės policijos biurą.
lt:Lietuvos Respublikos specialiųjų tyrimų tarnyba (STT): Respublikos Prezidentui ir Seimui atskaitinga, statutiniais pagrindais veikianti valstybės teisėsaugos įstaiga, kuri atskleidžia ir tiria korupcinio pobūdžio nusikalstamas veikas, rengia ir įgyvendina korupcijos prevencijos priemones. STT tikslas – mažinti korupciją, kaip grėsmę žmogaus teisėms ir laisvėms, teisinės valstybės principams, ekonominei plėtrai.
lt:Lietuvos Respublikos valstybės saugumo departamentas (LR VSD, VSD): institucija, atskaitinga Seimui ir prezidentui; paskirtis – stiprinti Lietuvos Respublikos nacionalinį saugumą, renkant informaciją apie rizikos veiksnius, pavojus ir grėsmes, pateikiant ją nacionalinį saugumą užtikrinančioms institucijoms ir šalinant šiuos rizikos veiksnius, pavojus ir grėsmes. VSD vadovą penkerių metų kadencijai Seimo pritarimu skiria Lietuvos Respublikos prezidentas. Žvalgyba; Kontržvalgyba; Įslaptintos informacijos apsauga
lt:Vyriausybinių ryšių centras: 1993–2013 m. buvo pavaldus Saugumo tarnybai (vėliau Valstybės saugumo departamentui), o nuo 2014 m. – Lietuvos Respublikos krašto apsaugos ministerijai.
lt:Valstybės sienos apsaugos tarnyba
lt:Antrasis operatyvinių tarnybų departamentas prie Krašto apsaugos ministerijos: Lietuvos specialioji tarnyba, operatyvinės veiklos subjektas. Tai krašto apsaugos ministrui pavaldi žvalgybos, kontržvalgybos ir kitas funkcijas atliekanti krašto apsaugos sistemos institucija, kurios paskirtis – stiprinti krašto apsaugos sistemos saugumą ir šalies gynybinę galią.
Skvernelis Cabinet: President Dalia Grybauskaitė appointed Saulius Skvernelis, an independent politician who had led the electoral list of LVŽS, as the Prime Minister in 2016.11.22. The cabinet received its mandate on 2016.12.13.
lt:Lietuvos Respublikos valstybinio socialinio draudimo fondas ("SoDra"): LR valstybinio socialinio draudimo įstatymo nustatyta tvarka valdomi centralizuoti tiksliniai finansiniai ir materialiniai ištekliai, kurie yra įtraukiami į apskaitą nuo valstybės ir savivaldybių biudžetų atskirtame Valstybinio socialinio draudimo fondo biudžete ir yra naudojami valstybiniam socialiniam pensijų, ligos ir motinystės, nedarbo, sveikatos bei nelaimingų atsitikimų darbe ir profesinių ligų draudimui finansuoti, valdyti ir administruoti.
lt:Lietuvos Respublikos valstybinio socialinio draudimo fondo biudžetas (Sodros biudžetas): LR valstybinio socialinio draudimo fondo pajamų ir išlaidų planas biudžetiniams metams.
lt:Lietuvos bankas: Lietuvos Respublikos centrinis bankas, Europos Centrinių Bankų Sistemos narys. 1990–1992 m. Lietuvai vis dar priklausant rublio zonai, Lietuvos bankas negalėjo imtis aktyvios pinigų politikos, todėl pagrindinės pastangos buvo skirtos pasirengti įvesti savus pinigus. 1992.10.01 įvesti laikinieji pinigai talonai ir Lietuvos bankas jau galėjo savarankiškai atlikti centrinio banko funkcijas. 1993.06.25 įvestas litas, nuslopinta triženklė infliacija, stabilizuotas lito kursas. Siekiant santykinio kainų stabilumo ilgesniu laikotarpiu, 1994.04.01 Lito patikimumo įstatymu litas susietas su JAV doleriu fiksuotu kursu, taip pat numatyta, kad Lietuvos banko išleisti litai privalo ne mažiau kaip 100% būti padengti aukso ir konvertuojamosios valiutos atsargomis. Po 1995-1996 m. bankų krizės Lietuvos bankas gavo bankų priežiūros funkciją. Lietuvai vis labiau integruojantis į Vakarus, plėtojantis ekonominiams ryšiams su ES šalimis ir vykstant atitinkamiems pokyčiams prekybos valiutinėje struktūroje, 1999 m. nutarta litą perorientuoti nuo JAV dolerio prie euro. 2001.03.13 priimta nauja Lietuvos banko įstatymo redakcija skelbia, kad Lietuvos Respublikoje centrinis bankas yra Lietuvos bankas, kurio nuosavybės teisė priklauso Lietuvos valstybei. Lietuvos banką steigia ir likviduoja Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas. Naujuoju įstatymu centriniui bankui taip pat suteikta didesnė nepriklausomybė ir galimybė aktyviau vykdyti pinigų politiką. Tais pačiai metais priimti sprendimai dėl lito susiejimo su euru 2002.02.02, išlaikant fiksuotą valiutos kursą (1 euras = 3,4528 lito).
Military of LithuaniaEdit
Template:Military of Lithuania
Lithuanian Armed Forces
Lithuanian Land Force: Size [2017]: 8,120 active duty; 4,550 active reserve (volunteers).
Equipment of Lithuanian Land Force: Since 1992.11.19 the Lithuanian Land Force of the Lithuanian Armed Forces has been working towards modernisation and adopting NATO-compatible equipment and replacing the equipment that it inherited from the Soviet Union.
Lithuanian Special Operations Force#Structure and tasks (Lietuvos Specialiųjų Operacijų Pajėgos; "Žaliukai" ((in English) like “forest / green brothers”), "Aitvaras" ): special operation unit of the Lithuanian Armed Forces, formed exclusively of carefully selected, motivated and specially trained professionals. The main tasks of the Special Operations Force are counter terrorism, special reconnaissance, and hostage rescue.

LatviaEdit

EstoniaEdit

Commune of the Working People of Estonia (1918–1919): unrecognised government claiming the Bolshevik-occupied parts of Republic of Estonia as its territories during the Estonian War of Independence and the Russian Civil War. The primary purpose of this entity, temporary by its very design, was to give the impression of an Estonian civil war in order to mask Soviet Russian aggression.
Estonian War of Independence (1918.11.28 – 1920.02.02)
Saatse Boot: an area of Russian territory of 115 ha (280 acres) that extends through the road between the Estonian villages of Lutepää and Sesniki (themselves between the larger settlement Värska and village of Saatse) in Värska Parish. The piece of land resembles a boot, which is why it is given such name.
Toomas Hendrik Ilves (1953.12.26-): 4th President of Estonia, in office since 2006; worked as a diplomat and journalist, and he was the leader of the Social Democratic Party in the 1990s. He served in the government as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1996 to 1998 and again from 1999 to 2002. Later, he was a Member of the European Parliament from 2004 to 2006.

EthnicitiesEdit

Kursenieki (Curonians; Kuršininkai): nearly extinct Baltic ethnic group living along the Curonian Spit. "Kuršininkai" refers only to inhabitants of Lithuania and former East Prussia that speak a Latvian language dialect. Autochthonous inhabitants of Palanga in Lithuania call themselves "Curonians" as well, but in Lithuania they usually are counted as Latvians.
Tutejszy: was a self-identification of rural population in mixed-lingual areas of Eastern and Northern Europe, including Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, and Latvia, in particular, in Polesie and Podlasie. As a self-identification, it persisted in Lithuania's Vilnius Region into the late 20th century.
Poleszuk: the people inhabiting Polesia

Riga, RīgaEdit

Riga (696,593 inhabitants (2015)): largest city of the Baltic states and home to one third of Latvia's population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of the Daugava, on a flat and sandy plain. Riga was founded in 1201 and is a former Hanseatic League member. Riga's historical centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, noted for its Art Nouveau/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture. Riga is served by Riga International Airport, the largest airport in the Baltic states. By 1900, Riga was the third largest city in Russia after Moscow and Saint Petersburg in terms of the number of industrial workers and number of theatres. By 1867, Riga's population was 42.9% German. Riga employed German as its official language of administration until the installation of Russian in 1891 as the official language in the Baltic provinces, as part of the policy of Russification of the non-Russian speaking territories of the Russian Empire, including Congress Poland, Finland and the Baltics, undertaken by Tsar Alexander III.
Riga Planning Region: a little under half of the Latvian population lives in Riga Region, which makes it the largest region in the Baltic states with 1,098,523 inhabitants in 2009 and a population density of 303 per km². The river Daugava has been a trade route since antiquity, part of the Vikings' Dvina-Dnieper navigation route to Byzantium. A sheltered natural harbour 15 km upriver from the mouth of the Daugava — the site of today's Riga — has been recorded, as Duna Urbs, as early as the 2nd century. It was settled by the Livs, an ancient Finnic tribe.

VilniusEdit

St. Nicholas Orthodox Church, Vilnius: one of the oldest Orthodox churches in Vilnius, Lithuania
St. Paraskeva Church, Vilnius
Cathedral of the Theotokos, Vilnius
Demographic history of the Vilnius region: at various times come under Polish-Lithuanian, Russian, Polish, German, and Soviet rule. The population has been categorised by linguistic and sometimes also religious indicators. At the end of the 19th century the main languages spoken were Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Russian. Both Catholic and Orthodox Christianity were represented, while a large proportion of those within the city were Jews. The "Lithuanian" element was seen as declining, while the "Slavic" element was increasing. Russian census of 1897; 1916 German census; 1921 Polish census; Polish census of 1931; Lithuanian census of 1939; <...> Soviet census of January 1989.
Republic of Central Lithuania (1920–1922): short-lived political entity, which did not gain international recognition. The republic was created in 1920 following the staged rebellion of soldiers of the 1st Lithuanian–Belarusian Infantry Division of the Polish Army under Lucjan Żeligowski, supported by the Polish air force, cavalry and artillery.
Vilnius, Vilna, Wilno, ...: city of contrasts: many Jews lived in this city till WWII:
Ethnic history of the Vilnius region#Censuses: people did not know the genetics but knew a bit about language, culture, and politics-religion to make decisions as needed or as the takers of census wanted.
Neighborhoods of Vilnius: 21 elderships.
lt:Vilniaus taboras: čigonų (romų) taboras, įsikūręs Vilniaus pietiniame pakraštyje, Naujininkų seniūnijoje, Kirtimų mikrorajone. Tai didžiausias ir seniausias Lietuvos taboras, didžiausios čigonų koncentracijos vieta Baltijos šalyse. aboras pasižymi skurdžiomis gyvenimo sąlygomis, garsėja kaip prekybos narkotikais (heroinu) centras. Aukštutinis taboras tvarkingesnis, ten gyvenantys čigonai yra katalikai. Dalis namų turi elektrą, veikia palydovinė televizija. Žemutinis taboras, kuriame gyvena čigonai stačiatikiai, yra skurdesnis, sudarytas iš keliolikos trobesių.

Bridges:

lt:Nemenčinės tiltas (1932; rekonstruotas 1960 ir 2008): tiltas per Nerį Nemenčinėje, netoli Nemenčios žiočių, kelyje 108 (Vievis–Maišiagala–Nemenčinė). Tilto ilgis 122.5 m, plotis 6.5 m, aukštis 9.8 m. Geležinis, paremtas trimis pilioriais.
lt:Valakampių tiltas (1972): gelžbetoninis tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje. Ilgiausias (341.5 m) tiltas Vilniuje.
lt:Šilo tiltas (1999): tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje, jungiantis Antakalnį ir Žirmūnus. Ilgis apie 100 m.
lt:Žirmūnų tiltas (1966): gelžbetoninis automobilių ir pėsčiųjų tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje, jungiantis Žirmūnus ir Antakalnį; pirmasis TSRS rėminis-konsolinis tiltas. Ilgis 210.4 m., plotis 20.8 m., aukštis 18 m. Tiltas - trijų dalių, centrinės dalies ilgis - 100 metrų.
lt:Mindaugo tiltas (2003, karaliaus Mindaugo karūnavimo 750 metų jubiliejaus proga): nutiestas Vilniuje, per Neries upę, jungia Žirmūnų seniūniją su Vilniaus senamiesčiu. Ilgis – 101 m, plotis – 19.7 m. Trys eismo juostos.
lt:Žaliasis tiltas (Vilnius) (1952; rekonstruotas 1977 ir 2006): tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje. Ilgis 102.9 m., plotis 24 m., aukštis 15 m. 2010 po tiltu buvo pritvirtinta skulptūra „Grandinė“. 1952 tiltas buvo pavadintas Ivano Černiachovskio garbei ir papuoštas keturiomis skulptūrų grupėmis, 2015.07.20-21 visos skulptūrų grupės buvo nukeltos.
lt:Baltasis tiltas (1995): pėsčiųjų tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje. Ilgis 240 m., plotis 6 m., aukštis 11.4 m.
lt:Geležinio Vilko tiltas (1979): tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje. Ilgis 260 m, plotis 38.8 m, aukštis 12 m.
lt:Žvėryno tiltas (1906; rekonstruotas 2006): tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje. Ilgis 103.1 m., plotis 11.35 m., aukštis 11 m. Pastatytas per du metus 1905-1907 m. ir pavadinas Nikolajaus tiltu. 1944 m. vidurinioji tilto dalis buvo nugriauta, bet greitai atstatyta. 1987 m. pastebėjus, kad tiltas avarinės būklės, šalia pastatytas naujas Liubarto tiltas, kurio nukreiptas viešojo transporto eismas. 1991 m. ant tilto stovėjo Seimo gynėjų barikados.
lt:Liubarto tiltas (1987; Naujuojasis Žvėryno tiltas): tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje. Vienas iš nedaugelio Vilniaus metalinių tiltų (kiti daugiausia gelžbetoniniai).
lt:Vingio parko tiltas (1985): vantinis plieninis pėsčiųjų tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje. Ilgis 230.3 m, plotis 6.8 m, aukštis 15 m.
lt:Lazdynų tiltas (1969; rekonstruotas 2009-2010: vietoj buvusių šešių turi aštuonias eismo juostas): tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje; bendras tilto plotis siekia 39 m, tilto ilgis – 233 metrai.
lt:Bukčių tiltas: neveikiantis pėsčiųjų tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje; ilgis yra ~100 m, o plotis ~5 m.
lt:Komunikacijų tiltas (1988): tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje.
lt:Gariūnų tiltas (1983-1986): tiltas per Nerį Vilniuje; ilgis yra 170 m, o plotis 37 m.

BalkansEdit

Main actors: Hellenics (Greeks), South Slavics (Eastern: Old Church Slavonic → Bulgarian + Macedonian; Western: Slovene + Serbo-Croatian), Turkics (Ottomans, Turks, Tatars, Gagauz, Gajal), Arabics, Roman Empire (Romance languages: Romanians, South Balkan Romance), Albanians, Romani/Gypsy, Jews. Many extinct cultures and languages.

Paleo-Balkan languages: various extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times. Hellenization, Romanization and Slavicization in the region caused their only modern descendants to be Modern Greek and Albanian, which are descended from Ancient Greek and one of the Thraco-Illyrian languages, respectively.
Republic of Ragusa (1358-1808; Motto: Latin: Non bene pro toto libertas venditur auro - "Liberty is not sold for all the gold in the world"): maritime republic centered on the city of Dubrovnik (Ragusa in Italian, German and Latin; Raguse in French) in Dalmatia (today in southernmost Croatia). Reached its commercial peak in the 15th and the 16th centuries, before being conquered by Napoleon's French Empire and formally annexed by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy in 1808. History: During its first centuries the city was under the rule of the Byzantine Empire. Venetian suzerainty (1205–1358); Independence from Venice (1358); Ottoman suzerainty It could enter into relations with foreign powers and make treaties with them (as long as not conflicting with Ottoman interests), and its ships sailed under its own flag. Ottoman vassalage also conferred special trade rights that extended within the Empire. Along with England, Spain and Genoa, Ragusa was one of Venice's most damaging competitors in the 15th century on all seas, even in the Adriatic; Decline of the Republic
Balkan Wars (1912.10.08-1913.07.18): two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in south-eastern Europe. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the first war; one of the four, Bulgaria, was defeated in the second war.
First Balkan War (1912.10.08-1913.05.30): comprised actions of the Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Bulgaria) against the Ottoman Empire. As a result of the war, the allies captured and partitioned almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire. Ensuing events also led to the creation of an independent Albanian state.
Second Balkan War (1913.06.29-1913.08.10): broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece. Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked, entering Bulgaria. With Bulgaria also having previously engaged in territorial disputes with Romania, this war provoked Romanian intervention against Bulgaria. The Ottoman Empire also took advantage of the situation to regain some lost territories from the previous war.
Macedonian Struggle (Greek Struggle in Macedonia; 1904-1908): series of social, political, cultural and military conflicts between Greeks and Bulgarians in the region of Ottoman Macedonia.

AlbaniaEdit

Origin of the Albanians: has long been a matter of dispute among historians. The Albanians first appear in the historical record in Byzantine sources of the 11th century. At this point, they were already fully Christianized. Very little evidence of pre-Christian Albanian culture survives, although Albanian mythology and folklore are of Paleo-Balkanic origin and almost all of their elements are pagan, in particular showing Greek influence. The Albanian language forms a separate branch of Indo-European, first attested in the 15th century, and is considered to have evolved from one of the Paleo-Balkan languages of antiquity.
Greater Albania: areas with majority Albanians outside Albania: Kosovo, NW corner of Macedonia, S corner of Montecorvino, S-middle corner of Serbia proper. Is this due to Albanian language/culture spread or due to other reasons? How Serbs, Macedonians/Bulgarians, Greeks "lost" "their" (?) land?
Cham Albanian collaboration with the Axis (1941-1944): arge parts of the Albanian minority in the Thesprotia prefecture in Epirus, northwestern Greece, known as Chams collaborated with Fascist Italian and Nazi German forces; Axis propaganda promised that the region would be awarded to Albania after the end of the war.
Greeks in Albania
2012 Republic of Macedonia inter-ethnic violence
Smilkovci lake killings (2012.04.12)

Kosovo (ethnicities: Albanians, Serbs)Edit

Partition of Kosovo: has been suggested as a final solution to the Kosovo issue between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo.
Kosovo Serb enclaves
North Kosovo: territory in the northern part of Kosovo, with an ethnic Serb majority that before the Brussels Agreement functioned independently from the remainder of the region, which has an ethnic Albanian majority.
North Kosovo crisis (2011.07.25 – 2012): when the Kosovo Police crossed into the Serb-controlled municipalities of North Kosovo, in an attempt to control several border crossings without the consultation of either Serbia or KFOR/EULEX.
North Kosovo referendum, 2012

BulgariaEdit

First Bulgarian Empire (681-1018): Bulgars came and got assimilated among the Southern Slavs and co. Main competitor to the Byzantine Empire in the Balkans. Byzantium had a strong cultural influence on Bulgaria, which also led to the eventual adoption of Christianity by Bulgaria in 864.
Modern BulgariaEdit
Bulgarian Turks in Turkey: represent a community of Bulgarian Turks, who immigrated over the years from Bulgaria to Turkey; notable in Turkey that they managed over the years to continue to keep their linguistic and cultural connections with Bulgaria and moreover, part of them continue to be dual citizens of Bulgaria and Turkey, which makes them a natural bridge between both countries
Turks in Bulgaria: minority group, mainly concentrated in the southern province of Kardzhali and northeastern provinces of Shumen, Silistra, Razgrad and Targovishte.
Romani people in Bulgaria

GreeceEdit

{q.v. #Ancient Greco-Roman world}

Greek Civil War (1946.03.30-1949.10.16): between the Greek government army—backed by UK and USA—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE), the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE), backed by the Yugoslavia and Albania as well as USSR and Bulgaria. Greece in the end was funded by the U.S. through the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan and joined NATO, while the insurgents were demoralized by the bitter split between the USSR's Stalin (who wanted the war ended) and Yugoslavia's Tito (who wanted it to continue).
Modern GreeceEdit

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/All#Debt, default, insolvency, bankruptcy, economic problems/crises, financial crises}

Can it be that the current situation in Greece is reminiscent of the great collapses (economic, political, social) in civilizations of ancient Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Persians, Chinese, Indians..?

Elections in Greece: "reinforced proportionality"; form of semi-proportional representation, with two important modifications: (1) a party must secure at least 3% of the vote to be represented in parliament, and (2) the party that wins a plurality of votes cast is awarded an extra 50 seats. Law helps the party or coalition that wins a plurality to achieve an absolute majority (151 out of 300 parliamentary seats); this is intended to enhance governmental stability.
Greek legislative election, May 2012
Greek legislative election, June 2012: New Democracy (Antonis Samaras) [29.66%], SYRIZA (Alexis Tsipras) [26.89%], PASOK (Evangelos Venizelos) [12.28%], ANEL [7.51%], Golden Dawn [6.92%], DIMAR [6.25%], KKE [4.5%]. ND, PASOK, DIMAR made unity gov. Cabinet was dominated by lawmakers from ND but also included a significant number of technocrats, among them two ministes (Justice, Administrative Reform) nominated by DIMAR; PASOK opted not to participate with leading party cadres in the government.

Yugoslavia, ex-Yugoslavian statesEdit

Why do Serbs, Croatians, Orthodox, Muslims (Bosniaks), Catholics hate each other so much though speak nearly the same language? How do Slovenians come into this hatred community?

Josip Broz Tito (1892.05.07–1980.05.04; Tito): Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980. During WWII he was the leader of the Partisans, often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian, and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, some historians consider him a benevolent dictator. He was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. Viewed as a unifying symbol, his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation. Josip Broz was born to a Croat father and Slovene mother in the village of Kumrovec, Croatia. After being seriously wounded and captured by the Imperial Russians during WWI, Josip was sent to a work camp in the Ural Mountains. He participated in the October Revolution, and later joined a Red Guard unit in Omsk. Upon his return home, Broz found himself in the newly established Kingdom of Yugoslavia, where he joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ).
Bleiburg repatriations: term encompassing events that took place after the end of World War II in Europe, when thousands of soldiers and civilians fleeing Yugoslavia were repatriated to that country; some of the soldiers and civilians were then murdered, and most were subjected to abuse and long marches to forced labor camps; named after the Carinthian border town of Bleiburg from which the main repatriation was conducted. (1945 mid-May): Chetniks, remnants of the military of the Independent State of Croatia, and a few Cossacks were denied to enter British occupied zone from Yugoslavia and unknown number of them were executed by Yugoslavian partisans.
Croatian nationalism
Ustaše (Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement): Croatian fascist and terrorist organization which was active before and during WWII; members (called Ustaše) responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of citizens of Yugoslavia, particularly Serbs; ideology of the movement was a blend of Fascism and ultraconservatism. Movement emphasized the need for a racially "pure" Croatia and promoted persecution and genocide against Serbs, Jews and Romani people. Fiercely nationalistic, fanatically Catholic. {Following Croatian nationalism, they declared that the Catholic and Muslim faiths were the religions of the Croatian people; the Islam of the Bosniaks as a religion which "keeps true the blood of Croats." (???)}
World War II persecution of Serbs (Serbian Genocide): widespread persecution of Serbs that included extermination, expulsions and forced religious conversions of large numbers of ethnic Serbs by the Ustaše regime in the Independent State of Croatia, and killings of Serbs by Albanian collaborationists and Axis occupying forces during WWII.
Anti-Serb sentiment: David Bruce MacDonald states that the concept of "Serbophobia" was popularised in the 1980s and 1990s during the re-analysis of Serbian history and became likened to anti-Semitism by Serb nationalists at the end of the 20th century, creating a myth of Serbs as perennial victims which served to justify territorial expansion into neighbouring regions with ethnic Serb population, which could then be presented as self-defensive and humanitarian.
Demographics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: censa: 1971, 1981, 1991
Breakup of Yugoslavia: occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s. After a period of political crisis in the 1980s, constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia split apart, but the unsolved issues caused bitter inter-ethnic Yugoslav wars. The wars primarily affected Bosnia and Herzegovina and neighboring parts of Croatia. In the 1980s, Kosovo Albanians started to demand that their autonomous province be granted the status of a constituent republic, starting with the 1981 protests. Ethnic tensions between Albanians and Kosovo Serbs remained high over the whole decade, which resulted in the growth across Yugoslavia of Serb opposition to the high autonomy of provinces and ineffective system of consensus at the federal level, which were seen as an obstacle for Serb interests. In 1987, Slobodan Milošević came to power in Serbia, and through a series of populist moves acquired de facto control over Kosovo, Vojvodina and Montenegro, garnering a high level of support among Serbs for his centralist policies. Milošević was met with opposition by party leaders of the western republics of Slovenia and Croatia, who also advocated greater democratization of the country in line with the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe. The League of Communists of Yugoslavia dissolved in January 1990 along federal lines. Republican communist organizations became the separate socialist parties.
Yugoslav wars
RAM Plan: military plan developed over the course of 1990 and finalized in Belgrade, Serbia during a military strategy meeting in August 1991 by a group of senior Serb officers of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and experts from the JNA's Psychological Operations Department. Its purpose was organizing Serbs outside Serbia, consolidating control of the Serbian Democratic Parties (SDS), and preparing arms and ammunition in an effort of establishing a country where "all Serbs with their territories would live together in the same state." A separate group of undercover operatives and military officers was charged with the implementation of the plan. The UNCoE concluded that "the practices of ethnic cleansing, sexual assault and rape have been carried out by some of the parties so systematically that they strongly appear to be the product of a policy." It stated in a follow-up report that it was "convinced that this heinous practice [rape and abuse of women] constitutes a deliberate weapon of war in fulfilling the policy of ethnic cleansing carried out by Serbian forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and [...] that the abhorrent policy of ethnic cleansing was a form of genocide."
Serb Autonomous Regions (SAO): from August 1990 to November 1991, during the breakup of Yugoslavia, SAOs were proclaimed in the Yugoslav republics of SR Croatia and SR Bosnia and Herzegovina in light of the possible secession of the republics from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. These were autonomous Serb-inhabited entities that subsequently united in their respective republic to form the Republic of Serbian Krajina in Croatia and the Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Ten-Day War (1991.06.27-07.07; Slovenian Independence War): civil war in Yugoslavia that followed the Slovenian declaration of independence in 1991.06.25.
Croatian War of Independence (1991.03.31 – 1995.11.12): between Croat forces loyal to the government of Croatia—which had declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY)—and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and local Serb forces, with the JNA ending its combat operations in Croatia by 1992. A majority of Croats wanted Croatia to leave Yugoslavia and become a sovereign country, while many ethnic Serbs living in Croatia, supported by Serbia, opposed the secession and wanted Serb-claimed lands to be in a common state with Serbia. Most Serbs effectively sought a new Serb state within a Yugoslav federation, including areas of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina with ethnic Serb majorities or significant minorities, and attempted to conquer as much of Croatia as possible. The JNA initially tried to keep Croatia within Yugoslavia by occupying all of Croatia. After this failed, Serb forces established the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK) within Croatia. The war ended with Croatian victory, as it achieved the goals it had declared at the beginning of the war: independence and preservation of its borders.
Siege of Dubrovnik (1991.10.01–1992.05.31): military engagement fought between the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and Croatian forces defending the city of Dubrovnik and its surroundings. The JNA started its advance on 1991.10.01 and by late October had captured virtually all of the land between the Pelješac and Prevlaka peninsulas on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, with the exception of Dubrovnik itself. The siege was accompanied by a Yugoslav Navy blockade. The JNA's bombardment of Dubrovnik, including that of the Old Town—a UNESCO World Heritage Site—culminated in 1991.12.06. The bombardment provoked international condemnation, and became a public relations disaster for Serbia and Montenegro, contributing to their diplomatic and economic isolation, as well as the international recognition of Croatia's independence.
Bosnian War (1992.04.06 – 1995.12.14): international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat entities within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia, which were led and supplied by Serbia and Croatia, respectively. Following the Slovenian and Croatian secessions from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1991, the multi-ethnic Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina – which was inhabited by mainly Muslim Bosniaks (44%), as well as Orthodox Serbs (32.5%) and Catholic Croats (17%) – passed a referendum for independence on 1992.02.29. This was rejected by the political representatives of the Bosnian Serbs, who had boycotted the referendum. Following Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of independence (which gained international recognition), the Bosnian Serbs, led by Radovan Karadžić and supported by the Serbian government of Slobodan Milošević and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), mobilised their forces inside Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to secure ethnic Serb territory, then war soon spread across the country, accompanied by ethnic cleansing. The conflict was initially between the Yugoslav Army units in Bosnia which later transformed into the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) on the one side, and the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) which was largely composed of Bosniaks, and the Croat forces in the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) on the other side. Tensions between Croats and Bosniaks increased throughout late 1992, resulting in the Croat–Bosniak War that escalated in early 1993. The Bosnian War was characterised by bitter fighting, indiscriminate shelling of cities and towns, ethnic cleansing and systematic mass rape, mainly perpetrated by Serb, and to a lesser extent, Croat and Bosniak forces. Events such as the Siege of Sarajevo and the Srebrenica massacre later became iconic of the conflict. The most recent estimates suggest that around 100,000 people were killed during the war. Over 2.2 million people were displaced, making it the most devastating conflict in Europe since the end of WWII. In addition, an estimated 12,000–20,000 women were raped, most of them Bosniak.
Murder of Nikola Gardović (1992.03.01): a Serbian wedding in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, was shot at amidst the Bosnian independence referendum. As the wedding procession wound its way through the old Muslim section of the city called Baščaršija, the wedding guests brandished Serbian flags. This was interpreted by the Muslims present as an act of deliberate provocation when an independence referendum had been held which was supported by most Bosnian Croats and Muslims but boycotted by most of the Bosnian Serbs.
1992 anti-war protests in Sarajevo: 1992.04.05 in response to events all over Bosnia and Herzegovina 100,000 people of all nationalities turned out for a peace rally in Sarajevo. Serb snipers in the iconic Holiday Inn hotel under the control of the Serbian Democratic Party in the heart of Sarajevo opened fire on the crowd killing six people and wounding several more. Suada Dilberović and an ethnic Croat woman Olga Sučić were in the first rows, protesting on the Vrbanja bridge at the time. The bridge on which Sučić and Dilberović were killed was renamed in their honor. Six Serb snipers were arrested, but were exchanged when the Serbs threatened to kill the commandant of the Bosnian police academy who was captured the previous day, after the Serbs took over the academy and arrested him.
Siege of Sarajevo (1992.04.05–1996.02.29): siege of the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the longest of a capital city in the history of modern warfare. After being initially besieged by the forces of the Yugoslav People's Army, Sarajevo was besieged by the Army of Republika Srpska. during the Bosnian War. The siege lasted three times longer than the Battle of Stalingrad and more than a year longer than the Siege of Leningrad. 1992.04.04 when Izetbegović ordered all reservists and police in Sarajevo to mobilize, and SDS called for evacuation of the city's Serbs, came the 'definite rupture between the Bosnian government and Serbs'. Bosnia and Herzegovina received international recognition 1992.04.06. The most common view is that the war started that day.
1992 Yugoslav People's Army column incident in Sarajevo (1992.05.03): in Dobrovoljačka Street, Sarajevo, when members of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH) attacked a convoy of Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) troops that were exiting the city of Sarajevo according to the withdrawal agreement. The attack is thought to have happened in retaliation for the arrest of the President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegović, who was detained at the Sarajevo Airport by the Yugoslav Army the previous day.
Sniper Alley: informal name primarily for streets Zmaja od Bosne Street (Улица Змаја од Босне; Dragon of Bosnia Street) and Meša Selimović Boulevard, the main boulevard in Sarajevo which during the Bosnian War was lined with snipers' posts, and became infamous as a dangerous place for civilians to traverse. The road connects the industrial part of the city (and further on, Sarajevo Airport) to the Old Town's cultural and historic sites. The boulevard itself has many high-rise buildings giving sniper shooters extensive fields of fire. Although the city was under constant Serb siege, its people still had to move about the city in order to survive, thus routinely risking their lives. Signs reading "Pazi – Snajper!" ("Watch out – Sniper!") became common. People would either run fast across the street or would wait for United Nations armored vehicles and walk behind them, using them as shields. According to data gathered in 1995, the snipers wounded 1,030 people and killed 225 - 60 of whom were children.
Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (1991–1996): unrecognised geopolitical entity and proto-state in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In its proclaimed borders Herzeg-Bosnia encompassed about 30% of the country, but did not have effective control over the entire territory as parts of it were lost to the Army of Republika Srpska at the beginning of the Bosnian War. The armed forces of Herzeg-Bosnia, the Croatian Defence Council (HVO), initially fought in an alliance with the Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), but their relations deteriorated throughout late 1992. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared Herzeg-Bosnia unconstitutional on 14 September 1992. In early 1993 the Croat–Bosniak War escalated in central Bosnia and spread to Herzegovina.
Republika Srpska: one of two constitutional and legal entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The entities are largely autonomous; de facto capital and administrative centre is Banja Luka.
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina. Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 autonomous cantons with their own governments. It is inhabited primarily by Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats, which is why it is sometimes informally referred to as the Bosniak-Croat Federation (with the Bosnian Serbs as the third constituency of the entity). It is sometimes known by the shorter name Federation of B&H (Federacija BiH).
Kosovo War (1998.02.28 – 1999.06.11)
Yugo-nostalgia
SloveniaEdit
Neue Slowenische Kunst (NSK): controversial political art collective that formed in Slovenia in 1984, when Slovenia was part of Yugoslavia. NSK's name, being German, is compatible with a theme in NSK works: the complicated relationship Slovenes have had with Germans. The name of NSK's music wing, Laibach, is also the German name of the Slovene capital Ljubljana. NSK State.
Laibach (band): Slovenian avant-garde music group associated with the industrial, martial, and neo-classical genres. The name "Laibach" is the German name for the Slovenian capital Ljubljana (which was unwelcome in Tito's Yugoslavia).
SerbiaEdit
Zoran Đinđić (1952.08.01-2003.03.12): Serbian politician who was the Prime Minister of Serbia from 2001 until his assassination in 2003.

BasquesEdit

Nowadays the Spain and France have people talking Basque language. Spain:

Basque Country (autonomous community): autonomous community of northern Spain. Álava + Biscay + Gipuzkoa
Navarre (Chartered Community of Navarre)

France:

Labourd
Lower Navarre
Soule
War of the Bands (1270; ~1362-1457): civil war (extended series of blood feuds) in the western Basque Country, Gascony, and Navarre in the Late Middle Ages.
Basque Country (greater region) (eu: Euskal Herria): home of the Basque people in the western Pyrenees that spans the border between France and Spain on the Atlantic coast; area is neither linguistically nor culturally homogeneous, and certain areas have a majority of people who do not consider themselves Basque, such as the south of Navarre where in 1996 the census reported that 71% of inhabitants did not identify themselves as Basque - although a lot fewer people in the same area (53%) opposed measures to support the Basque language.
Basque nationalism: support for Basque nationalism is stronger in the Spanish Basque Autonomous Community and north-west Navarre, whereas in the French Basque Country support is low; "irredentist in nature" as it favors political unification of all the Basque-speaking provinces (now divided in those three regions).
ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna; "Basque Homeland and Freedom"; 1959-): armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization; evolved from a group promoting traditional Basque culture to a paramilitary group with the goal of gaining independence for the Greater Basque Country. ETA declared ceasefires in 1989, 1996, 1998 and 2006, but subsequently broke them; 2011.10.20 - newest ceasefire.
Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country (Statute of Gernika; es: Estatuto de Guernica): legal document organizing the political system of the Basque Country (autonomous community); forms the region into one of the autonomous communities envisioned in the Spanish Constitution of 1978
Navarrese People's Union (UPN): regional conservative political party in Navarre, Spain; strong opponent of Basque nationalism, and supports a Spanish regional identity for Navarre with a marginal Basque component and separate from the Basque Country.

BelarusEdit

Russian language in Belarus: it's complicated.

Lang. = Belarusian (before 1991 due to USSR: Belorussian)

Benelux (BeNeLux) and Low CountriesEdit

Category:Seventeen Provinces
Category:Benelux

Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg share a common history.

Frisian Kingdom (600–734)
Dorestad (c. 7th c, till Viking Age)
Seventeen Provinces (1549-1581): term applied to the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in 15th and 16th c. They roughly covered the Low Countries, i.e. the current Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg, plus most of the modern French department of Nord including Artois, French Flanders, and French Hainaut. Also enclosed in this area were semi-independent fiefdoms, mainly ecclesiastical ones, such as Liège, Cambrai and Stavelot-Malmedy.
Low Countries: coastal region in north western Europe, consisting especially of Belgium and the Netherlands, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level. Germanic languages such as Dutch and Luxembourgish were the predominant languages, although Romance languages also played an important role.
Benelux: union of states comprising three neighbouring countries in midwestern Europe: Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
Southern Netherlands: Spanish Netherlands (1556 - 1714), Austrian Netherlands (1714–1795), French annexation
Kettle War (1784.10.08): military confrontation between the troops of the Republic of the Seven Netherlands and the Holy Roman Empire. It was named the Kettle War because the only shot fired hit a soup kettle.
Ostend Company (1722-1731)
 
Baarle-Nassau & Baarle-Hertog: border between these two municipalities and countries (BE, NL): complicated borders; in total it consists of 24 separate parcels of land. Some houses in the region of Baarle-Hertog/Baarle-Nassau are divided between the two countries. There was a time when according to Dutch laws restaurants had to close earlier. For some restaurants on the border it meant that the clients simply had to change their tables to the Belgian side. Border's complexity results from a number of equally complex medieval treaties, agreements, land-swaps and sales between the Lords of Breda and the Dukes of Brabant.

NetherlandsEdit

First Stadtholderless Period (1650–72; nl: Eerste Stadhouderloze Tijdperk): period in the history of the Dutch Republic in which the office of a Stadtholder was absent in five of the seven Dutch provinces (the provinces of Friesland and Groningen, however, retained their customary stadtholder from the cadet branch of the House of Orange). It happened to coincide with the period when it reached the zenith of its economic, military and political Golden Age.
Rampjaar (1672): lynching of de Witt brothers by an angry mob. Johan de Witt was the teacher for some time of the young William III.
Anglo-Dutch Wars: 2nd (1665–67) and 3rd (1672–74) wars confirmed the Dutch Republic's position as the leading maritime state of the seventeenth century. Later as the fleet was transferred to Britain and British fleet and commercial success overtook the Dutch ones, Dutch resented this and the 4th war came about (1781–84).

BelgiumEdit

Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium: Belgium is a federal state comprising three communities, three regions, and four language areas. For each of these subdivision types, the subdivisions together make up the entire country; in other words, the types overlap.
Flemish Region (~6 mln) & Flanders
Wallonia (~3.5 mln)
German-speaking Community of Belgium (~76k)
Brussels (1.1 mln, metro=1.8 mln)
Flemish Community
French Community of Belgium (Wallonia-Brussels Federation)
BrusselsEdit
Francization of Brussels: transformation of Brussels, Belgium, from a majority Dutch-speaking city to one that is bilingual or even multilingual, with French as both the majority language and lingua franca.

BrazilEdit

Social apartheid in Brazil: has been used to describe various aspects of economic inequality in Brazil, drawing a parallel with the legally enforced separation of whites and blacks in South African society for several decades during the 20th-century apartheid regime.
Favela: term for a slum in Brazil, most often within urban areas.

Byzantine Empire (~330–1204, 1261–1453)Edit

{q.v.

  • Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628
  • Ostrogoths

}

Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire; (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia Rhōmaiōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum)): predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally founded as Byzantium. Maurice's (r. 582–602) assassination caused a two-decade-long war with Sassanid Persia which exhausted the Empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century. In a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs.
Language: Apart from the Imperial court, administration and military, the primary language used in the eastern Roman provinces even before the decline of the Western Empire was Greek, having been spoken in the region for centuries before Latin. Following Rome's conquest of the east its 'Pax Romana', inclusionist political practices and development of public infrastructure, facilitated the further spreading and entrenchment of Greek language in the east. Indeed early on in the life of the Roman Empire, Greek had become the common language in the Christian Church, the language of scholarship and the arts, and, to a large degree, the lingua franca for trade between provinces and with other nations. The language itself for a time gained a dual nature with the primary spoken language, the constantly developing vernacular Koine (eventually evolving into demotic Greek), existing alongside an older literary language with Koine eventually evolving into the standard dialect. Administrative usage of Latin persisted until 7th c., when it was ended by Heraclius. Scholarly Latin would rapidly fall into disuse among the educated classes although the language would continue to be at least a ceremonial part of the Empire's culture for some time. Vulgar Latin among THraco-Roman populations → Proto-Romanian language; another neo-Latin vernacular: Dalmatian language (extinct since 1898).
Exarch: governor with extended authority over a province at some distance from the capital Constantinople. The prevailing situation frequently involved him in military operations.
Exarchate of Ravenna (584-751): center of Byzantine (East Roman) power in Italy; last exarch was put to death by the Lombards. Ravenna became the capital of the Western Roman Empire in 402 under Honorius, due to its fine harbour with access to the Adriatic and its ideal defensive location amidst impassable marshes. The city remained the capital of the Empire until 476, when it became the capital of Odoacer, and then of the Ostrogoths under Theodoric the Great. It remained the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, but in 540 during the Gothic War (535–554), Ravenna was occupied by the Byzantine general Belisarius.
Exarchate of Africa (585/590–698): name of an administrative division of the Eastern Roman Empire encompassing its possessions on the Western Mediterranean, ruled by an exarch, or viceroy. Created by emperor Maurice and survived until its conquest by the Muslims.
Plague of Justinian (541–542 AD): pandemic that afflicted the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and especially its capital, Constantinople, as well as the Sasanian Empire, and port cities around the entire Mediterranean Sea, as merchant ships harbored rats that carried fleas infected with plague. Some historians believe the plague of Justinian was one of the deadliest pandemics in history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 25–50 million people during two centuries of recurrence, a death toll equivalent to 13–26% of the world's population at the time of the first outbreak. Recent research, however, has raised questions as to the plague's actual demographic effects. The plague's social and cultural impact has been compared to that of the similar Black Death that devastated Europe in the Middle Ages, 600 years after the last outbreak of Justinian's plague. In 2013, researchers confirmed earlier speculation that the cause of the Plague of Justinian was Yersinia pestis, the same bacterium responsible for Black Plague (1347–1351). The latter was much shorter, but still killed an estimated one-third to one-half of Europeans. Ancient and modern Yersinia pestis strains closely related to the ancestor of the Justinian plague strain have been found in Tian Shan, a system of mountain ranges on the borders of Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and China, suggesting that the Justinian plague may have originated in or near that region. Procopius, a Greek who was the principal historian of the 6th century, described the pandemic as worldwide in scope, and this first plague returned periodically until the eighth century. The waves of disease had a major effect on the subsequent course of European history. Modern historians named this plague incident after Justinian I, who was emperor at the time of the initial outbreak. Justinian himself contracted the disease, but survived.
Heraclius (c. 575 – February 11, 641): Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641; was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Roman Empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas. The year Heraclius came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Heraclius immediately took charge of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. The first battles of the campaign ended in defeat for the Byzantines; the Persian army fought their way to the Bosphorus but Constantinople was protected by impenetrable walls and a strong navy, and Heraclius was able to avoid total defeat. Soon after, he initiated reforms to rebuild and strengthen the military. Heraclius drove the Persians out of Asia Minor and pushed deep into their territory, defeating them decisively in 627 at the Battle of Nineveh. Heraclius soon experienced a new event, the Muslim conquests. Emerging from the Arabian Peninsula, the Muslims quickly conquered the Sasanian Empire. In 634 the Muslims marched into Roman Syria, defeating Heraclius's brother Theodore. Within a short period of time, the Arabs conquered Mesopotamia, Armenia and Egypt. Heraclius entered diplomatic relations with the Croats and Serbs in the Balkans; tried to repair the schism in the Christian church in regard to the Monophysites, by promoting a compromise doctrine - Monothelitism; this project of unity was rejected by all sides of the dispute.
Political mutilation in Byzantine culture: common method of punishment for criminals of the era but it also had a role in the empire's political life. By blinding a rival, one would not only restrict their mobility but make it almost impossible for them to lead an army into battle, then an important part of taking control of the empire. Castration was also used to eliminate potential opponents. In the Byzantine Empire, for a man to be castrated meant that he was no longer a man—half-dead, "life that was half death". The sack was nonetheless, by the standards of the age, restrained. There was no general slaughter of the inhabitants and the two main basilicas of Peter and Paul were nominated places of sanctuary. Most of the buildings and monuments in the city survived intact, though stripped of their valuables. Refugees from Rome flooded the province of Africa, as well as Egypt and the East. Some refugees were robbed as they sought asylum, and St. Jerome wrote that Heraclian, the Count of Africa, sold some of the young refugees into Eastern brothels.
Sack of Constantinople (1204) (1204.04.08–13): culmination of the Fourth Crusade. Mutinous Crusader armies captured, looted, and destroyed parts of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. After the capture of the city, the Latin Empire (known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia or the Latin Occupation) was established and Baldwin of Flanders was crowned Emperor Baldwin I of Constantinople in the Hagia Sophia. The sack of Constantinople is a major turning point in medieval history. The Crusaders' decision to attack the world's largest Christian city was unprecedented and immediately controversial, even among contemporaries. Reports of Crusader looting and brutality scandalised and horrified the Orthodox world; relations between the Catholic and Orthodox churches were catastrophically wounded for many centuries afterwards, and would not be substantially repaired until modern times.

CanadaEdit

Aboriginal peoples in Canada: Métis culture of mixed blood originated in the mid-17th century when First Nation and Inuit people married Europeans.
Métis people (Canada)
Multiculturalism in Canada: sense of an equal celebration of racial, religious and cultural backgrounds. Multiculturalism policy was officially adopted by the Canadian government during the 1970s and 1980s. The Canadian federal government has been described as the instigator of multiculturalism as an ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration.

Caucasus (mountains and countries)Edit

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/All#Languages of the Caucasus}

 
Caucasus: ethno-linguistic map. CIA, 1995. Put on top of that the religious overlay of Christian (Georgian Eastern Orthodox Church, Armenian Apostolic Church (from 310)) and Islamic (Shia, Sunni). Very mixed.

Tons of blood spilled on all sides, still continuing multiple conflicts in the area (including the Russian side of the Caucasus). Some spillovers (historically) into Iran, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon and other surrounding countries.

Prehistoric Caucasus: gateway between Southwest Asia, Europe and Central Asia, plays a pivotal role in the peopling of Eurasia, possibly as early as during the Homo erectus expansion to Eurasia, in the Upper Paleolithic peopling of Europe, and again in the re-peopling Mesolithic Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum, and in the expansion associated with the Neolithic Revolution. Genetic history: language groups in the Caucasus have been found to have a close correlation to genetic ancestry. A genetic study in 2015 by Fu et al. of many modern European populations, identified a previously unidentified lineage, which was dubbed "Caucasian Hunter-Gatherer" (CHG). The study detected a split between CHG and so-called "Western European Hunter-Gatherer" (WHG) lineages, about 45,000 years ago, the presumed time of the original peopling of Europe. Modern Armenians were found to derive from an admixture event in the Bronze Age (3rd to 2nd millennia BCE), which combined various Eurasian lineages. Since the time of the Bronze Age collapse, about 1200 BCE, Armenians have remained genetically isolated as a population, with a higher genetic affinity to Neolithic European farmers than to modern Near Eastern populations.
Peoples of the Caucasus: more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region.

Conflicts in CaucasusEdit

Armenia & (Azerbaijan, Turkey):

Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA; 1975-1991)
Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (1975-1987)
1981 Turkish consulate attack in Paris (1981): 4 members of ASALA.
Esenboğa International Airport attack (1982): in Ankara perpetrated by the "Pierre Gulumian commando" group from the Armenian militant organization ASALA.
Orly Airport attack (1983): bombing of a Turkish Airlines check-in counter at Orly Airport in Paris by the Armenian terorist organization ASALA as part of its campaign for the recognition of and reparations for the Armenian Genocide.
Ramil Safarov (murder: 2004): officer of the Azerbaijani Army who was convicted of the 2004 murder of Armenian Army Lieutenant Gurgen Margaryan. During a NATO-sponsored training seminar in Budapest, Safarov broke into Margaryan's dormitory room at night and axed him to death while Margaryan was asleep.
 
Map of the Russo-Georgian War.
2008 Russo-Georgian diplomatic crisis (2008): Russia announced that it would no longer participate in CIS economic sanctions imposed on Abkhazia in 1996 and established direct relations with the separatist authorities in Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The crisis was linked to the push for Georgia to receive a NATO Membership Action Plan and, indirectly, the unilateral declaration of independence by Kosovo.
Russo-Georgian War (2008.08.07–12): armed conflict between Georgia, the Russian Federation, and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed breakaway republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. Fighting took place in the strategically important Transcaucasia region, which borders the Middle East. It was regarded as the first European war of the 21st century.
Roki Tunnel

ArmeniaEdit

 
Modern population distribution of Armenians in the 19th and 20th centuries juxtaposed with the maximal extent of the Armenian Empire in the 1st century BC.
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic: flag is almost a copy of Armenian flag; uses Armenian language and currency.
Nagorno-Karabakh
Armenian Apostolic Church: national church of the Armenian people. Part of Oriental Orthodoxy, it is one of the most ancient Christian institutions. The Kingdom of Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as its official religion under the rule of King Tiridates in the early 4th century. According to tradition, the church originated in the missions of Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus in the 1st century.
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Cilician Armenia; Lesser Armenia; 1198-1375): independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia.
Armeno-Mongol relations: Christian Armenians (Greater Armenia (at the time part of the kingdom of Georgia) and Lesser Armenia) became tributary and vassal to the Mongol Empire (the later Ilkhanate) in the 1230s. Armenia and Cilicia remained under Mongol influence until around 1320. During the later Crusades (1250s to 1260s), there was a short-lived Armenian-Mongol alliance, engaged in some combined military operations against their common enemy, the Mameluks. They succeeded in capturing Baghdad in 1258, but suffered defeat eight years later.
Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant (Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant): the only nuclear power plant in the South Caucasus located 36 kilometers west of Yerevan. The plant supplied approximately 40 percent of Armenia's electricity in 2015.
1988 Armenian earthquake
Armenian parliament shooting (1999.10.27): killed the two de facto decision-makers in the country's political leadership—Prime Minister Vazgen Sargsyan, Parliament Speaker Karen Demirchyan.

AzerbaijanEdit

Khadija Ismayilova (1976.05.27-): Azerbaijani investigative journalist and radio host who is currently working for the Azerbaijani service of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, until recently as the host of the daily debate show İşdən Sonra. Member of OCCRP. 2014.12 Ismayilova was arrested on charges of incitement to suicide, a charge widely criticized by human rights organizations as bogus. 2015.09.01 Ismayilova was sentenced to seven and a half years in prison under charges of embezzlement and tax evasion. 2016.05.25 the Azerbaijani supreme court ordered Ismayilova released on probation.

GeorgiaEdit

{q.v. User:Kazkaskazkasako/Books/All#Languages of the Caucasus}

 
Kartvelian (South Caucasian) languages: main representative is Georgian. Others: Mingrelian, Svan, Laz.
Tbilisi: In 1122, after heavy fighting with the Seljuks that involved at least 60,000 Georgians and up to 300,000 Turks, the troops of the King of Georgia David the Builder entered Tbilisi. After the battles for Tbilisi concluded, David moved his residence from Kutaisi (Western Georgia) to Tbilisi, making it the capital of a unified Georgian State and thus inaugurating the Georgian Golden Age. From 12–13th c., Tbilisi became a dominant regional power with a thriving economy (with well-developed trade and skilled labour) and a well-established social system/structure. By the end of the 12th c., the population of Tbilisi had reached 100,000. The city also became an important literary and a cultural center not only for Georgia but for the Eastern Orthodox world of the time. During Queen Tamar's reign, Shota Rustaveli worked in Tbilisi while writing his legendary epic poem The Knight in the Panther's Skin. This period is often referred to as "Georgia's Golden Age" or the Georgian Renaissance.

Under the national government, Tbilisi turned into the first Caucasian University City after the Tbilisi State University was founded in 1918, a long-time dream of the Georgians banned by the Imperial Russian authorities for several decades. On 25 February 1921, the Bolshevist Russian 11th Red Army invaded Tbilisi after bitter fighting at the outskirts of the city and declared Soviet rule. Since the break-up of the Soviet Union, Tbilisi has experienced periods of significant instability and turmoil. After a brief civil war, which the city endured for two weeks from December 1991 to January 1992 (when pro-Gamsakhurdia and Opposition forces clashed with each other), Tbilisi became the scene of frequent armed confrontations between various mafia clans and illegal business entrepreneurs. Even during the Shevardnadze Era (1993–2003), crime and corruption became rampant at most levels of society.

Batumi: second largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest. Situated in a subtropical zone near the foot of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, Batumi is a popular tourist destination known for its varying weather–it is a bustling seaside resort during warm seasons, but can get entirely covered in snow during winter. Much of Batumi's economy revolves around tourism and gambling, but the city is also an important sea port and includes industries like shipbuilding, food processing and light manufacturing. Ottoman Rule; Imperial Russian rule; War, communism, and late 20th-century independence: During 1901, sixteen years prior to the October Revolution, Joseph Stalin, the future leader of USSR, lived in the city organizing strikes. 1918.03.03, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gave the city back to the Ottoman Empire; unrest during the closing weeks of WWI led to the re-entry of Turkish forces in 1918.04, followed in December by British forces, who stayed until 1920.07. Kemal Atatürk ceded the area to the Bolsheviks of the Soviet Union on the condition that it be granted autonomy, for the sake of the Muslims among Batumi's mixed population. Abashidze exploited the central government's weaknesses and ruled the area as a personal fiefdom. 2004.05, he fled to Russia because of mass protests in Tbilisi sparked by the Rose Revolution. Batumi was host to the Russian 12th Military Base. Following the Rose Revolution, the central government pushed for the removal of these forces and reached agreement in 2005 with Moscow. According to the agreement, the process of withdrawal was planned to be completed in 2008, but the Russians completed the transfer of the Batumi base to Georgia on 2007.11.13, ahead of schedule.
Early modern history of GeorgiaEdit
Kingdom of Kartli (1484–1762): feudal state with the city of Tbilisi as its centre.
Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (1762–1800): created in 1762 by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms, which had existed independently since the disintegration of the united Georgian Kingdom in the 15th century.
Modern GeorgiaEdit
 
Map of Georgia: Adjaria, Abkhazia (de facto independent), South Ossetia (de facto independent).

Tiny country with many many internal conflicts. 83.9% Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church; 84% ethnic Georgians, 71% Georgian language.

Georgian Civil War: inter-ethnic and intranational conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993); violent military coup d'etat of December 21, 1991 - January 6, 1992, against the first democratically elected President of Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, and his subsequent uprising in an attempt to regain power (1993). Gamsakhurdia rebellion was eventually defeated; South Ossetia and Abkhazia conflicts resulted in the de facto secession of both regions from Georgia. During this time Tengiz Kitovani (leader of National Guard of Georgia), Tengiz Sigua (prime minister in Gamsakhurdia's government), and Jaba Ioseliani formed uneasy alliance, but in the end Eduard Shevardnadze (First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party (GPC, the de facto leader of Soviet Georgia), from 1972 to 1985; President of Georgia from 1995 to 2003) took over this triumvirate and ruled Georgia.
Adjara (Autonomous Republic of Adjara): during Georgian Civil War Aslan Abashidze, the leader of southwestern autonomous province of Adzharia, closed an administrative border and prevented "Zviadists" or Shevardnadze's forces from entering Adjarian territory.
2004 Adjara crisis: without bloodshed the central government of Georgia led by Mikheil Saakashvili took control of Adjara in the events following November 2003 Rose revolution, while Abashidze left in exile in May 2004.
Mkhedrioni: was a paramilitary group and political organisation in the Republic of Georgia, outlawed since 1995 but subsequently reconstituted as the Union of Patriots political party. Founded in 1989 by Jaba Ioseliani; kinda nationalist mafia. After Gamsakhurdia und Ioseliani fell out badly after Gamsakhurdia came to power in Nov. 1990, in Feb. 1991 Ioseliani was imprisoned, Mkhedrioni was banned. After the fall of Zviadists, Ioseliani became MP and Mkhedrioni became his bodyguards. Mkhedrioni and National Guard went against separatists, but were defeated n Abkhazia; at the same time Gamsakhurdia made a revolt in the Wester Georgia but Mkhedrioni with Russian intervention defeated Gamsakhurdia. After 1995 Mkhedrioni were outlawed by Shevardnadze and Ioseliani was imprisoned. After 1999, Mkhedrioni became a political party.
People:
Jaba Ioseliani (Jaba (or Dzhaba) Ioseliani; July 10, 1926 - March 4, 2003 (heart attack))
Zviad Gamsakhurdia (March 31, 1939 — December 31, 1993 (suicide or killed?))
Tengiz Kitovani (born June 9, 1938)
Tengiz Sigua (born 1934)
Aslan Abashidze (born Batumi, July 20, 1938)
Eduard Shevardnadze (born 25 January 1927)
Georgian–Ossetian conflict (1989–present): ethno-political conflict over Georgia's former autonomous region of South Ossetia, which evolved in 1989 and developed into a 1991–1992 South Ossetia War. Despite a declared ceasefire and numerous peace efforts, the conflict remained unresolved. In 2008.08, military tensions and clashes between Georgia and South Ossetian separatists erupted into the Russo-Georgian War.

Central America, MesoamericaEdit

Mesoamerica: region and cultural area in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries. It is one of six areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, and the second in the Americas after Norte Chico (Caral-Supe) in present-day northern coastal Peru.
Mesoamerican languages: Language vs. dialect: The distinction between related languages and dialects is notoriously vague in Mesoamerica. The dominant Mesoamerican socio-cultural pattern through millennia has been centered around the town or city as the highest level community rather than the nation, realm or people. This has meant that within Mesoamerica each city-state or town community, called in Nahuatl an altepetl, has had its own language standard which, in the typical case, has evolved separately from closely related but geographically remote languages.
Uto-Aztecan languages
Nahua peoples
Nahuan languages (Aztecan languages): those languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family that have undergone a sound change, known as Whorf's Law, that changed an original *t to /tɬ/ before *a. Subsequently, some Nahuan languages have changed this /tɬ/ to /l/ or back to /t/, but it can still be seen that the language went through a /tɬ/ stage.
Nahuatl (known informally as Aztec): language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by an estimated 1.5 million Nahua people, most of whom live in Central Mexico. All Nahuan languages are indigenous to Mesoamerica.
Mixtec: indigenous Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico inhabiting the region known as La Mixteca of Oaxaca and Puebla as well as the state of Guerrero's Región Montañas, and Región Costa Chica, which covers parts of the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtecan city states competed with each other and with the Zapotec kingdoms. The major Mixtec polity was Tututepec which rose to prominence in 11th c. under the leadership of Eight Deer Jaguar Claw, the only Mixtec king who ever united the Highland and Lowland polities into a single state.
Mayan languages: Mayan languages are spoken by at least 6 million indigenous Maya, primarily in Guatemala, Mexico, Belize and Honduras. In 1996, Guatemala formally recognized 21 Mayan languages by name, and Mexico recognizes eight more within their territory.
Yucatec Maya language: called Màaya t'àan (lit. "Maya speech") by its speakers, is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula and northern Belize. Maya is the only Mayan language of the approximately 32 Mayan languages of the Mayan language family that has the proper name Maya. To native speakers, proper name is Maya and it is known only as Maya. The qualifier "Yucatec" is a tag linguists use to distinguish it from other Mayan languages (such as K'iche' and Itza' Maya).

MexicoEdit

Languages of Mexico: Several different languages are spoken in Mexico, with a large majority of the population fluent in Spanish while some indigenous Mexicans are monolingual in indigenous languages. Most Mexicans are monolingual Spanish-speakers. Spanish is the de facto national language spoken by the vast majority of Mexicans, though it is not defined as an official language in legislation. The second article of the 1917 Constitution defines the country as multicultural, recognizes the right of the indigenous peoples to "preserve and enrich their languages" and promotes "bilingual and intercultural education".
Agrarian land reform in Mexico: before the 1910 Mexican Revolution that overthrew Porfirio Díaz, most of the land was owned by a single elite ruling class; a small percentage of rich landowners owned most of the country's farm land. Initially the agrarian reform led to the development of many ejidos for communal land use, while parceled ejidos emerged in the later years. Today, most Mexican peasants are landowners. However, their holdings are usually too small, and farmers must supplement their incomes by working for the remaining landlords, and/or traveling to the United States.
Mexican Drug War

Maya civilizationEdit

Category:Maya civilization
Human sacrifice in Maya culture
Sacred Cenote: noted cenote at the pre-Columbian Maya archaeological site of Chichen Itza, in the northern Yucatán Peninsula. It is located to the north of Chichen Itza's civic precinct, to which it is connected by a 300-metre sacbe, or raised and paved pathway.
Mesoamerican ballgame: sport with ritual associations played since 1,400 BCE by the pre-Columbian peoples of Ancient Mesoamerica. The sport had different versions in different places during the millennia, and a newer more modern version of the game, ulama, is still played in a few places by the indigenous population.

Central Asia (and extending to Turco-Mongol nations)Edit

 
Ethno-Linguistic groups of central Asia: Kazkakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan.
Eurasian Steppe: vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome; stretches from Moldavia through Ukraine to Siberia, with one major exclave located mostly in Hungary, the Puszta. The steppe has connected Europe, Central Asia, China, South Asia, and the Middle East economically, politically, and culturally through overland trade routes, most notably the Silk Road during antiquity and the Middle Ages, and the Eurasian Land Bridge in the modern era; has been home to nomadic empires and many large tribal confederations and ancient states throughout history: Xiongnu, Scythia, Cimmeria, Sarmatia, Hunnic Empire, Chorasmia, Transoxiana, Sogdiana, Xianbei and Göktürk Khaganate.
Turco-Mongol (Turkic-Mongol): modern designation for various nomads who were subjects of the Mongol Empire. Being progressively Turkicized in terms of language and identity following the Mongol conquests, they derived their ethnic and cultural origins from steppes of Central Asia. The most important Turco-Mongol kingdoms: Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde; their successor Khanates and principalities: Khanate of Kazan, the Nogai Khanate, the Crimean Khanate, the Empire of Timur and the Mughal Empire.
Timur (Tamerlane; late 1320s–1330s-1405.02.18): conquered West, South and Central Asia; from his dynasty come Ulugh Beg (ruler of Central Asia 1411-1449) and Babur Beg (founder of Mughal Empire); devout muslim calling himself "Sword of Islam"; estimated that his campaigns caused deaths of 17 mln people. Tried to attack Ming Dynasty but Timur died. Timur is regarded as a military genius and a tactician, with an uncanny ability to work within a highly fluid political structure to win and maintain a loyal following of nomads during his rule in Central Asia. He was also considered extraordinarily intelligent – not only intuitively but also intellectually. In Samarkand and his many travels, Timur, under the guidance of distinguished scholars, was able to learn the Persian, Mongolian, and Turkic languages. More importantly, Timur was characterized as an opportunist. Taking advantage of his Turco-Mongolian heritage, Timur frequently used either the Islamic religion or the law and traditions of the Mongol Empire to achieve his military goals or domestic political aims. He was also considered extraordinarily intelligent – not only intuitively but also intellectually. Body was exhumed by Soviet anthropologist Mikhail M. Gerasimov in 1941 and re-buried in 1942.11.
Timurid relations with Europe (15th c.): hostility between Timurid Mongols and Ottoman Turks as well as Egyptian Mamluks; Europe was threatened by the Ottomans. Offensive, defensive alliances and exchange of ambassadors.
Timurid dynasty (1370–1507): Sunni Muslim Persianate dynasty of Turco-Mongol lineage that ruled over an empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary Pakistan, Syria, India, Anatolia.
Gunpowder Empires: term used to describe the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires. Each of these three empires had considerable military success using the newly developed firearms, especially cannon and small arms, in the course of their empires. Such states grew "out of Mongol notions of greatness," but "[s]uch notions could fully mature and create stable bureaucratic empires only after gunpowder weapons and their specialized technology attained a primary place in military life."

Mongolian empire(s)Edit

{q.v. Yuan Dynasty #Imperial China (221 BC - 1911)}

Mongol Empire: existed during 13th and 14th c. and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Indochina, and the Iranian plateau, and westwards as far as the Levant and Arabia. The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of nomadic tribes in the Mongol homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan, who was proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206.
Mongol invasions and conquests: took place throughout 13th c., resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe. Historians regard the destruction under the Mongol Empire as results of some of the deadliest conflicts in human history. In addition, Mongol expeditions brought the bubonic plague along with them, spreading it across much of Asia and Europe and helping cause massive loss of life in the Black Death of 14th c..
Destruction under the Mongol Empire: widely noted in both scholarly literature and popular memory. The Mongol army conquered hundreds of cities and villages, and it also killed millions of men, women and children. It has been estimated that approximately 5% of the world's population was killed either during or immediately after the Turco-Mongol invasions. If these calculations are accurate, this would make the events the deadliest acts of mass killings in human history. In addition, the Mongols practiced biological warfare by catapulting diseased cadavers into at least one of the cities which they besieged. Sources record massive destruction, terror and death if there was resistance. David Nicole notes in The Mongol Warlords: "terror and mass extermination of anyone opposing them was a well-tested Mongol tactic". The alternative to submission was total war: if refused, Mongol leaders ordered the collective slaughter of populations and destruction of property. The success of Mongol tactics hinged on fear: to induce capitulation amongst enemy populations. From the perspective of modern theories of international relations, Quester suggests that, "Perhaps terrorism produced a fear that immobilized and incapacitated the forces that would have resisted." Although perceived as being bloodthirsty, the Mongol strategy of "surrender or die" still recognized that conquest by capitulation was more desirable than being forced to continually expend soldiers, food, and money to fight every army and sack every town and city along the campaign's route. Demographic changes in war-torn areas. Destruction of culture and property. Foods and disease. Tribute in lieu of conquest. Tribute in lieu of conquest. Environmental impact: destruction under Genghis Khan may have scrubbed as much as 700 million tonnes of carbon from the atmosphere by allowing forests to regrow on previously populated and cultivated land.
Society of the Mongol Empire

Written primary sources:

The Secret History of th