User:Cmglee/2011

Hello!

My interest in editing Wikipedia is in illustrating articles, so let me know if you wish some article on science, mathematics or technology illustrated.

Here is some of my work to date; click on images for more details:

TemplatesEdit

Template:venn3Edit

{{venn3
|caption=Breakdown of British and<br>American [[traffic collision]] causes
|unit=%
|labelA=Driver factors
|labelB=Roadway<br>factors
|labelC=Vehicle factors
|countA=57
|countB=3
|countC=2
|countAB=27
|countAC=6
|countBC=1
|countABC=3
}}

Template:bartableEdit

Composition of the human body
Element Percent by mass Atomic percent (calc.)
Oxygen 65% 65
 
25.6% 25.6
 
Carbon 18% 18
 
9.5% 9.5
 
Hydrogen 10% 10
 
63% 63
 
Nitrogen 3% 3
 
1.3% 1.3
 
Calcium 1.5% 1.5
 
0.24% 0.24
 
Phosphorus 1.2% 1.2
 
0.24% 0.24
 
Potassium 0.2% 0.2
 
0.03% 0.03
 
Sulfur 0.2% 0.2
 
0.04% 0.04
 
Chlorine 0.2% 0.2
 
0.04% 0.04
 
Sodium 0.1% 0.1
 
0.03% 0.03
 
Magnesium 0.05% 0.05
 
0.01% 0.01
 
Iron 3 g in men, 2.3 g in women
Cobalt, Copper, Zinc, Iodine < 0.05% each
Selenium, Fluorine < 0.01% each

Template:stereo imageEdit

Stereo image
Left frame 
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Round Church) and the south end of Round Church Street in Cambridge, England.


ImagesEdit

Original drawingsEdit

3D renderEdit

Pseudo-3D SVGEdit

ChartsEdit

Other original drawingsEdit

Processed imagesEdit

SVG with embedded bitmap, designed to be easily translated into different languagesEdit

Other processed imagesEdit

Assorted photographsEdit

United KingdomEdit

Continental EuropeEdit

TaiwanEdit

SingaporeEdit

MalaysiaEdit

EasyTimelineEdit

Template:Distance_from_Sun_using_EasyTimelineEdit

The following chart shows the range of distances of the planets, dwarf planets and Halley's Comet from the Sun.

Astronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitHalley's CometSunEris (dwarf planet)Makemake (dwarf planet)Haumea (dwarf planet)PlutoCeres (dwarf planet)NeptuneUranusSaturnJupiterMarsEarthVenusMercury (planet)Astronomical unitAstronomical unitDwarf planetDwarf planetCometPlanet

Distances of selected bodies of the Solar System from the Sun. The left and right edges of each bar correspond to the perihelion and aphelion of the body, respectively, hence long bars denote high orbital eccentricity. The radius of the Sun is 0.7 million km, and the radius of Jupiter (the largest planet) is 0.07 million km, both too small to resolve on this image.

Template:Arab_Spring_using_EasyTimelineEdit

Borders of IsraelIranian KhuzestanWestern SaharaKuwaitLibyaBahrainIraqPalestinian political violenceSudanMoroccoDjiboutiSyriaEgyptSaudi ArabiaYemenMauritaniaOmanJordanLebanonAlgeria

Timeline of the Arab Spring and its aftermath, along with concurrent events in the region.

 

Template:Hyperfocal_distance_depth_of_field_using_EasyTimelineEdit


Depths of field of 3 ideal lenses of focal lengths, f1, f2 and f3, and f-numbers N1, N2 and N3 when focused at objects at different distances. H1, H2 and H3 denote their respective hyperfocal distances (using Definition 1 in that article) with a circle of confusion of 0.03 mm diameter. The darker bars show how that, for fixed subject distance, the depth of field is increased by using a shorter focal length or smaller aperture. The second topmost bar of each set illustrates the configuration for a fixed focus camera with the focus permanently set at the hyperfocal distance to maximise the depth of field.

Template:Tallest_building_history_using_EasyTimelineEdit

Timeline of recent buildings that have held the title Tallest building in the world. Heights of buildings are to scale. Note the early buildings that lost the title as their spires collapsed.

Burj KhalifaTaipei 101Petronas TowersSears TowerWorld Trade Center (1973–2001)Empire State BuildingChrysler Building40 Wall StreetWoolworth BuildingMetropolitan Life TowerSinger BuildingPhiladelphia City HallUlm MinsterCologne CathedralRouen CathedralSt. Nicholas' Church, HamburgStrasbourg CathedralSt. Mary's Church, StralsundSt. Olaf's Church, TallinnLincoln CathedralGreat PyramidUnited Arab EmiratesRepublic of ChinaMalaysiaChicagoNew YorkPhiladelphiaFranceGermanyFranceStralsundDenmarkEnglandEgypt


HTMLEdit

Chaffing and winnowingEdit

secure channel insecure channel
Alice   Charles   Bob
constructs 4 packets, each containing one bit of her message and a valid MAC
SerialBitMAC
11234
20890
30456
41678
adds 4 chaff packets with inverted bits and invalid MAC, shown in italics (chaffing)
SerialBitMAC
10321
11234
20890
21987
30456
31543
40765
41678
discards packets with invalid MAC to recover the message (winnowing)

In this example, Alice wishes to send the message "1001" to Bob. For simplicity, assume that all even MAC are valid and odd ones are invalid.

Template:DiagnosticTesting DiagramEdit

Condition
(as determined by "Gold standard")
Condition Positive Condition Negative
Test
Outcome
Test
Outcome
Positive
True Positive False Positive
(Type I error)
Positive predictive value =
Σ True Positive
Σ Test Outcome Positive
Test
Outcome
Negative
False Negative
(Type II error)
True Negative Negative predictive value =
Σ True Negative
Σ Test Outcome Negative
Sensitivity =
Σ True Positive
Σ Condition Positive
Specificity =
Σ True Negative
Σ Condition Negative


2011_E._coli_O104:H4_outbreakEdit

 
LEGEND No food restrictions Food sale/trade restrictions / ran tests
No cases
  
  
Suspected cases
  
  
Known cases
  
  
Deaths
  
  
Exposure to the outbreak start from April 21, 2011 with permanent or temporary stay in Germany, consumption of a food acquired in Germany or close contact with a HUS case.[12]
Number of cases by country until 31 May 2011[13]
Country Deaths Confirmed cases Suspected cases
  Germany 17[14] 450 1 200
  United Kingdom 0 3 -
  Sweden 1 41 -
  Denmark 0 14 26
  Netherlands 0 2 -
  France 0 0 3[15]
  Spain 0 1[16] -
  Austria 0 - -
  Norway 0 - -
   Switzerland 0 2 -
  Finland 0 - 1
  Poland 0 1 -
  United States 0 3 -

Uniform circular motionEdit

Centripetal acceleration for some values of radius and magnitude of velocity
|v|


  r
1 m/s
3.6 km/h
2.2 mph
2 m/s
7.2 km/h
4.5 mph
5 m/s
18 km/h
11 mph
10 m/s
36 km/h
22 mph
20 m/s
72 km/h
45 mph
50 m/s
180 km/h
110 mph
100 m/s
360 km/h
220 mph
Slow walk Bicycle City car Aerobatics
10 cm
3.9 in
Laboratory
centrifuge
10 m/s²
1.0 g
40 m/s²
4.1 g
250 m/s²
25 g
1.0 km/s²
100 g
4.0 km/s²
410 g
25 km/s²
2500 g
100 km/s²
10000 g
20 cm
7.9 in
5.0 m/s²
0.51 g
20 m/s²
2.0 g
130 m/s²
13 g
500 m/s²
51 g
2.0 km/s²
200 g
13 km/s²
1300 g
50 km/s²
5100 g
50 cm
1.6 ft
2.0 m/s²
0.20 g
8.0 m/s²
0.82 g
50 m/s²
5.1 g
200 m/s²
20 g
800 m/s²
82 g
5.0 km/s²
510 g
20 km/s²
2000 g
1 m
3.3 ft
Playground
carousel
1.0 m/s²
0.10 g
4.0 m/s²
0.41 g
25 m/s²
2.5 g
100 m/s²
10 g
400 m/s²
41 g
2.5 km/s²
250 g
10 km/s²
1000 g
2 m
6.6 ft
500 mm/s²
0.051 g
2.0 m/s²
0.20 g
13 m/s²
1.3 g
50 m/s²
5.1 g
200 m/s²
20 g
1.3 km/s²
130 g
5.0 km/s²
510 g
5 m
16 ft
200 mm/s²
0.020 g
800 mm/s²
0.082 g
5.0 m/s²
0.51 g
20 m/s²
2.0 g
80 m/s²
8.2 g
500 m/s²
51 g
2.0 km/s²
200 g
10 m
33 ft
Roller-coaster
vertical loop
100 mm/s²
0.010 g
400 mm/s²
0.041 g
2.5 m/s²
0.25 g
10 m/s²
1.0 g
40 m/s²
4.1 g
250 m/s²
25 g
1.0 km/s²
100 g
20 m
66 ft
50 mm/s²
0.0051 g
200 mm/s²
0.020 g
1.3 m/s²
0.13 g
5.0 m/s²
0.51 g
20 m/s²
2 g
130 m/s²
13 g
500 m/s²
51 g
50 m
160 ft
20 mm/s²
0.0020 g
80 mm/s²
0.0082 g
500 mm/s²
0.051 g
2.0 m/s²
0.20 g
8.0 m/s²
0.82 g
50 m/s²
5.1 g
200 m/s²
20 g
100 m
330 ft
Freeway
on-ramp
10 mm/s²
0.0010 g
40 mm/s²
0.0041 g
250 mm/s²
0.025 g
1.0 m/s²
0.10 g
4.0 m/s²
0.41 g
25 m/s²
2.5 g
100 m/s²
10 g
200 m
660 ft
5.0 mm/s²
0.00051 g
20 mm/s²
0.0020 g
130 m/s²
0.013 g
500 mm/s²
0.051 g
2.0 m/s²
0.20 g
13 m/s²
1.3 g
50 m/s²
5.1 g
500 m
1600 ft
2.0 mm/s²
0.00020 g
8.0 mm/s²
0.00082 g
50 mm/s²
0.0051 g
200 mm/s²
0.020 g
800 mm/s²
0.082 g
5.0 m/s²
0.51 g
20 m/s²
2.0 g
1 km
3300 ft
High-speed
railway
1.0 mm/s²
0.00010 g
4.0 mm/s²
0.00041 g
25 mm/s²
0.0025 g
100 mm/s²
0.010 g
400 mm/s²
0.041 g
2.5 m/s²
0.25 g
10 m/s²
1.0 g

I'm My Own GrandpaEdit

NarratorWife      
|          
  Father — Stepdaughter
      |
Narrator

Family tree showing how
the narrator of the song
is his own grandfather.

Mode (statistics)Edit

When X has standard deviation σ = 0.25, the distribution of Y is weakly skewed. Using formulas for the log-normal distribution, we find:

 

Indeed, the median is about one third on the way from mean to mode.

When X has a larger standard deviation, σ = 1, the distribution of Y is strongly skewed. Now

 

Here, Pearson's rule of thumb fails.

Common logarithmEdit

The following example uses the bar notation to calculate 0.012 × 0.85 = 0.0102:

 

* This step makes the mantissa between 0 and 1, so that its antilog (10mantissa) can be looked up.

Psychological pricingEdit

Ending Percentage
0 7.5
1 0.3
2 0.3
3 0.8
4 0.3
5 28.6
6 0.3
7 0.4
8 1.0
9 60.7

Ratio of volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and heightEdit

 
A cone, sphere and cylinder of radius r and height h.

The above formulas can be used to show that the volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3, as follows.

Let the radius be r and the height be h (which is 2r for the sphere).

 

The discovery of the 2 : 3 ratio of the volumes of the sphere and cylinder is credited to Archimedes.[17]

Ratio of surface areas of a sphere and cylinder of the same radius and heightEdit

The above formulas can be used to show that the volumes of a sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height are in the ratio 2 : 3, as follows.

Let the radius be r and the height be h (which is 2r for the sphere).

 

The discovery of this ratio is credited to Archimedes.[18]

Solar eclipseEdit

Moon Sun
At perigee
(nearest)
At apogee
(farthest)
At perihelion
(nearest)
At aphelion
(farthest)
Mean radius, r 1,737.10 kilometres
(1,079.38 miles)
696,000 kilometres
(432,000 miles)
Distance, d 363,104 km
(225,622 mi)
405,696 km
(252,088 mi)
147,098,070 km
(91,402,500 mi)
152,097,700 km
(94,509,100 mi)
Angular diameter,
2×arctan(r / d)
32' 54"
(0.5482°)
29' 26"
(0.4907°)
32' 32"
(0.5422°)
31' 28"
(0.5244°)
Apparent size
to scale
       
Rank in
descending order
1st 4th 2nd 3rd

Angular diameterEdit

Celestial body Angular diameter Relative size (10 pixels per arcsecond)
Sun 31.6′ – 32.7′ 28.7 – 29.7 times the maximum value for Venus (orange bar below)
Moon 29.3′ – 34.1′ 26.6 – 31.0 times the maximum value for Venus (orange bar below)
Venus 9.565″ – 66.012″

Jupiter 29.800″ – 50.115″

Saturn 14.991″ – 20.790″

Mars 3.492″ – 25.113″

Mercury 4.535″ – 13.019″

Uranus 3.340″ – 4.084″

Neptune 2.179″ – 2.373″

Ceres 0.330″ – 0.840″

Vesta 0.20" – 0.64"

Pluto 0.063″ – 0.115″

R Doradus 0.052″ – 0.062″

Betelgeuse 0.049″ – 0.060″

Eris 0.034" – 0.089″

Alphard 0.00909″
Alpha Centauri A 0.007″
Canopus 0.006″
Sirius 0.005936″
Altair 0.003″
Deneb 0.002″
Proxima Centauri 0.001″

Apparent magnitudeEdit

Visible to
typical
human eye
Apparent
magnitude
Brightness
relative
to Vega
Number of stars
brighter than
apparent magnitude[19]
Yes -1 250% 1
0 100% 4
1 40% 15
2 16% 48
3 6.3% 171
4 2.5% 513
5 1.0% 1 602
6 0.40% 4 800
No 7 0.16% 14 000
8 0.063% 42 000
9 0.025% 121 000
10 0.010% 340 000

Magnitude (astronomy)Edit

Apparent
magnitude
Brightness
relative to
magnitude 0
Example Apparent
magnitude
Brightness
relative to
magnitude 0
Example Apparent
magnitude
Brightness
relative to
magnitude 0
Example
-27 6.3×1010 Sun -7 630 SN 1006 supernova 13 6.3×10-6 3C 273 quasar
-26 2.5×1010 -6 250 International Space Station (max) 14 2.5×10-6 Pluto (max)
-25 1.0×1010 -5 100 Venus (max) 15 1.0×10-6
-24 4.0×109 -4 40 16 4.0×10-7 Charon (max)
-23 1.6×109 -3 16 Jupiter (max) 17 1.6×10-7
-22 6.3×108 -2 6.3 Mercury (max) 18 6.3×10-8
-21 2.5×108 -1 2.5 Sirius 19 2.5×10-8
-20 1.0×108 0 1.0 Vega 20 1.0×10-8
-19 4.0×107 1 0.40 Antares 21 4.0×10-9 Callirrhoe (small satellite of Jupiter)
-18 1.6×107 2 0.16 Polaris 22 1.6×10-9
-17 6.3×106 3 0.063 Andromeda galaxy 23 6.3×10-10
-16 2.5×106 4 0.025 Acubens 24 2.5×10-10
-15 1.0×106 5 0.010 Vesta asteroid (max) 25 1.0×10-10 Fenrir (small satellite of Saturn)
-14 4.0×105 6 4.0×10-3 typical limit of naked eye 26 4.0×10-11
-13 1.6×105 Full moon 7 1.6×10-3 Ceres (max) 27 1.6×10-11 visible light limit of 8m ground-based telescopes
-12 6.3×104 8 6.3×10-4 Neptune (max) 28 6.3×10-12
-11 2.5×104 9 2.5×10-4 29 2.5×10-12
-10 1.0×104 10 1.0×10-4 typical limit of 7x50 binoculars 30 1.0×10-12
-9 4.0×103 Iridium flare 11 4.0×10-5 31 4.0×10-13
-8 1.6×103 12 1.6×10-5 32 1.6×10-13 visible light limit of Hubble Space Telescope

Chroma subsamplingEdit

4:1:1       4:2:0       4:2:2       4:4:4
Y'CrCb                                
                               
= = = =
Y'                                
                               
+ + + +
1 2 3 4  J = 4 1 2 3 4  J = 4 1 2 3 4  J = 4 1 2 3 4  J = 4
(Cr, Cb) 1  a = 1 1 2  a = 2 1 2  a = 2 1 2 3 4  a = 4
1  b = 1      b = 0 1 2  b = 2 1 2 3 4  b = 4
¼ horizontal resolution,
full vertical resolution
½ horizontal resolution,
½ vertical resolution
½ horizontal resolution,
full vertical resolution
full horizontal resolution,
full vertical resolution

Template:DiagnosticTesting_DiagramEdit

True condition
Total population Condition positive Condition negative Prevalence = Σ Condition positive/Σ Total population Accuracy (ACC) = Σ True positive + Σ True negative/Σ Total population
Predicted condition
Predicted condition
positive
True positive False positive,
Type I error
Positive predictive value (PPV), Precision = Σ True positive/Σ Predicted condition positive False discovery rate (FDR) = Σ False positive/Σ Predicted condition positive
Predicted condition
negative
False negative,
Type II error
True negative False omission rate (FOR) = Σ False negative/Σ Predicted condition negative Negative predictive value (NPV) = Σ True negative/Σ Predicted condition negative
True positive rate (TPR), Recall, Sensitivity, probability of detection, Power = Σ True positive/Σ Condition positive False positive rate (FPR), Fall-out, probability of false alarm = Σ False positive/Σ Condition negative Positive likelihood ratio (LR+) = TPR/FPR Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) = LR+/LR− F1 score = 2 · Precision · Recall/Precision + Recall
False negative rate (FNR), Miss rate = Σ False negative/Σ Condition positive Specificity (SPC), Selectivity, True negative rate (TNR) = Σ True negative/Σ Condition negative Negative likelihood ratio (LR−) = FNR/TNR

Template:DiagnosticTesting_ExampleEdit

Patients with bowel cancer
(as confirmed on endoscopy)
Condition positive Condition negative Prevalence
= (TP+FN)/Total_Population
= (20+10)/2030
1.48%
Accuracy (ACC) =
(TP+TN)/Total_Population
= (20+1820)/2030
90.64%
Fecal
occult
blood

screen
test
outcome
Test
outcome
positive
True positive
(TP) = 20
(2030 x 1.48% x 67%)
False positive
(FP) = 180
(2030 x (100 - 1.48%) x (100 - 91%))
Positive predictive value (PPV), Precision
= TP / (TP + FP)
= 20 / (20 + 180)
= 10%
False discovery rate (FDR)
= FP/(TP+FP)
= 180/(20+180)
= 90.0%
Test
outcome
negative
False negative
(FN) = 10
(2030 x 1.48% x (100 - 67%))
True negative
(TN) = 1820
(2030 x (100 -1.48%) x 91%)
False omission rate (FOR)
= FN / (FN + TN)
= 10 / (10 + 1820)
0.55%
Negative predictive value (NPV)
= TN / (FN + TN)
= 1820 / (10 + 1820)
99.45%
TPR, Recall, Sensitivity
= TP / (TP + FN)
= 20 / (20 + 10)
66.7%
False positive rate (FPR),Fall-out, probability of false alarm
= FP/(FP+TN)
= 180/(180+1820)
=9.0%
Positive likelihood ratio (LR+)
= TPR/FPR
= (20/30)/(180/2000)
7.41
Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) = LR+/LR−
20.2
F1 score = 2 · Precision · Recall/Precision + Recall
0.174
False negative rate (FNR), Miss rate
= FN/(TP+FN)
= 10/(20+10)
33.3%
Specificity, Selectivity, True negative rate (TNR)
= TN / (FP + TN)
= 1820 / (180 + 1820)
= 91%
Negative likelihood ratio (LR−)
= FNR/TNR
= (10/30)/(1820/2000)
0.366

Penang Ferry ServiceEdit

Status Configuration Name Year built Deadweight tonnage IMO ship identification number Photograph
Retired Passenger (upper deck)
Vehicle (lower deck)[20]
Pulau Labuan 1971 139 7038408  
In service Passenger (upper deck)
Vehicle (lower deck)
Pulau Rawa 1975 262 7343736  
In service Passenger (upper deck)
Vehicle (lower deck)
Pulau Talang Talang 1975 262 7343748  
In service Passenger (upper deck)
Vehicle (lower deck)
Pulau Undan 1975 262 7343724  
In service Vehicle (both decks) Pulau Rimau 1980 100 7911076  
In service Passenger (upper deck)
Vehicle (lower deck)
Pulau Angsa 1981 100 8010491  
In service Vehicle (both decks) Pulau Kapas 1981 280 8101082  
In service Vehicle (both decks) Pulau Payar 2002 440 9254393  
In service Vehicle (both decks) Pulau Pinang 2002 440 9275244  

Day of Seven BillionEdit

Age
group
Estimated July 2010 population in millions[21]
Africa Asia Europe Latin America
and the
Caribbean
Northern
America
Oceania
0–4 155.3 155.3
 
360.4 360.4
 
39.67 39.67
 
53.83 53.83
 
23.54 23.54
 
3.079 3.079
 
5–9 136.2 136.2
 
354.5 354.5
 
37.01 37.01
 
55.52 55.52
 
22.66 22.66
 
2.875 2.875
 
10–14 120.2 120.2
 
364.8 364.8
 
37.32 37.32
 
55.12 55.12
 
21.72 21.72
 
2.844 2.844
 
15–19 108.1 108.1
 
374.6 374.6
 
42.54 42.54
 
54.11 54.11
 
23.93 23.93
 
2.829 2.829
 
20–24 97.21 97.21
 
379.4 379.4
 
51.28 51.28
 
52.08 52.08
 
24.00 24
 
2.838 2.838
 
25–29 83.89 83.89
 
343.8 343.8
 
53.33 53.33
 
49.47 49.47
 
24.42 24.42
 
2.721 2.721
 
30–34 69.28 69.28
 
310.5 310.5
 
52.96 52.96
 
45.52 45.52
 
22.17 22.17
 
2.497 2.497
 
35–39 55.60 55.6
 
315.4 315.4
 
52.88 52.88
 
41.34 41.34
 
22.71 22.71
 
2.594 2.594
 
40–44 45.15 45.15
 
297.5 297.5
 
53.46 53.46
 
37.64 37.64
 
23.03 23.03
 
2.382 2.382
 
45–49 37.82 37.82
 
248.4 248.4
 
55.15 55.15
 
34.33 34.33
 
25.74 25.74
 
2.362 2.362
 
50–54 31.68 31.68
 
212.2 212.2
 
53.08 53.08
 
28.68 28.68
 
24.91 24.91
 
2.128 2.128
 
55–59 25.68 25.68
 
188.5 188.5
 
48.30 48.3
 
23.72 23.72
 
21.72 21.72
 
1.862 1.862
 
60–64 20.11 20.11
 
135.1 135.1
 
41.80 41.8
 
18.07 18.07
 
18.62 18.62
 
1.676 1.676
 
65–69 14.78 14.78
 
100.0 100
 
31.57 31.57
 
13.88 13.88
 
13.72 13.72
 
1.227 1.227
 
70–74 10.43 10.43
 
78.13 78.13
 
32.85 32.85
 
10.66 10.66
 
10.25 10.25
 
0.939 0.939
 
75–79 6.367 6.367
 
53.71 53.71
 
24.09 24.09
 
7.564 7.564
 
8.223 8.223
 
0.702 0.702
 
80–84 3.100 3.1
 
29.75 29.75
 
17.89 17.89
 
4.870 4.87
 
6.755 6.755
 
0.564 0.564
 
85–89 1.036 1.036
 
12.70 12.7
 
9.446 9.446
 
2.460 2.46
 
4.201 4.201
 
0.318 0.318
 
90–94 0.229 0.229
 
3.882 3.882
 
2.689 2.689
 
0.921 0.921
 
1.714 1.714
 
0.120 0.12
 
95–99 0.030 0.03
 
0.775 0.775
 
0.795 0.795
 
0.253 0.253
 
0.425 0.425
 
0.031 0.031
 
100+ 0.003 0.003
 
0.090 0.09
 
0.089 0.089
 
0.044 0.044
 
0.063 0.063
 
0.004 0.004
 

Subpixel renderingEdit

For example, consider an RGB Stripe Panel:

RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB             WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW         R = red
RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB     is      WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW         G = green
RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB  perceived  WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW  where  B = blue
RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB     as      WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW         W = white
RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB             WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW

Shown below is an example of black and white lines at the Nyquist limit, but at a slanting angle, taking advantage of Subpixel rendering to use a different phase each row:

RGB___RGB___RGB___             WWW___WWW___WWW___         R = red
_GBR___GBR___GBR__     is      _WWW___WWW___WWW__         G = green
__BRG___BRG___BRG_  perceived  __WWW___WWW___WWW_  where  B = blue
___RGB___RGB___RGB     as      ___WWW___WWW___WWW         _ = black
____GBR___GBR___GB             ____WWW___WWW___WW         W = white

Shown below is an example of chromatic aliasing when the traditional whole pixel Nyquist limit is exceeded:

RG__GB__BR__RG__GB             YY__CC__MM__YY__CC         R = red    Y = yellow
RG__GB__BR__RG__GB     is      YY__CC__MM__YY__CC         G = green  C = cyan
RG__GB__BR__RG__GB  perceived  YY__CC__MM__YY__CC  where  B = blue   M = magenta
RG__GB__BR__RG__GB     as      YY__CC__MM__YY__CC         _ = black
RG__GB__BR__RG__GB             YY__CC__MM__YY__CC

Circuit de MonacoEdit

Google Maps with rough circuit

Article translationEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Graham T. Smith (2002). Industrial metrology. Springer. p. 253. ISBN 1852335076. More than one of |isbn13= and |isbn= specified (help)
  2. ^ Geometric altitude vs. temperature, pressure, density, and the speed of sound derived from the 1962 U.S. Standard Atmosphere.
  3. ^ The World Bank - Life expectancy at birth, total (years)
  4. ^ World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision
  5. ^ IMF World Economic Outlook database
  6. ^ Basics of space flight: Interplanetary Trajectories
  7. ^ "SINFONI in the Galactic Center: Young Stars and Infrared Flares in the Central Light-Month" by Eisenhauer et al, The Astrophysical Journal, 628:246-259, 2005
  8. ^ Galal Abada, "2004 On Site Review Report: Petronas Office Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia"
  9. ^ Note: The 2:1 pixel pattern in the near-isometric image allows smoother lines than in the isometric one.
  10. ^ Introduction to Astronomy – Week 4
  11. ^ The Parish Church of St. John The Baptist, Windsor. A History.
  12. ^ Case definition for HUS-cases associated with the outbreak in Germany
  13. ^ Noticia 20minutos.es
  14. ^ La OMS dice que la bacteria letal de Alemania pertenece a una cepa desconocida de 'E. coli'
  15. ^ Infected cucumbers: three suspicious cases in France . lemonde.fr. Retrieved on June 1st, 2011.
  16. ^ Hospitalizan a un hombre en San Sebastián por infección de 'E.coli'
  17. ^ Rorres, Chris. "Tomb of Archimedes: Sources". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
  18. ^ Rorres, Chris. "Tomb of Archimedes: Sources". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
  19. ^ "Magnitude". National Solar Observatory—Sacramento Peak. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2006-08-23.
  20. ^ "Off-limit zone held waiting folk: Captain", New Straits Times, 1 Mar 1989
  21. ^ File 1A: Total population (both sexes combined) by five-year age group, major area, region and country, annually for 1950-2010 (thousands)
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