User:Cmglee/2011
Hello!
My interest in editing Wikipedia is in illustrating articles, so let me know if you wish some article on science, mathematics or technology illustrated.
Here is some of my work to date; click on images for more details:
TemplatesEdit
Template:venn3Edit
{{venn3 caption=Breakdown of British and<br>American [[traffic collision]] causes unit=% labelA=Driver factors labelB=Roadway<br>factors labelC=Vehicle factors countA=57 countB=3 countC=2 countAB=27 countAC=6 countBC=1 countABC=3 }}
Template:bartableEdit
Element  Percent by mass  Atomic percent (calc.)  

Oxygen  65%  25.6%  
Carbon  18%  9.5%  
Hydrogen  10%  63%  
Nitrogen  3%  1.3%  
Calcium  1.5%  0.24%  
Phosphorus  1.2%  0.24%  
Potassium  0.2%  0.03%  
Sulfur  0.2%  0.04%  
Chlorine  0.2%  0.04%  
Sodium  0.1%  0.03%  
Magnesium  0.05%  0.01%  
Iron  3 g in men, 2.3 g in women  
Cobalt, Copper, Zinc, Iodine  < 0.05% each  
Selenium, Fluorine  < 0.01% each 
Template:stereo imageEdit
 
 
 
 
 
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Round Church) and the south end of Round Church Street in Cambridge, England. 
ImagesEdit
Original drawingsEdit
3D renderEdit
Pseudo3D SVGEdit
☎∈ Comparison of parallaxbarrier and lenticular autostereoscopic displays. Note: The figure is not to scale.
☎∈ Golomb rulers in interior design: Example of a conference room with proportions of a Golomb ruler, making it configurable to 10 different sizes.
☎∈ Principle of operation of a pound lock
☎∈ Breakdown of the bundled tube structure of the Willis Tower with simplified floor plans.
☎∈ Comparison of bounding box of various classes of ship sizes with measurements in isometric view.
☎∈ Some 3D shapes in isometric projection. Black labels denote dimensions of the 3D object, while red labels denote dimensions of the 2D projection (drawing).
☎∈ Massing model showing the shape of the Bank of China Tower. The labels correspond to the number of 'X' shapes on each outward facing side.
☎∈ Massing model showing the shape of the top of the Maybank Tower, Kuala Lumpur.
☎∈Trimetric projection of the design of the Time Pyramid (Zeitpyramide) in Wemding, Germany.
☎∈ Visualisation of composition by volume of Earth's atmosphere. Data is from NASA Langley: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/langley/pdf/245893main_MeteorologyTeacherResCh2.r4.pdf .
☎∈ Visualisation of the distribution (by volume) of water on Earth. Each tiny cube (such as the one representing biological water) corresponds to approximately 1000 cubic km of water, with a mass of approximately 1 trillion tonnes (200000 times that of the Great Pyramid of Giza or 5 times that of Lake Kariba, arguably the heaviest manmade object). The entire block comprises 1 million tiny cubes. Data is from http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/waterdistribution.html .
ChartsEdit
☎∈ Timeline of the colleges of the University of Cambridge in the order their students are presented for graduation, compared with some events in British history.
☎∈ Loglin pressuretemperature phase diagram of water. The Roman numerals indicate various ice phases.
☎∈ Comparison of sizes of semiconductor manufacturing process nodes with some microscopic objects and visible light wavelengths. At this scale, the width of a human hair is about 10 times that of the image.^{[1]}
☎∈ Comparison of the 1962 US Standard Atmosphere graph of geometric altitude against air density, pressure, the speed of sound and temperature with approximate altitudes of various objects.^{[2]}
☎∈ Estimated and projected populations of the world and its inhabited continents from 1950 to 2100. The shaded regions correspond to range of projections by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs; for example, it estimates that the world population will reach 8 billion between 2022 and 2035.^{[4]}
☎∈ Proportion of world (countries with data) nominal GDP for the countries with the top 10 highest nominal GDP in 2010, from 1980 to 2010 with IMF projections until 2016. Countries marked with an asterisk are nonG8 countries. Grey lines show actual US dollar values.^{[5]}
☎∈ Plot of Voyager 2's heliocentric velocity against its distance from the sun, illustrating the use of gravity assist to accelerate the spacecraft by Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. To observe Triton, Voyager 2 passed over Neptune's north pole resulting in an acceleration out of the plane of the ecliptic and reduced velocity away from the sun.^{[6]}
☎∈ Inferred orbits of 6 stars around supermassive black hole candidate Sagittarius A* at the Milky Way galactic centre.^{[7]}
☎∈ Plot of signaltonoise ratio of the Wow! signal vs time.
 Camcentrallib hours.png
☎∈ Cambridge Central Library opening hours during Lion Yard library refurbishment.
Other original drawingsEdit
☎∈ Trajectories of projectiles launched at different elevation angles but the same speed of 10 m/s in a vacuum and uniform downward gravity field of 10 m/s^{2}. Points are at 0.05 s intervals and length of their tails is linearly proportional to their speed. t = time from launch, T = time of flight, R = range and H = highest point of trajectory (indicated with arrows).
☎∈ Images of the black letters in an ideal convex lens of focal length f are shown in red. Selected rays are shown for letters E, I and K in blue, green and orange, respectively. Note that E (at 2f) has an equalsize, real and inverted image; I (at f) has its image at infinity; and K (at f/2) has a doublesize, virtual and upright image.
☎∈ Comparison of approximate profiles of some pyramidal or nearpyramidal buildings. Where the base is an oblong, the longer side is shown. Dotted lines indicate original heights, where data is available.
☎∈ Development of the Petronas Towers Tower 1 level 43 floor plan from a Rub el Hizb symbol.^{[8]}
☎∈ Fiveset Venn diagram using congruent ellipses in a radially symmetrical arrangement devised by Branko Grünbaum. Labels have been simplified for greater readability; for example, A denotes A ∩ B^{c} ∩ C^{c} ∩ D^{c} ∩ E^{c} (or A ∩ ~B ∩ ~C ∩ ~D ∩ ~E), while BCE denotes A^{c} ∩ B ∩ C ∩ D^{c} ∩ E (or ~A ∩ B ∩ C ∩ ~D ∩ E).
☎∈ Euler diagram of some types of quadrilaterals. (UK) denotes British English and (US) denotes American English.
☎∈ Euler diagram of types of triangles, assuming isosceles triangles have at least 2 equal sides, implying that equilateral triangles are also isosceles triangles.
 ☎∈
Comparison of a knockout with and without trapping, and overprinting for perfect and imperfect registration. Rows are as follows:Knockout
without trappingKnockout
with trappingOverprinting
1. The cyan (lighter) plate,
2. The magenta (darker) plate,
3. Result with perfect registration (some monitors show slight misalignment), and
4. Result with imperfect registration. ☎∈ Comparison of some paper and photographic paper sizes close to the A4 size.
☎∈ Comparison of some book sizes based on American Library Association.
☎∈ Illustration of 4rail, 3rail and 2rail funicular railway layouts (note the gaps in the rails, and the unconventional wheels in the 2rail layout).
☎∈Principle of operation of a Serrurier truss for a telescope compared to a simple truss. For clarity, only the top and bottom structural elements are shown. Red and green lines denote elements under tension and compression, respectively.
☎∈ Icon for Template:Cemeterystub
☎∈ The tangent and radial trussing of the Mathematical Bridge in Queens' College, Cambridge, with its tangential members highlighted.
☎∈ How Gerrymandering can influence electoral results on a nonproportional system.
Example for a state with 3 equally sized districts, 15 voters and 2 parties: Plum (squares) and Orange (circles).
In (a), creating 3 mixedtype districts yields a 3–0 win to Plum — a disproportional result considering the statewide 9:6 Plum majority.
In (b), Orange wins the urban district while Plum wins the rural districts — the 21 result reflects the statewide vote ratio.
In (c), gerrymandering techniques ensure a 21 win to the statewide minority Orange party.
Processed imagesEdit
SVG with embedded bitmap, designed to be easily translated into different languagesEdit
☎∈ Location of all successful soft landings on the Moon to date. Dates are landing dates in UTC.(Uses embedded bitmaps as icons.)
☎∈ Planets and dwarf planets of the Solar System. Sizes are to scale, but relative distances from the Sun are not. (Uses 4 bitmaps of different shapes and rotated text.)
☎∈ Manhattanhenge map of Manhattan Island, New York City (latitude approximately 40° N) centered on the intersection of Park Avenue and 34th Street, with times and directions of sunsets (solid line) and sunrises (dotted line) in 2011. Times marked with "*" have been adjusted for daylight saving. The purple, pink and green arrows correspond approximately to the summer solstice, equinoxes and winter solstice, respectively.
☎∈ Cities and towns which are near antipodes in equirectangular projection. Blue labels correspond to the cyan areas and brown labels correspond to the yellow areas. Areas where blue and yellow overlap (coloured green) are land antipodes
☎∈ Overview of Deep Impact spacecraft. (Uses white rectangles to blank existing labels.)
☎∈ Illustration of Action Safe and Title Safe areas for 4:3 and 16:9 aspect ratios according to the BBC. (Uses multiple instances of one bitmap.)
☎∈ Orbits and directions of travel of the planets, Pluto, Ceres and Halley's Comet, viewed perpendicular to the ecliptic directly above the Sun. Their positions correspond to their configuration during the 5–6 June 2012 transit of Venus. Constellation names correspond to constellations on the ecliptic in the given directions. In the full SVG image, brighter parts of orbits are nearer to the viewer than the ecliptic and darker parts are farther. Planets' sizes are to scale and distances are roughly to (a different) scale. (Uses strokedashoffset and strokedasharray to shade parts of ellipses.)
Other processed imagesEdit
☎∈ Results of the Malaysian Dewan Rakyat based on the 2008 general election, showing parliamentary constituencies represented by equalarea hexagons with approximate geographic locations.
☎∈ Current composition of the Malaysian Dewan Rakyat with changes since the 2008 general election emphasized for clarity. The parliamentary constituencies are represented by equalarea hexagons, positioned according to approximate geographic locations.
☎∈ Timeline of the history of Malaysia
☎∈ Aerial view of the Fukushima I plant area before the accidents. When this photograph was taken in 1975, Unit 6 was under construction.
☎∈ Locations of large artificial objects on the Moon superimposed on data from the Clementine (spacecraft) mission in [[equirectangular projection.
☎∈ Huntington's map of world civilizations (1996).
☎∈ Mollweide projection map of distance to the nearest coastline (including oceanic islands, but not lakes) with red spots marking the poles of inaccessibility of main land masses, Britain, and the Iberian Peninsula. Thin isolines are 250 km apart; thick lines 1000 km.
☎∈ An Euler diagram of the British Isles.
☎∈ A hybrid image constructed from lowfrequency components of a photograph of Marilyn Monroe (left inset) and highfrequency components of a photograph of Albert Einstein (right inset). The Einstein image is clearer in the full image.
☎∈ The .NET Framework stack.
☎∈ Fitted cumulative lognormal distribution to annually maximum 1day rainfalls.
☎∈ Lenticular lens: Angle within the lens.
☎∈ Lenticular lens: Angle outside the lens.
☎∈ A squircle (blue) compared with a rounded square (red). A squircle is a mathematical curve defined by the equation x^{4}+y^{4}=r^{4}, while a rounded square is four 90° circular arcs of the same radius connected by tangent straight lines. In this construction, the two curves are arranged to coincide at angles which are multiples of 45° (i.e. 0°, 45°, 90°, 135° etc.).
Assorted photographsEdit
United KingdomEdit
☎∈ Cambridge Quayside and Magdalene Bridge viewed from the boardwalk.
☎∈ Some participants of the cardboard boat race on Suicide Sunday 2011 at the University of Cambridge.
☎∈ Front facade of Emmanuel College, Cambridge viewed from Downing Street.
☎∈ The Grand Arcade entrance on St Andrew's Street, Cambridge.
☎∈ The Senate House viewed from the Great St Mary's tower.
☎∈ In the Mathematical Bridge, the straight lines (tangent to the bridge surface) lie outside the curved bridge surface.
☎∈ The Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge, by night.
☎∈ Cambridge skyline viewed from the Castle Mound. The roof in the foreground is part of St Giles church, the tower on the left is part of St John's College chapel, and the long tall building on the right is King's College Chapel.
☎∈ The Orchard Community Centre and houses along Central Avenue in Orchard Park, Cambridge.
☎∈ Orchard Park Community Primary School in Orchard Park, Cambridge.
☎∈ Cambridge Business Park entrance.
☎∈ BBC Cambridgeshire building at Cambridge Business Park.
☎∈ CSR plc Churchill House office at Cambridge Business Park.
☎∈ Red Gate Software headquarters at Cambridge Business Park.
☎∈ Autonomy Corporation headquarters at Cambridge Business Park.
☎∈ Cambridge Regional College main entrance
☎∈ Cambridge Regional College the park building.
☎∈ High dynamic range view from the Leeds Corn Exchange balcony, of the west end of the interior in November 2010
☎∈ The Regency TR1 which used Texas Instruments' NPN transistors was the world's first commerciallyproduced transistor radio.
Continental EuropeEdit
TaiwanEdit
SingaporeEdit
MalaysiaEdit
☎∈ View to the northwest from the Petronas Towers skybridge, including the shadow of Tower 1 and the skybridge, and the Public Bank building.
EasyTimelineEdit
Template:Distance_from_Sun_using_EasyTimelineEdit
☎ ∈ The following chart shows the range of distances of the planets, dwarf planets and Halley's Comet from the Sun.
Template:Arab_Spring_using_EasyTimelineEdit
Timeline of the Arab Spring and its aftermath, along with concurrent events in the region.
Template:Hyperfocal_distance_depth_of_field_using_EasyTimelineEdit
Depths of field of 3 ideal lenses of focal lengths, f_{1}, f_{2} and f_{3}, and fnumbers N_{1}, N_{2} and N_{3} when focused at objects at different distances. H_{1}, H_{2} and H_{3} denote their respective hyperfocal distances (using Definition 1 in that article) with a circle of confusion of 0.03 mm diameter. The darker bars show how that, for fixed subject distance, the depth of field is increased by using a shorter focal length or smaller aperture. The second topmost bar of each set illustrates the configuration for a fixed focus camera with the focus permanently set at the hyperfocal distance to maximise the depth of field. 
Template:Tallest_building_history_using_EasyTimelineEdit
☎ ∈ Timeline of recent buildings that have held the title Tallest building in the world. Heights of buildings are to scale. Note the early buildings that lost the title as their spires collapsed.
HTMLEdit
Chaffing and winnowingEdit
Template:DiagnosticTesting DiagramEdit
Condition (as determined by "Gold standard")  
Condition Positive  Condition Negative  
Test Outcome 
Test Outcome Positive 
True Positive  False Positive (Type I error) 
Positive predictive value = Σ True Positive Σ Test Outcome Positive

Test Outcome Negative 
False Negative (Type II error) 
True Negative  Negative predictive value = Σ True Negative Σ Test Outcome Negative
 
Sensitivity = Σ True Positive Σ Condition Positive

Specificity = Σ True Negative Σ Condition Negative

2011_E._coli_O104:H4_outbreakEdit
Country  Deaths  Confirmed cases  Suspected cases 

Germany  17^{[14]}  450  1 200 
United Kingdom  0  3   
Sweden  1  41   
Denmark  0  14  26 
Netherlands  0  2   
France  0  0  3^{[15]} 
Spain  0  1^{[16]}   
Austria  0     
Norway  0     
Switzerland  0  2   
Finland  0    1 
Poland  0  1   
United States  0  3   
Uniform circular motionEdit
v r

1 m/s 3.6 km/h 2.2 mph 
2 m/s 7.2 km/h 4.5 mph 
5 m/s 18 km/h 11 mph 
10 m/s 36 km/h 22 mph 
20 m/s 72 km/h 45 mph 
50 m/s 180 km/h 110 mph 
100 m/s 360 km/h 220 mph  

Slow walk  Bicycle  City car  Aerobatics  
10 cm 3.9 in 
Laboratory centrifuge 
10 m/s² 1.0 g 
40 m/s² 4.1 g 
250 m/s² 25 g 
1.0 km/s² 100 g 
4.0 km/s² 410 g 
25 km/s² 2500 g 
100 km/s² 10000 g 
20 cm 7.9 in 
5.0 m/s² 0.51 g 
20 m/s² 2.0 g 
130 m/s² 13 g 
500 m/s² 51 g 
2.0 km/s² 200 g 
13 km/s² 1300 g 
50 km/s² 5100 g  
50 cm 1.6 ft 
2.0 m/s² 0.20 g 
8.0 m/s² 0.82 g 
50 m/s² 5.1 g 
200 m/s² 20 g 
800 m/s² 82 g 
5.0 km/s² 510 g 
20 km/s² 2000 g  
1 m 3.3 ft 
Playground carousel 
1.0 m/s² 0.10 g 
4.0 m/s² 0.41 g 
25 m/s² 2.5 g 
100 m/s² 10 g 
400 m/s² 41 g 
2.5 km/s² 250 g 
10 km/s² 1000 g 
2 m 6.6 ft 
500 mm/s² 0.051 g 
2.0 m/s² 0.20 g 
13 m/s² 1.3 g 
50 m/s² 5.1 g 
200 m/s² 20 g 
1.3 km/s² 130 g 
5.0 km/s² 510 g  
5 m 16 ft 
200 mm/s² 0.020 g 
800 mm/s² 0.082 g 
5.0 m/s² 0.51 g 
20 m/s² 2.0 g 
80 m/s² 8.2 g 
500 m/s² 51 g 
2.0 km/s² 200 g  
10 m 33 ft 
Rollercoaster vertical loop 
100 mm/s² 0.010 g 
400 mm/s² 0.041 g 
2.5 m/s² 0.25 g 
10 m/s² 1.0 g 
40 m/s² 4.1 g 
250 m/s² 25 g 
1.0 km/s² 100 g 
20 m 66 ft 
50 mm/s² 0.0051 g 
200 mm/s² 0.020 g 
1.3 m/s² 0.13 g 
5.0 m/s² 0.51 g 
20 m/s² 2 g 
130 m/s² 13 g 
500 m/s² 51 g  
50 m 160 ft 
20 mm/s² 0.0020 g 
80 mm/s² 0.0082 g 
500 mm/s² 0.051 g 
2.0 m/s² 0.20 g 
8.0 m/s² 0.82 g 
50 m/s² 5.1 g 
200 m/s² 20 g  
100 m 330 ft 
Freeway onramp 
10 mm/s² 0.0010 g 
40 mm/s² 0.0041 g 
250 mm/s² 0.025 g 
1.0 m/s² 0.10 g 
4.0 m/s² 0.41 g 
25 m/s² 2.5 g 
100 m/s² 10 g 
200 m 660 ft 
5.0 mm/s² 0.00051 g 
20 mm/s² 0.0020 g 
130 m/s² 0.013 g 
500 mm/s² 0.051 g 
2.0 m/s² 0.20 g 
13 m/s² 1.3 g 
50 m/s² 5.1 g  
500 m 1600 ft 
2.0 mm/s² 0.00020 g 
8.0 mm/s² 0.00082 g 
50 mm/s² 0.0051 g 
200 mm/s² 0.020 g 
800 mm/s² 0.082 g 
5.0 m/s² 0.51 g 
20 m/s² 2.0 g  
1 km 3300 ft 
Highspeed railway 
1.0 mm/s² 0.00010 g 
4.0 mm/s² 0.00041 g 
25 mm/s² 0.0025 g 
100 mm/s² 0.010 g 
400 mm/s² 0.041 g 
2.5 m/s² 0.25 g 
10 m/s² 1.0 g 
I'm My Own GrandpaEdit
Narrator — Wife  
Father — Stepdaughter  
Narrator 
Family tree showing how
the narrator of the song
is his own grandfather.
Mode (statistics)Edit
When X has standard deviation σ = 0.25, the distribution of Y is weakly skewed. Using formulas for the lognormal distribution, we find:
Indeed, the median is about one third on the way from mean to mode.
When X has a larger standard deviation, σ = 1, the distribution of Y is strongly skewed. Now
Here, Pearson's rule of thumb fails.
Common logarithmEdit
The following example uses the bar notation to calculate 0.012 × 0.85 = 0.0102:
* This step makes the mantissa between 0 and 1, so that its antilog (10^{mantissa}) can be looked up.
Psychological pricingEdit
Ending  Percentage  

0  7.5  
1  0.3  
2  0.3  
3  0.8  
4  0.3  
5  28.6  
6  0.3  
7  0.4  
8  1.0  
9  60.7 
Ratio of volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and heightEdit
The above formulas can be used to show that the volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3, as follows.
Let the radius be r and the height be h (which is 2r for the sphere).
The discovery of the 2 : 3 ratio of the volumes of the sphere and cylinder is credited to Archimedes.^{[17]}
Ratio of surface areas of a sphere and cylinder of the same radius and heightEdit
The above formulas can be used to show that the volumes of a sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height are in the ratio 2 : 3, as follows.
Let the radius be r and the height be h (which is 2r for the sphere).
The discovery of this ratio is credited to Archimedes.^{[18]}
Solar eclipseEdit
Moon  Sun  

At perigee (nearest) 
At apogee (farthest) 
At perihelion (nearest) 
At aphelion (farthest)  
Mean radius, r  1,737.10 kilometres (1,079.38 miles) 
696,000 kilometres (432,000 miles)  
Distance, d  363,104 km (225,622 mi) 
405,696 km (252,088 mi) 
147,098,070 km (91,402,500 mi) 
152,097,700 km (94,509,100 mi) 
Angular diameter, 2×arctan(r / d) 
32' 54" (0.5482°) 
29' 26" (0.4907°) 
32' 32" (0.5422°) 
31' 28" (0.5244°) 
Apparent size to scale 

Rank in descending order 
1st  4th  2nd  3rd 
Angular diameterEdit
Celestial body  Angular diameter  Relative size (10 pixels per arcsecond) 

Sun  31.6′ – 32.7′  28.7 – 29.7 times the maximum value for Venus (orange bar below) 
Moon  29.3′ – 34.1′  26.6 – 31.0 times the maximum value for Venus (orange bar below) 
Venus  9.565″ – 66.012″  
Jupiter  29.800″ – 50.115″  
Saturn  14.991″ – 20.790″  
Mars  3.492″ – 25.113″  
Mercury  4.535″ – 13.019″  
Uranus  3.340″ – 4.084″  
Neptune  2.179″ – 2.373″  
Ceres  0.330″ – 0.840″  
Vesta  0.20" – 0.64"  
Pluto  0.063″ – 0.115″  
R Doradus  0.052″ – 0.062″  
Betelgeuse  0.049″ – 0.060″  
Eris  0.034" – 0.089″  
Alphard  0.00909″  
Alpha Centauri A  0.007″  
Canopus  0.006″  
Sirius  0.005936″  
Altair  0.003″  
Deneb  0.002″  
Proxima Centauri  0.001″ 
Apparent magnitudeEdit
Visible to typical human eye 
Apparent magnitude 
Brightness relative to Vega 
Number of stars brighter than apparent magnitude^{[19]} 

Yes  1  250%  1 
0  100%  4  
1  40%  15  
2  16%  48  
3  6.3%  171  
4  2.5%  513  
5  1.0%  1 602  
6  0.40%  4 800  
No  7  0.16%  14 000 
8  0.063%  42 000  
9  0.025%  121 000  
10  0.010%  340 000 
Magnitude (astronomy)Edit
Apparent magnitude 
Brightness relative to magnitude 0 
Example  Apparent magnitude 
Brightness relative to magnitude 0 
Example  Apparent magnitude 
Brightness relative to magnitude 0 
Example  

27  6.3×10^{10}  Sun  7  630  SN 1006 supernova  13  6.3×10^{6}  3C 273 quasar  
26  2.5×10^{10}  6  250  International Space Station (max)  14  2.5×10^{6}  Pluto (max)  
25  1.0×10^{10}  5  100  Venus (max)  15  1.0×10^{6}  
24  4.0×10^{9}  4  40  16  4.0×10^{7}  Charon (max)  
23  1.6×10^{9}  3  16  Jupiter (max)  17  1.6×10^{7}  
22  6.3×10^{8}  2  6.3  Mercury (max)  18  6.3×10^{8}  
21  2.5×10^{8}  1  2.5  Sirius  19  2.5×10^{8}  
20  1.0×10^{8}  0  1.0  Vega  20  1.0×10^{8}  
19  4.0×10^{7}  1  0.40  Antares  21  4.0×10^{9}  Callirrhoe (small satellite of Jupiter)  
18  1.6×10^{7}  2  0.16  Polaris  22  1.6×10^{9}  
17  6.3×10^{6}  3  0.063  Andromeda galaxy  23  6.3×10^{10}  
16  2.5×10^{6}  4  0.025  Acubens  24  2.5×10^{10}  
15  1.0×10^{6}  5  0.010  Vesta asteroid (max)  25  1.0×10^{10}  Fenrir (small satellite of Saturn)  
14  4.0×10^{5}  6  4.0×10^{3}  typical limit of naked eye  26  4.0×10^{11}  
13  1.6×10^{5}  Full moon  7  1.6×10^{3}  Ceres (max)  27  1.6×10^{11}  visible light limit of 8m groundbased telescopes  
12  6.3×10^{4}  8  6.3×10^{4}  Neptune (max)  28  6.3×10^{12}  
11  2.5×10^{4}  9  2.5×10^{4}  29  2.5×10^{12}  
10  1.0×10^{4}  10  1.0×10^{4}  typical limit of 7x50 binoculars  30  1.0×10^{12}  
9  4.0×10^{3}  Iridium flare  11  4.0×10^{5}  31  4.0×10^{13}  
8  1.6×10^{3}  12  1.6×10^{5}  32  1.6×10^{13}  visible light limit of Hubble Space Telescope 
Chroma subsamplingEdit
4:1:1  4:2:0  4:2:2  4:4:4  
Y'CrCb  
=  =  =  =  
Y'  
+  +  +  +  
1  2  3  4  J = 4  1  2  3  4  J = 4  1  2  3  4  J = 4  1  2  3  4  J = 4  
(Cr, Cb)  1  a = 1  1  2  a = 2  1  2  a = 2  1  2  3  4  a = 4  
1  b = 1  b = 0  1  2  b = 2  1  2  3  4  b = 4  
¼ horizontal resolution, full vertical resolution 
½ horizontal resolution, ½ vertical resolution 
½ horizontal resolution, full vertical resolution 
full horizontal resolution, full vertical resolution 
Template:DiagnosticTesting_DiagramEdit
True condition  
Total population  Condition positive  Condition negative  Prevalence = Σ Condition positive/Σ Total population  Accuracy (ACC) = Σ True positive + Σ True negative/Σ Total population  
Predicted condition positive 
True positive  False positive, Type I error 
Positive predictive value (PPV), Precision = Σ True positive/Σ Predicted condition positive  False discovery rate (FDR) = Σ False positive/Σ Predicted condition positive  
Predicted condition negative 
False negative, Type II error 
True negative  False omission rate (FOR) = Σ False negative/Σ Predicted condition negative  Negative predictive value (NPV) = Σ True negative/Σ Predicted condition negative  
True positive rate (TPR), Recall, Sensitivity, probability of detection, Power = Σ True positive/Σ Condition positive  False positive rate (FPR), Fallout, probability of false alarm = Σ False positive/Σ Condition negative  Positive likelihood ratio (LR+) = TPR/FPR  Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) = LR+/LR−  F_{1} score = 2 · Precision · Recall/Precision + Recall  
False negative rate (FNR), Miss rate = Σ False negative/Σ Condition positive  Specificity (SPC), Selectivity, True negative rate (TNR) = Σ True negative/Σ Condition negative  Negative likelihood ratio (LR−) = FNR/TNR 
Template:DiagnosticTesting_ExampleEdit
Patients with bowel cancer (as confirmed on endoscopy)  
Condition positive  Condition negative  Prevalence = (TP+FN)/Total_Population
= (20+10)/2030 ≈1.48% 
Accuracy (ACC) = (TP+TN)/Total_Population
= (20+1820)/2030 ≈90.64%  
Fecal occult blood screen test outcome 
Test outcome positive 
True positive (TP) = 20 (2030 x 1.48% x 67%) 
False positive (FP) = 180 (2030 x (100  1.48%) x (100  91%)) 
Positive predictive value (PPV), Precision = TP / (TP + FP)
= 20 / (20 + 180) = 10% 
False discovery rate (FDR) = FP/(TP+FP)
= 180/(20+180) = 90.0%  
Test outcome negative 
False negative (FN) = 10 (2030 x 1.48% x (100  67%)) 
True negative (TN) = 1820 (2030 x (100 1.48%) x 91%) 
False omission rate (FOR) = FN / (FN + TN)
= 10 / (10 + 1820) ≈ 0.55% 
Negative predictive value (NPV) = TN / (FN + TN)
= 1820 / (10 + 1820) ≈ 99.45%  
TPR, Recall, Sensitivity = TP / (TP + FN)
= 20 / (20 + 10) ≈ 66.7% 
False positive rate (FPR),Fallout, probability of false alarm = FP/(FP+TN)
= 180/(180+1820) =9.0% 
Positive likelihood ratio (LR+) = TPR/FPR
= (20/30)/(180/2000) ≈7.41 
Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) = LR+/LR− ≈20.2 
F_{1} score = 2 · Precision · Recall/Precision + Recall ≈0.174  
False negative rate (FNR), Miss rate = FN/(TP+FN)
= 10/(20+10) ≈ 33.3% 
Specificity, Selectivity, True negative rate (TNR) = TN / (FP + TN)
= 1820 / (180 + 1820) = 91% 
Negative likelihood ratio (LR−) = FNR/TNR
= (10/30)/(1820/2000) ≈0.366 
Penang Ferry ServiceEdit
Status  Configuration  Name  Year built  Deadweight tonnage  IMO ship identification number  Photograph 

Retired  Passenger (upper deck) Vehicle (lower deck)^{[20]} 
Pulau Labuan  1971  139  7038408  
In service  Passenger (upper deck) Vehicle (lower deck) 
Pulau Rawa  1975  262  7343736  
In service  Passenger (upper deck) Vehicle (lower deck) 
Pulau Talang Talang  1975  262  7343748  
In service  Passenger (upper deck) Vehicle (lower deck) 
Pulau Undan  1975  262  7343724  
In service  Vehicle (both decks)  Pulau Rimau  1980  100  7911076  
In service  Passenger (upper deck) Vehicle (lower deck) 
Pulau Angsa  1981  100  8010491  
In service  Vehicle (both decks)  Pulau Kapas  1981  280  8101082  
In service  Vehicle (both decks)  Pulau Payar  2002  440  9254393  
In service  Vehicle (both decks)  Pulau Pinang  2002  440  9275244 
Day of Seven BillionEdit
Age group 
Estimated July 2010 population in millions^{[21]}  

Africa  Asia  Europe  Latin America and the Caribbean 
Northern America 
Oceania  
0–4  155.3  360.4  39.67  53.83  23.54  3.079  
5–9  136.2  354.5  37.01  55.52  22.66  2.875  
10–14  120.2  364.8  37.32  55.12  21.72  2.844  
15–19  108.1  374.6  42.54  54.11  23.93  2.829  
20–24  97.21  379.4  51.28  52.08  24.00  2.838  
25–29  83.89  343.8  53.33  49.47  24.42  2.721  
30–34  69.28  310.5  52.96  45.52  22.17  2.497  
35–39  55.60  315.4  52.88  41.34  22.71  2.594  
40–44  45.15  297.5  53.46  37.64  23.03  2.382  
45–49  37.82  248.4  55.15  34.33  25.74  2.362  
50–54  31.68  212.2  53.08  28.68  24.91  2.128  
55–59  25.68  188.5  48.30  23.72  21.72  1.862  
60–64  20.11  135.1  41.80  18.07  18.62  1.676  
65–69  14.78  100.0  31.57  13.88  13.72  1.227  
70–74  10.43  78.13  32.85  10.66  10.25  0.939  
75–79  6.367  53.71  24.09  7.564  8.223  0.702  
80–84  3.100  29.75  17.89  4.870  6.755  0.564  
85–89  1.036  12.70  9.446  2.460  4.201  0.318  
90–94  0.229  3.882  2.689  0.921  1.714  0.120  
95–99  0.030  0.775  0.795  0.253  0.425  0.031  
100+  0.003  0.090  0.089  0.044  0.063  0.004 
Subpixel renderingEdit
For example, consider an RGB Stripe Panel:
RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW R = red RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB is WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW G = green RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB perceived WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW where B = blue RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB as WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW W = white RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
Shown below is an example of black and white lines at the Nyquist limit, but at a slanting angle, taking advantage of Subpixel rendering to use a different phase each row:
RGB___RGB___RGB___ WWW___WWW___WWW___ R = red _GBR___GBR___GBR__ is _WWW___WWW___WWW__ G = green __BRG___BRG___BRG_ perceived __WWW___WWW___WWW_ where B = blue ___RGB___RGB___RGB as ___WWW___WWW___WWW _ = black ____GBR___GBR___GB ____WWW___WWW___WW W = white
Shown below is an example of chromatic aliasing when the traditional whole pixel Nyquist limit is exceeded:
RG__GB__BR__RG__GB YY__CC__MM__YY__CC R = red Y = yellow RG__GB__BR__RG__GB is YY__CC__MM__YY__CC G = green C = cyan RG__GB__BR__RG__GB perceived YY__CC__MM__YY__CC where B = blue M = magenta RG__GB__BR__RG__GB as YY__CC__MM__YY__CC _ = black RG__GB__BR__RG__GB YY__CC__MM__YY__CC
Circuit de MonacoEdit
Article translationEdit
ReferencesEdit
 ^ Graham T. Smith (2002). Industrial metrology. Springer. p. 253. ISBN 1852335076. More than one of
isbn13=
andisbn=
specified (help)  ^ Geometric altitude vs. temperature, pressure, density, and the speed of sound derived from the 1962 U.S. Standard Atmosphere.
 ^ The World Bank  Life expectancy at birth, total (years)
 ^ World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision
 ^ IMF World Economic Outlook database
 ^ Basics of space flight: Interplanetary Trajectories
 ^ "SINFONI in the Galactic Center: Young Stars and Infrared Flares in the Central LightMonth" by Eisenhauer et al, The Astrophysical Journal, 628:246259, 2005
 ^ Galal Abada, "2004 On Site Review Report: Petronas Office Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia"
 ^ Note: The 2:1 pixel pattern in the nearisometric image allows smoother lines than in the isometric one.
 ^ Introduction to Astronomy – Week 4
 ^ The Parish Church of St. John The Baptist, Windsor. A History.
 ^ Case definition for HUScases associated with the outbreak in Germany
 ^ Noticia 20minutos.es
 ^ La OMS dice que la bacteria letal de Alemania pertenece a una cepa desconocida de 'E. coli'
 ^ Infected cucumbers: three suspicious cases in France . lemonde.fr. Retrieved on June 1st, 2011.
 ^ Hospitalizan a un hombre en San Sebastián por infección de 'E.coli'
 ^ Rorres, Chris. "Tomb of Archimedes: Sources". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Retrieved 20070102.
 ^ Rorres, Chris. "Tomb of Archimedes: Sources". Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Retrieved 20070102.
 ^ "Magnitude". National Solar Observatory—Sacramento Peak. Archived from the original on 20080206. Retrieved 20060823.
 ^ "Offlimit zone held waiting folk: Captain", New Straits Times, 1 Mar 1989
 ^ File 1A: Total population (both sexes combined) by fiveyear age group, major area, region and country, annually for 19502010 (thousands)
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