United States Army Adjutant General's Corps

The Adjutant General's Corps, formerly the Adjutant General's Department, is a branch of the United States Army first established in 1775. This branch is responsible for providing personnel service support by manning the force, providing human resources services, coordinating personnel support, Army band operations, and recruiting and retention. The objective of the Adjutant General Corps is to "maximize operational effectiveness of the total force by anticipating, manning, and sustaining military operations. HR support operations accomplish this by building, generating, and sustaining the force providing combatant commanders the required forces for missions and supporting leaders and Soldiers at all levels." [1]

Adjutant General's Corps
AdjGenBC.svg
branch insignia
Active16 June 1775
Country United States
BranchU.S. Army
TypeAdjutant General
RolePersonnel
Home stationFort Jackson, South Carolina
Motto(s)"Defend and Serve"
Branch colorDark Blue and Scarlet piping SCARBLU.png

HistoryEdit

The Adjutant General's Corps dates back to the formation of the U.S. Army. Horatio Gates, a former British Army officer, is honored as the father of the Adjutant General's Corps. On 16 June 1775, the Continental Congress appointed him as the first Adjutant General to George Washington with the commission of a brigadier general. Historically, he was the second officer to receive a commission in the Continental Army, preceded only by George Washington. With that appointment, the second oldest existing branch of the Army was born.

General Gates' primary duty was to serve as key advisor and principal assistant to General Washington. Through his skill and ability, he organized the state militias into what became the Continental Army. Horatio Gates proved himself an able assistant as well as a competent field commander. Under his leadership, the Continental Army won the Battle of Saratoga – considered by many to be the turning point of the Revolutionary War. Following this important strategic victory over the British, the Continental Congress awarded what was then our nation's highest honor, the congressional gold medal. The use of the Horatio Gates bronze and gold medals, which recognize superior achievement and service to the Regiment, dates from this important event.[citation needed]

Adjutant General Corps officers served in the War of 1812. Two men in particular who served as the Adjutant General during this period rose to prominence. General Alexander Macomb gained fame by repulsing the British in the Battle of Plattsburgh, and later becoming the Commanding General of the Army. The other, Brigadier General Zebulon Pike, the famous explorer, died in battle while leading the attack on York, Canada.[2]

With the appointment of Brevet Brigadier General Roger Jones in 1825, the office grew in importance. During his tenure, General Jones molded the office of the Adjutant General into the central bureau of the War Department. Adjutants General became the only officers invested with the authority to speak and sign official correspondence "for the commander".

Recognizing this, the Army began appointing West Point graduates almost exclusively as Adjutants General from 1839 through the early 1900s. The first two graduates so appointed, Samuel Cooper and Lorenzo Thomas, served with distinction as Adjutants General during the Civil War. Cooper served the Confederacy, while Thomas served the Union.

In 1861, two assistant Adjutants General, Major McDowell and Captain Franklin, drew up the plans to organize the more than 500,000 men who volunteered to fight for the Union. Their efforts, and others like them on both sides, built the massive armies of our Civil War years.

Following the Civil War, Brigadier General Edward D. Townsend took on the mission of compiling all the records of the war, both North and South. The Adjutant General's Department's "War of the Rebellion: Official Records" became an invaluable contribution to American military history. The Department also discharged more than 800,000 men and enlisted 36,000 new recruits for the post Civil War Regular Army.[citation needed]

On 14 December 1872, the Adjutant General's Department adopted the old topographic engineer shield as its own branch insignia. The shield symbolized the Adjutant General's role of speaking "for the commander". Thirteen embossed stars replaced the "T.E." on the upper shield, creating the crest worn by all Adjutant General's Corps officers of today.

By the onset of the Spanish–American War in 1898, the Adjutant General's Office had evolved as the central coordinating bureau in the Army (continuing the legacy it developed during the Civil War). Major General William Harding Carter, under the direction of visionary Secretary of War Elihu Root, continued modernization efforts by implementing the general staff concept based upon European models. The Adjutant General's Department and the newly organized general staff evolved over the years as some functions were transferred and others modified. Several functions, formally part of the Adjutant General's Office, now evolved into independent staff agencies after World War I. The Inspector General, the Provost Marshal, the Assistant Chief for Intelligence, and the Chief of Military History all owe their beginnings to The Adjutant's General Office.

During World War II, more than 15,000 officers, soldiers, and civilians served in the Office of the Adjutant General. By the end of the war, the Adjutant General's Corps processed more than six million soldiers back into civilian life. In what has been described as one of the most successful administrative tasks ever carried out, the AG Corps processed nearly one-half million discharges a month in accomplishing this difficult mission.

Since World War II, the Adjutant General's Corps has been combat tested on several far-flung battlefields such as Korea, Vietnam, Grenada, Panama, and, most recently, in the Persian Gulf War (Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm). AG soldiers mobilized 139,207 reserve component soldiers (equating to 1,045 Reserve and National Guard units of all types), recalled 1,386 retirees to active duty, deployed 1,600 Army civilians to Southwest Asia, processed over 10,000 individual and unit replacements, and delivered more than 27,000 tons of mail to deployed Army forces.

Personnel Services Delivery Redesign[3]Edit

The onset of the Global War on Terror shifted the paradigm to smaller scale engagements using asymmetric means and methods to attrite our forces, and our will, over longer duration conflicts. These new threats and perceived changes in the character of war drove the shift to “modularity” and to brigade combat teams (BCTs) vice Divisions as the combined arms building blocks. Before 2006, Human Resources (HR) operations was conducted primarily by Personnel Detachments, Personnel Service Battalions (PSBs) and Personnel Groups under Personnel Commands (PERSCOMs) that coordination with G1s at echelon. Replacement Battalions and Companies provided critical replacement management and oversight, as well as care and feeding, to individual replacements in addition to operating CONUS replacement centers if/when mobilized. Human Resources support to Divisional maneuver brigades was achieved through habitual relationships with supporting PSBs and subordinate detachments.

Execution of the modular force concept divested the division structure of its organic or assigned functional battalions and the corps of its separate brigades. The Army used these reductions as the bill payers to increase the organic capability of modular brigades.

The Army HR community’s response to this transformation was Personnel Services Delivery Redesign. Personnel Detachments, Personnel Service Battalions, Personnel Groups, Personnel Commands, and Replacement Battalions/Companies were deactivated as part of PSDR as HR structure focused on empowering brigade and battalion commanders, through more robust S1 sections, with organic assets and systems to provide internal HR support over-watched by Division G1s. Remaining HR force structure (SRC 12) was designed to be modular and focused on providing HR planning, coordination, and integration within sustainment operations to provide casualty liaison, personnel accountability, and postal support only required during deployed operations: the Human Resources Sustainment Center at the Theater Sustainment Command; Human Resources Operations Branches within the Expeditionary Sustainment Command and Sustainment Brigade; Human Resources Company providing mission command for multifunction HR and Postal platoons; Theater Gateway Personnel Accountability Team at the APOD/SPOD; and Military Mail Terminal at the APOD/SPOD.

Branch insigniaEdit

A silver metal and enamel shield 1 inch in height on which are thirteen vertical stripes, 7 silver and 6 red; on a blue chief 1 large and 12 small silver stars. The basic design—the shield from the Coat of Arms of the United States—was adopted in 1872 as a solid shield of silver, bearing thirteen stars. In 1924, this design was authorized to be made in gold metal with the colors red, white, and blue in enamel. In December 1964, the insignia was changed to silver base metal with silver stars and silver and red enamel stripes. Branch Plaque The plaque design has the branch insignia in proper colors on a white background and the branch designation in silver letters. The rim is gold.

  • Regimental insignia

A silver color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 inches in height consisting of a shield blazoned: Azure (dark blue) within a border Gules, an inescutcheon paly of thirteen Argent and Gules, on a chief Azure a mullet Argent between a pattern of twelve of the like (as on The Adjutant General's insignia of branch), and enclosed in base by two laurel branches Or. Attached above the shield a silver scroll inscribed with the numerals "1775" in red and attached below the shield a silver triparted scroll inscribed "DEFEND AND SERVE" in dark blue. The Regimental Insignia was approved on 23 December 1986.

  • Regimental coat of arms

The coat of arms appears on the breast of a displayed eagle on the regimental flag. The coat of arms is: Azure (dark blue) within a bordure per bordure Argent and Gules, an inescutcheon paly of thirteen Argent and Gules; on a chief Azure a mullet Argent between a pattern of twelve of the like (as on The Adjutant General's Corps insignia of branch), all within a bordure Argent and enclosed in base by two laurel leaves Or. Displayed above the eagle's head is the crest (On a wreath of the colors Argent and Azure the numerals "1775" Gules.)

  • Symbolism of regimental insignia

Dark blue and scarlet are branch colors of The Adjutant General's Corps. The inner white border signifies unity and the good conscience of those who have done their duty. The inner red, white and blue shield is the insignia of The Adjutant General's Corps and the gold laurel wreath around its base stands for excellence in accomplishing the mission. The "1775" in the crest is the year The Adjutant General's Corps was created. The color red symbolizes valor and the blood shed in our war for independence.

  • Branch colors

Dark blue piped with Scarlet. Dark Blue - 65012 cloth; 67126 yarn; PMS 539. Scarlet - 65006 cloth; 67111 yarn; PMS 200.

The pompons on the Adjutant Generals' caps were topped with white in 1851. The facings were listed in the specification for the Adjutant General's uniform in September 1915 as dark blue. In Circular number 70 dated 28 October 1936, the Adjutant General's Corps and the National Guard Bureau exchanged colors and the present colors were established for the Adjutant General's Corps. The blue used in the branch insignia is ultramarine blue rather than the branch color.

  • Birthday

16 June 1775. The post of Adjutant General was established 16 June 1775, and has been continuously in operation since that time. The Adjutant General's Department, by that name, was established by the act of 3 March 1813 and was redesignated The Adjutant General's Corps in 1950.[4]

Core CompetenciesEdit

Man the Force

  • Personnel Readiness Management (PRM)
  • Personnel Accountability (PA)
  • Strength Reporting (SR)
  • Retention Operations
  • Personnel Information Management (PIM)

Provide HR Services

  • Essential Personnel Services (EPS)
  • Postal Operations
  • Casualty Operations

Coordinate Personnel Support

  • Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Operations
  • Command Interest Programs
  • Army Band Operations

Conduct HR Planning and Operations

  • HR Planning and Operations
  • Operate HR Mission Command Nodes

OrganizationEdit

The United States Army Adjutant General School is currently at Fort Jackson.

G1/AG and S1 OperationsEdit

The function of the Battalion/Brigade/Division/Corps S1/J1/G1 section is to plan, provide, and coordinate the delivery of HR support, services, or information to all assigned and attached personnel within the unit/command. The Officer in Charge is the principal staff advisor to the Commander for all matters concerning HR support.[1]

Theater-Level HR Force Structure (SRC 12)Edit

Human Resources Sustainment Center (HRSC)Edit

A multi-functional, modular HR organization (staff element), and theater-level center assigned to a Theater Sustainment Command that integrates and executes PA, casualty, and postal functions throughout the theater and as defined by the policies and priorities established by the ASCC G-1/AG. The HRSC also provides theater-wide technical guidance and training assistance for personnel, casualty liaison, and postal functions performed by the Theater Gateway Personnel Accountability Team, Military Mail Team, HR company, and the HROB in the Sustainment brigade and ESC.[1]

Human Resources Operations Branch (HROB)Edit

The HROB is a subordinate branch of the SPO within the Sustainment brigade and Expeditionary Sustainment Command. The branch is responsible for the planning, coordinating, integrating, and synchronizing and allocation of PA, casualty, and postal operations missions and HR assets within the sustainment brigade and ESC area of operations.[1]

Military Mail Terminal (MMT)Edit

The MMT Team provides postal support to an area of operations/theater by establishing an MMT which coordinates, receives, and processes pro-grade mail, and dispatches retro-grade mail to destinations worldwide. It is initially employed in the theater opening mission as an element of an sustainment brigade with a theater opening mission to establish the joint military mail terminal (JMMT) or MMT.[1]

Theater Gateway - Personnel Accountability Team (TG PAT)Edit

The TG PAT provides personnel accountability support to the theater of operations by coordinating and providing personnel accountability operations and database inputs as personnel enter, transit, and depart the theater at the inter-theater APOD and executes tasks supporting the PA task. The TG PAT operates as an element of the inter-theater APOD performing PA tasks and associated supporting tasks under the control of the sustainment organization responsible for the operation of the inter-theater APOD, normally a CSSB.[1]

Personnel (Human Resources) CompanyEdit

The Human Resources Company HQs provides mission command and planning, logistics and maintenance support, and technical support to all assigned or attached Human Resources and Postal platoons. The HR Company HQs delivers HR area support for casualty, personnel accountability, and postal operations in the deployed area of operations. It is organized for a Casualty liaison team, personnel accountability, postal, and/or combined mission by task-organizing the company HQs with HR and/or Postal Platoons.


Human Resources Platoon are multi functional and perform both personnel accountability and causality liaison team missions. Postal platoons provide postal support either as part of a military mail terminal or to an assigned area.[1]

PublicationsEdit

The Adjutant General Corps is the proponent for the following Army publications:

FM 1-0 Human Resources Support

ATP 1-0.1 G1/AG and S1 Operations

ATP 1-0.2 Theater Human Resources Support

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "FM 1-0 Human Resources Support" (PDF). US Department of the Army. April 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2020.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ Peppiatt, Liam. "Chapter 31B: Fort York". Robertson's Landmarks of Toronto.
  3. ^ HUMAN RESOURCES (HR) OPTIMIZATION OPERATIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CONCEPT PAPER 4 December 2019
  4. ^ The Institute of Heraldry

External linksEdit