List of ambassadors of the United States to Spain

  (Redirected from United States Ambassador to Spain)

This is a list of United States Ambassadors to Spain from 1779 to the present day.

Ambassador of the United States of America to Spain
Embajador de los Estados Unidos de America en España
U.S. Department of State official seal.svg
Seal of the United States Department of State
Duke Buchan.jpg
Incumbent
Duke Buchan

since January 18, 2018
NominatorThe President of the United States
AppointerThe President
with Senate advice and consent
Inaugural holderJohn Jay
as Minister Plenipotentiary
FormationSeptember 29, 1779
WebsiteU.S. Embassy - Madrid

AmbassadorsEdit

U.S. diplomatic terms


Career FSO
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.

Political appointee
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).

Appointed
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate to remain in office.

Presented credentials
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.

Terminated mission
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.

Chargé d'affaires
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country.

Ad interim
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime".
Representative Appointment date Title Presentation
of Credentials
Termination
of Mission
John Jay September 29, 1779 Minister Plenipotentiary N/A[1] ~May 20, 1782
William Carmichael N/A Chargé d'Affaires February 20, 1783[2] Presented recall September 5, 1794
William Short May 28, 1794 Minister Resident September 7, 1794 Left post November 1, 1795
David Humphreys May 20, 1796 Minister Plenipotentiary September 10, 1797 Probably presented recall soon after December 28, 1801
Charles Pinckney June 6, 1801 Minister Plenipotentiary January–March 1802[3] Presented recall October 25, 1804
James Bowdoin III November 22, 1804 [4] [4] [4]
George W. Erving N/A Chargé d'Affaires ad interim October 1805 February 1810
George W. Erving August 10, 1814 Minister Plenipotentiary August 24, 1816[5] Left post May 15, 1819
John Forsyth February 16, 1819 Minister Plenipotentiary May 18, 1819 Had farewell audience on March 2, 1823
Hugh Nelson January 15, 1823 Minister Plenipotentiary December 4, 1823 Presented recall July 10, 1825

Note: In 1825 the ministry was upgraded to Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.

Representative Appointment date Title Presentation
of Credentials
Termination
of Mission
Alexander Hill Everett March 9, 1825 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary September 4, 1825 Left post August 1, 1829
Cornelius P. Van Ness[6] June 1, 1829 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary December 9, 1829 Presented recall December 21, 1836
William T. Barry[7] April 10, 1835 N/A N/A; died en route to post. N/A.
John H. Eaton March 16, 1836 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary [8] Left post May 1, 1840
Aaron Vail May 20, 1840 Chargé d'Affaires November 5, 1840 Vail was superseded by Ambassador Irving, August 1, 1842.
Washington Irving February 10, 1842 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary August 1, 1842 July 29, 1846
Romulus M. Saunders February 25, 1846 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary July 31, 1846 Presented recall September 24, 1849
Daniel M. Barringer[9] June 18, 1849 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary October 24, 1849 Presented recall September 4, 1853
Pierre Soulé April 7, 1853 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary October 24, 1853 Presented recall February 1, 1855
John C. Breckinridge January 16, 1855 N/A[10] N/A[10] N/A[10]
Augustus C. Dodge February 9, 1855 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary June 17, 1855 Presented recall March 12, 1859
William Preston December 15, 1858 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary March 12, 1859 Presented recall May 24, 1861
Cassius M. Clay April 14, 1861 N/A[11] N/A[11] N/A[11]
Carl Schurz March 28, 1861 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary July 13, 1861 Left post December 18, 1861
Gustavus Koerner June 14, 1862 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary November 4, 1862 Left post July 20, 1864
John P. Hale March 10, 1865 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary September 30, 1865 Presented recall July 29, 1869
Note: President Johnson nominated the following two men for the post, but the Senate declined to consider the nominations, probably because of the president’s disputes with the Congress over other issues.
William S. Rosecrans N/A N/A N/A N/A
Henry S. Sanford N/A N/A N/A N/A
Daniel E. Sickles[12][13] May 15, 1869 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary July 29, 1869 Transmitted recall by note January 31, 1874
Caleb Cushing[14] January 6, 1874 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary May 30, 1874 Left post April 9, 1877
James Russell Lowell[15] June 11, 1877 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary August 18, 1877 Presented recall March 2, 1880
Lucius Fairchild January 26, 1880 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary March 31, 1880 Presented recall December 20, 1881
Hannibal Hamlin[16] June 30, 1881 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary December 20, 1881 Left post October 17, 1882
John W. Foster February 27, 1883 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary June 16, 1883 Presented recall August 28, 1885
Jabez L.M. Curry[17] October 7, 1885 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary December 22, 1885 Left post July 5, 1888
Perry Belmont[18] November 17, 1888 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary February 13, 1889 Left post May 1, 1889
Thomas W. Palmer March 12, 1889 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary June 17, 1889 Left post April 19, 1890
E. Burd Grubb September 27, 1890 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary December 23, 1890 Left post May 26, 1892
A. Loudon Snowden July 22, 1892 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary October 6, 1892 Presented recall June 3, 1893
Hannis Taylor April 8, 1893 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary July 1, 1893 Presented recall September 13, 1897
Stewart L. Woodford June 19, 1897 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary September 13, 1897 Left post April 21, 1898[19]
Bellamy Storer[20] April 12, 1899 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary June 16, 1899 Presented recall December 10, 1902
Arthur S. Hardy[21] September 26, 1902 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary March 2, 1903 Presented recall May 1, 1905
William Miller Collier March 8, 1905 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary May 15, 1905 Superseded by Ambassador Ide on June 9, 1909
Henry Clay Ide April 1, 1909 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary June 9, 1909 Left post July 8, 1913
Joseph Edward Willard July 28, 1913 Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary N/A[22] N/A[22]

Note: In August 1913, the title of the office was changed to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. This required a new commission.

Representative Appointment date Title Presentation
of Credentials
Termination
of Mission
Joseph Edward Willard September 10, 1913 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary October 31, 1913 Left post July 7, 1921
Cyrus E. Woods June 24, 1921 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary October 14, 1921 Left post April 18, 1923
Alexander P. Moore March 3, 1923 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary May 16, 1923 Left post December 20, 1925
Ogden H. Hammond December 21, 1925 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary March 26, 1926 Left post October 13, 1929
Irwin B. Laughlin October 16, 1929 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary December 24, 1929 Left post April 12, 1933
Claude G. Bowers[23] April 6, 1933 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary June 1, 1933 Had final interview, February 2, 1939
H. Freeman Matthews 1939 (acting)
Alexander W. Weddell May 3, 1939 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary June 15, 1939 Left post February 7, 1942
Carlton J. H. Hayes May 2, 1942 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary June 9, 1942 Left Spain, January 18, 1945
Norman Armour December 15, 1944 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary March 24, 1945 Left post December 1, 1945
Philip W. Bonsal Chargé d'Affaires March 1946 June 1947
Paul T. Culbertson Chargé d'Affaires June 1947 December 1950
Stanton Griffis February 1, 1951 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary March 1, 1951 Relinquished charge January 28, 1952
Lincoln MacVeagh February 21, 1952 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary March 27, 1952 Left post March 4, 1953
James Clement Dunn February 27, 1953 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary April 9, 1953 Left post February 9, 1955
John Davis Lodge January 22, 1955 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary March 24, 1955 Left post April 13, 1961
Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr. March 29, 1961 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary May 25, 1961 Left Spain, October 12, 1961
Ellis O. Briggs N/A[24] N/A[24] N/A[24] N/A[24]
Robert F. Woodward April 7, 1962 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary May 10, 1962 Left post February 1, 1965
Angier Biddle Duke March 11, 1965 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary April 1, 1965 Left post March 30, 1968
Frank E. McKinney May 11, 1968 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary N/A[25] N/A[25][26]
Robert F. Wagner, Jr. June 24, 1968 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary July 4, 1968 Left post March 7, 1969
Robert C. Hill May 1, 1969 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary June 12, 1969 Left post January 12, 1972
Horacio Rivero September 11, 1972 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary October 11, 1972 Left post November 26, 1974
Peter M. Flanigan N/A[27] N/A[27] N/A[27] N/A[27]
Wells Stabler[28] February 20, 1975 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary March 13, 1975 Left post May 4, 1978
Terence A. Todman May 25, 1978 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary July 20, 1978 Left post August 8, 1983
Thomas Ostrom Enders August 5, 1983 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary September 15, 1983 Left post July 6, 1986
Reginald Bartholomew August 18, 1986 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary September 17, 1986 Left post March 12, 1989
Joseph Zappala October 10, 1989 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary October 16, 1989 Left post June 4, 1992
Richard Goodwin Capen, Jr. June 15, 1992 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary July 8, 1992 Left post February 17, 1993
Richard N. Gardner September 16, 1993 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary November 4, 1993 Left post July 12, 1997
Note: Beginning in 1998, the ambassador to Spain was also accredited to Andorra.
Edward L. Romero April 2, 1998 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary June 30, 1998 May 1, 2001
George L. Argyros, Sr. November 21, 2001 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary December 13, 2001 Left post November 21, 2004
Eduardo Aguirre June 21, 2005 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary June 29, 2005 January 20, 2009
Alan Solomont December 24, 2009 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary January 9, 2010 August 1, 2013
James Costos August 1, 2013 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary September 24, 2013 January 18, 2017
Duke Buchan November 2, 2017 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary January 18, 2018 Incumbent

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Jay proceeded to post but was not formally received at court.
  2. ^ No report has been found concerning Carmichael’s presentation of credentials as Chargé d’Affaires en titre; he had already been received as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim, February 20, 1783.
  3. ^ Pinckney was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 26, 1802.
  4. ^ a b c Bowdoin did not proceed to post.
  5. ^ Erving was commissioned during a recess of the United States Senate and his nomination confirmed by the Senate, October 3, 1814. His commission following confirmation not on record.
  6. ^ Van Ness was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on February 10, 1830.
  7. ^ Barry took the oath of office, but died en route to post. He was commissioned during a recess of the Senate.
  8. ^ No report has been found of Eaton’s presentation of credentials, which probably took place about February 1, 1837.
  9. ^ Barringer was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on September 28, 1850.
  10. ^ a b c Breckenreidge declined the appointment.
  11. ^ a b c Clay declined the appointment.
  12. ^ Sickles was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on March 16, 1870.
  13. ^ Sickles presented new credentials on February 2, 1871, after change of government
  14. ^ Cushing presented new credentials on March 10, 1875, after restoration of monarchy.
  15. ^ Lowell was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on October 30, 1877.
  16. ^ Hamlin was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on October 13, 1881.
  17. ^ Curry was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 13, 1886.
  18. ^ Belmont was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 13, 1888.
  19. ^ Spain severed diplomatic relations with the U.S. on April 21, 1898. Woodford left post the same day. The United States declared war on Spain as of that date by Act of Congress approved April 25, 1898.
  20. ^ Storer was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 14, 1899.
  21. ^ Hardy was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 8, 1902.
  22. ^ a b Willard took the oath of office, but did not proceed to post under this appointment.
  23. ^ Bowers was resident during the last part of his ambassadorship at St. Jean de Luz in France. He left that post June 14, 1939, his appointment having terminated May 14, 1939. The embassy had meanwhile been re-established in Spain on April 13, 1939, when H. Freeman Matthews had been received at Burgos as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim.
  24. ^ a b c d Briggs was not commissioned; his nomination withdrawn before the Senate acted upon it.
  25. ^ a b McKinney took the oath of office, but did not proceed to post under this appointment.
  26. ^ "Former U.S Government Ambassadors to Spain". Retrieved 22 February 2011.
  27. ^ a b c d Flanigan was not commissioned; his nomination of September 17, 1974 was not acted upon by the Senate.
  28. ^ Bernstein, Adam (19 November 2009). "Wells Stabler dies; ambassador to Spain in post-Franco era". Retrieved 21 February 2018.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit