UK Independent Singles and Albums Charts
The UK Independent Singles Chart and UK Independent Albums Chart are charts of the best-selling independent singles and albums, respectively, in the United Kingdom. Originally published in January 1980, and widely known as the "indie chart", the relevance of the chart dwindled in the 1990s as major-label ownership blurred the boundary between independent and major labels.
Separate independent charts are currently published weekly by the Official Charts Company.
In the wake of punk, small record labels began to spring up, as an outlet for artists that were unwilling to sign contracts with major record companies, or were not considered commercially attractive to those companies. By 1978, labels like Cherry Red, Rough Trade, and Mute had started up, and a support structure soon followed, including independent pressing, distribution and promotion. These labels got bigger and bigger, and by 1980 were having top 10 hits in the UK Singles Chart. Chart success was limited, however, since the official top 40 was based on sales at large chains and ignored significant sales at the scores of independent record shops that existed. Iain McNay of Cherry Red suggested to the weekly trade paper Record Business the idea of an independent record chart to address the problem, and the first independent chart appeared in 1980, published in Record Week, and later licensed to Sounds.
The definition of whether or not a single was "indie" had depended on the distribution channel by which it was shipped—the record needed to be delivered by a distribution service that was independent of the four major record companies: EMI, Sony Music Entertainment, Warner Music Group and Universal Music Group. In 1981, compilation of the chart switched to research company MRIB. The chart served to give exposure to the independent labels and the artists on those labels. In 1985, Music Week started compiling its own indie chart, but it failed to meet the authority of the original MRIB chart, although both Sounds and Melody Maker later switched from the MRIB chart and adopted the Music Week chart instead. Other weekly music papers also published their own charts, often compiled from single record shops. By 1990, the significance of the chart had been diluted by major record companies forming their own 'indie' labels, with independent distribution, in order to break new acts via exposure from the indie chart.
To be included in the indie chart, a record had to be distributed independently of the corporate framework of the major record companies; the genre of music was irrelevant. Large independent distributors emerged such as Pinnacle and Spartan, and there later emerged The Cartel, an association of regional distributors including Rough Trade, Backs, and Red Rhino.
The first weekly independent chart was published on 19 January 1980, with Spizzenergi's "Where's Captain Kirk" topping the singles chart, and Adam and the Ants' Dirk Wears White Sox topping the album chart.
Official Charts CompanyEdit
The OCC's Independent Chart was significantly altered in June 2009. Its new system altered the qualification criteria to include only singles from labels that were at least fifty per cent owned by a record company that was not one of the main four record companies. This prevented major record companies from qualifying for the chart by outsourcing the shipping of their singles to smaller distribution services. These new changes were first unveiled at the 2008 annual general meeting of the British Phonographic Industry on 9 July, and the new chart went live on 29 June 2009. The first song to top the chart under the new system was "Bonkers" by Dizzee Rascal, which also made it to No. 1 in the main UK Singles Chart.
Also during the 2000s and 2010s, many indie rock/post-punk revival bands like the Kaiser Chiefs and Arctic Monkeys topped the OCC's chart; Arctic Monkeys' single "Do I Wanna Know?" reached No. 2 in the chart in June 2013 while making it to No. 11 in the main chart.
- Stanley, Bob (2009) "Will the indie chart rise again?", The Guardian, 31 July 2009, retrieved 2012-01-12
- Lazell, Barry (1997). Indie hits : 1980-1989 : the complete U.K. independent charts (singles & albums). London: Cherry Red. ISBN 978-0-9517206-9-1. OCLC 38292499.
- "Chart rules to benefit small labels". Bristol Evening Post. Bristol: Northcliffe Media. 15 June 2009. OCLC 428435947. Retrieved 3 March 2011.[permanent dead link]
- Collett-White, Mike (15 June 2009). "New chart to boost indie acts". London: Reuters. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- Kitty Empire (July 2007). "We won the indie wars - but at what price?". Guardian Unlimited. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 10 February 2008.
- "Top 30 Independent Label Singles". BBC. Retrieved 10 February 2008.
- Durr, Leanne (15 June 2009). "Official Charts Company Re-Launch UK's Independent Charts". Liverpool: Glasswerk National. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- Cardew, Ben (7 July 2008). Williams, Paul (ed.). "Independent labels to top BPI agenda". Music Week. London: United Business Media (07.07.08). ISSN 0265-1548. OCLC 60620772. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- News desk (15 June 2009). "UK to gain independent charts". London: Tourdates.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2011.