Turing Award
The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".^{[2]} The Turing Award is generally recognized as the highest distinction in computer science and the "Nobel Prize of computing".^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]}
ACM Turing Award  

Awarded for  Outstanding contributions in computer science 
Country  United States 
Presented by  Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) 
Reward(s)  US $1,000,000^{[1]} 
First awarded  1966 
Last awarded  2018 
Website  amturing 
The award is named after Alan Turing, a British mathematician and reader in mathematics at the University of Manchester. Turing is often credited as being the key founder of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.^{[7]} From 2007 to 2013, the award was accompanied by an additional prize of US $250,000, with financial support provided by Intel and Google.^{[2]} Since 2014, the award has been accompanied by a prize of US $1 million, with financial support provided by Google.^{[1]}^{[8]}
The first recipient, in 1966, was Alan Perlis, of Carnegie Mellon University. The first female recipient was Frances E. Allen of IBM in 2006.^{[9]}
Contents
RecipientsEdit
Year  Recipient  Picture  Rationale 

1966  Alan J. Perlis  For his influence in the area of advanced computer programming techniques and compiler construction.^{[10]}  
1967  Maurice Wilkes  Professor Wilkes is best known as the builder and designer of the EDSAC, the first computer with an internally stored program. Built in 1949, the EDSAC used a mercury delay line memory. He is also known as the author, with Wheeler and Gill, of a volume on "Preparation of Programs for Electronic Digital Computers" in 1951, in which program libraries were effectively introduced.^{[11]}  
1968  Richard Hamming  For his work on numerical methods, automatic coding systems, and errordetecting and errorcorrecting codes.^{[12]}  
1969  Marvin Minsky  For his central role in creating, shaping, promoting, and advancing the field of artificial intelligence.^{[13]}  
1970  James H. Wilkinson  For his research in numerical analysis to facilitate the use of the highspeed digital computer, having received special recognition for his work in computations in linear algebra and "backward" error analysis.^{[14]}  
1971  John McCarthy  McCarthy's lecture "The Present State of Research on Artificial Intelligence" is a topic that covers the area in which he has achieved considerable recognition for his work.^{[15]}  
1972  Edsger W. Dijkstra  Edsger Dijkstra was a principal contributor in the late 1950s to the development of the ALGOL, a high level programming language which has become a model of clarity and mathematical rigor. He is one of the principal proponents of the science and art of programming languages in general, and has greatly contributed to our understanding of their structure, representation, and implementation. His fifteen years of publications extend from theoretical articles on graph theory to basic manuals, expository texts, and philosophical contemplations in the field of programming languages.^{[16]}  
1973  Charles W. Bachman  For his outstanding contributions to database technology.^{[17]}  
1974  Donald E. Knuth  For his major contributions to the analysis of algorithms and the design of programming languages, and in particular for his contributions to "The Art of Computer Programming" through his wellknown books in a continuous series by this title.^{[18]}  
1975  Allen Newell  In joint scientific efforts extending over twenty years, initially in collaboration with J. C. Shaw at the RAND Corporation, and subsequently with numerous faculty and student colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University, they have made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing.^{[19]}  
Herbert A. Simon  
1976  Michael O. Rabin  For their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problem,"^{[20]} which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field.^{[21]}^{[22]}  
Dana S. Scott  
1977  John Backus  For profound, influential, and lasting contributions to the design of practical highlevel programming systems, notably through his work on FORTRAN, and for seminal publication of formal procedures for the specification of programming languages.^{[23]}  
1978  Robert W. Floyd  For having a clear influence on methodologies for the creation of efficient and reliable software, and for helping to found the following important subfields of computer science: the theory of parsing, the semantics of programming languages, automatic program verification, automatic program synthesis, and analysis of algorithms.^{[24]}  
1979  Kenneth E. Iverson  For his pioneering effort in programming languages and mathematical notation resulting in what the computing field now knows as APL, for his contributions to the implementation of interactive systems, to educational uses of APL, and to programming language theory and practice.^{[25]}  
1980  Tony Hoare  For his fundamental contributions to the definition and design of programming languages.^{[26]}  
1981  Edgar F. Codd  For his fundamental and continuing contributions to the theory and practice of database management systems, esp. relational databases.^{[27]}  
1982  Stephen A. Cook  For his advancement of our understanding of the complexity of computation in a significant and profound way.^{[28]}  
1983  Ken Thompson  For their development of generic operating systems theory and specifically for the implementation of the UNIX operating system.^{[29]}^{[30]}  
Dennis M. Ritchie  
1984  Niklaus Wirth  For developing a sequence of innovative computer languages, EULER, ALGOLW, MODULA and Pascal.  
1985  Richard M. Karp  For his continuing contributions to the theory of algorithms including the development of efficient algorithms for network flow and other combinatorial optimization problems, the identification of polynomialtime computability with the intuitive notion of algorithmic efficiency, and, most notably, contributions to the theory of NPcompleteness.  
1986  John Hopcroft  For fundamental achievements in the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures.  
Robert Tarjan  
1987  John Cocke  For significant contributions in the design and theory of compilers, the architecture of large systems and the development of reduced instruction set computers (RISC).  
1988  Ivan Sutherland  For his pioneering and visionary contributions to computer graphics, starting with Sketchpad, and continuing after.  
1989  William Kahan  For his fundamental contributions to numerical analysis. One of the foremost experts on floatingpoint computations. Kahan has dedicated himself to "making the world safe for numerical computations."  
1990  Fernando J. Corbató  For his pioneering work organizing the concepts and leading the development of the generalpurpose, largescale, timesharing and resourcesharing computer systems, CTSS and Multics.  
1991  Robin Milner  For three distinct and complete achievements: 1) LCF, the mechanization of Scott's Logic of Computable Functions, probably the first theoretically based yet practical tool for machine assisted proof construction; 2) ML, the first language to include polymorphic type inference together with a typesafe exceptionhandling mechanism; 3) CCS, a general theory of concurrency. In addition, he formulated and strongly advanced full abstraction, the study of the relationship between operational and denotational semantics.^{[31]}  
1992  Butler W. Lampson  For contributions to the development of distributed, personal computing environments and the technology for their implementation: workstations, networks, operating systems, programming systems, displays, security and document publishing.  
1993  Juris Hartmanis  In recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory.^{[32]}  
Richard E. Stearns  
1994  Edward Feigenbaum  For pioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology.^{[33]}  
Raj Reddy  
1995  Manuel Blum  In recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking.^{[34]}  
1996  Amir Pnueli  For seminal work introducing temporal logic into computing science and for outstanding contributions to program and systems verification.^{[35]}  
1997  Douglas Engelbart  For an inspiring vision of the future of interactive computing and the invention of key technologies to help realize this vision.^{[36]}  
1998  Jim Gray  For seminal contributions to database and transaction processing research and technical leadership in system implementation.  
1999  Frederick P. Brooks, Jr.  For landmark contributions to computer architecture, operating systems, and software engineering.  
2000  Andrew ChiChih Yao  In recognition of his fundamental contributions to the theory of computation, including the complexitybased theory of pseudorandom number generation, cryptography, and communication complexity.  
2001  OleJohan Dahl  For ideas fundamental to the emergence of objectoriented programming, through their design of the programming languages Simula I and Simula 67.  
Kristen Nygaard  
2002  Ronald L. Rivest  For their ingenious contribution for making publickey cryptography useful in practice.  
Adi Shamir  
Leonard M. Adleman  
2003  Alan Kay  For pioneering many of the ideas at the root of contemporary objectoriented programming languages, leading the team that developed Smalltalk, and for fundamental contributions to personal computing.  
2004  Vinton G. Cerf  For pioneering work on internetworking, including the design and implementation of the Internet's basic communications protocols, TCP/IP, and for inspired leadership in networking.  
Robert E. Kahn  
2005  Peter Naur  For fundamental contributions to programming language design and the definition of ALGOL 60, to compiler design, and to the art and practice of computer programming.  
2006  Frances E. Allen  For pioneering contributions to the theory and practice of optimizing compiler techniques that laid the foundation for modern optimizing compilers and automatic parallel execution.  
2007  Edmund M. Clarke  For their roles in developing model checking into a highly effective verification technology, widely adopted in the hardware and software industries.^{[37]}  
E. Allen Emerson  
Joseph Sifakis  
2008  Barbara Liskov  For contributions to practical and theoretical foundations of programming language and system design, especially related to data abstraction, fault tolerance, and distributed computing.  
2009  Charles P. Thacker  For his pioneering design and realization of the Xerox Alto, the first modern personal computer, and in addition for his contributions to the Ethernet and the Tablet PC.  
2010  Leslie G. Valiant  For transformative contributions to the theory of computation, including the theory of probably approximately correct (PAC) learning, the complexity of enumeration and of algebraic computation, and the theory of parallel and distributed computing.  
2011  Judea Pearl^{[38]}  For fundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning.^{[39]}  
2012  Silvio Micali  For transformative work that laid the complexitytheoretic foundations for the science of cryptography and in the process pioneered new methods for efficient verification of mathematical proofs in complexity theory.^{[40]}  
Shafi Goldwasser  
2013  Leslie Lamport  For fundamental contributions to the theory and practice of distributed and concurrent systems, notably the invention of concepts such as causality and logical clocks, safety and liveness, replicated state machines, and sequential consistency.^{[41]}^{[42]}  
2014  Michael Stonebraker  For fundamental contributions to the concepts and practices underlying modern database systems.^{[43]}  
2015  Martin E. Hellman  For fundamental contributions to modern cryptography. Diffie and Hellman's groundbreaking 1976 paper, "New Directions in Cryptography,"^{[44]} introduced the ideas of publickey cryptography and digital signatures, which are the foundation for most regularlyused security protocols on the internet today.^{[45]}  
Whitfield Diffie  
2016  Tim BernersLee  For inventing the World Wide Web, the first web browser, and the fundamental protocols and algorithms allowing the Web to scale.^{[46]}  
2017  John L. Hennessy  For pioneering a systematic, quantitative approach to the design and evaluation of computer architectures with enduring impact on the microprocessor industry.^{[47]}  
David A. Patterson  
2018

Yoshua Bengio  For conceptual and engineering breakthroughs that have made deep neural networks a critical component of computing.^{[48]}  
Geoffrey Hinton  
Yann LeCun 
See alsoEdit
ReferencesEdit
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 ^ ^{a} ^{b} "A. M. Turing Award". ACM. Archived from the original on 20091212. Retrieved 20071105.
 ^ Dasgupta, Sanjoy; Papadimitriou, Christos; Vazirani, Umesh (2008). Algorithms. McGrawHill. ISBN 9780073523408., p. 317.
 ^ Bibliography of Turing Award lectures, DBLP
 ^ Steven Geringer (27 July 2007). "ACM'S Turing Award Prize Raised To $250,000". ACM press release. Archived from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 20081016.
 ^ See also: Brown, Bob (June 6, 2011). "Why there's no Nobel Prize in Computing". Network World. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
 ^ Homer, Steven and Alan L. (2001). Computability and Complexity Theory. p. 35. ISBN 9780387950556. Retrieved 20071105.
 ^ "ACM's Turing Award Prize Raised to $1 Million". ACM. Archived from the original on 20151123. Retrieved 20141113.
 ^ "First Woman to Receive ACM Turing Award" (Press release). The Association for Computing Machinery. February 21, 2007. Retrieved 20071105.^{[permanent dead link]}
 ^ Perlis, A. J. (1967). "The Synthesis of Algorithmic Systems". Journal of the ACM. 14: 1–9. doi:10.1145/321371.321372.
 ^ Wilkes, M. V. (1968). "Computers then and Now". Journal of the ACM. 15: 1–7. doi:10.1145/321439.321440.
 ^ Hamming, R. W. (1969). "One Man's View of Computer Science". Journal of the ACM. 16: 3–12. doi:10.1145/321495.321497.
 ^ Minsky, M. (1970). "Form and Content in Computer Science (1970 ACM turing lecture)". Journal of the ACM. 17 (2): 197–215. doi:10.1145/321574.321575.
 ^ Wilkinson, J. H. (1971). "Some Comments from a Numerical Analyst". Journal of the ACM. 18 (2): 137–147. doi:10.1145/321637.321638.
 ^ McCarthy, J. (1987). "Generality in artificial intelligence". Communications of the ACM. 30 (12): 1030–1035. doi:10.1145/33447.33448.
 ^ Dijkstra, E. W. (1972). "The humble programmer". Communications of the ACM. 15 (10): 859–866. doi:10.1145/355604.361591.
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 ^ Knuth, D. E. (1974). "Computer programming as an art". Communications of the ACM. 17 (12): 667–673. doi:10.1145/361604.361612.
 ^ Newell, A.; Simon, H. A. (1976). "Computer science as empirical inquiry: Symbols and search". Communications of the ACM. 19 (3): 113. doi:10.1145/360018.360022.
 ^ Rabin, M. O.; Scott, D. (1959). "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems". IBM Journal of Research and Development. 3 (2): 114. doi:10.1147/rd.32.0114.
 ^ Rabin, M. O. (1977). "Complexity of computations". Communications of the ACM. 20 (9): 625–633. doi:10.1145/359810.359816.
 ^ Scott, D. S. (1977). "Logic and programming languages". Communications of the ACM. 20 (9): 634–641. doi:10.1145/359810.359826.
 ^ Backus, J. (1978). "Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style?: A functional style and its algebra of programs". Communications of the ACM. 21 (8): 613–641. doi:10.1145/359576.359579.
 ^ Floyd, R. W. (1979). "The paradigms of programming". Communications of the ACM. 22 (8): 455–460. doi:10.1145/359138.359140.
 ^ Iverson, K. E. (1980). "Notation as a tool of thought". Communications of the ACM. 23 (8): 444–465. doi:10.1145/358896.358899.
 ^ Hoare, C. A. R. (1981). "The emperor's old clothes". Communications of the ACM. 24 (2): 75–83. doi:10.1145/358549.358561.
 ^ Codd, E. F. (1982). "Relational database: A practical foundation for productivity". Communications of the ACM. 25 (2): 109–117. doi:10.1145/358396.358400.
 ^ Cook, S. A. (1983). "An overview of computational complexity". Communications of the ACM. 26 (6): 400–408. doi:10.1145/358141.358144.
 ^ "A.M. Turing Award Laureate  Kenneth Lane Thompson". amturing.acm.org. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
 ^ "A.M. Turing Award Laureate  Dennis M. Ritchie". amturing.acm.org. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
 ^ Milner, R. (1993). "Elements of interaction: Turing award lecture". Communications of the ACM. 36: 78–89. doi:10.1145/151233.151240.
 ^ Stearns, R. E. (1994). "Turing Award lecture: It's time to reconsider time". Communications of the ACM. 37 (11): 95–99. doi:10.1145/188280.188379.
 ^ Reddy, R. (1996). "To dream the possible dream". Communications of the ACM. 39 (5): 105–112. doi:10.1145/229459.233436.
 ^ "A.M. Turing Award Laureate  Manuel Blum". amturing.acm.org. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
 ^ "A.M. Turing Award Laureate  Amir Pnueli". amturing.acm.org. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
 ^ "A.M. Turing Award Laureate  Douglas Engelbart". amturing.acm.org. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
 ^ 2007 Turing Award Winners Announced
 ^ Pearl, Judea (2011). The Mechanization of Causal Inference: A "mini" Turing Test and Beyond (mp4). ACM Turing Award Lectures. doi:10.1145/1283920.2351636 (inactive 20190315). ISBN 9781450310499.
 ^ "Judea Pearl". ACM.
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 ^ Lamport, L. (1978). "Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system" (PDF). Communications of the ACM . 21 (7): 558–565. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.155.4742. doi:10.1145/359545.359563.
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 ^ Diffie, W.; Hellman, M. (1976). "New directions in cryptography" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 22 (6): 644–654. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.37.9720. doi:10.1109/TIT.1976.1055638.
 ^ "Cryptography Pioneers Receive 2015 ACM A.M. Turing Award". ACM.
 ^ "Turing award 2016". ACM.
 ^ "Pioneers of Modern Computer Architecture Receive ACM A.M. Turing Award". ACM.
 ^ Fathers of the Deep Learning Revolution Receive ACM A.M. Turing Award
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