Travel Air 2000
The Travel Air 2000/3000/4000 (originally, the Model A, Model B and Model BH and later marketed as a Curtiss-Wright product under the names CW-14, Speedwing, Sportsman and Osprey), were open-cockpit biplane aircraft produced in the United States in the late 1920s by the Travel Air Manufacturing Company. During the period from 1924–1929, Travel Air produced more aircraft than any other American manufacturer, including over 1,000 biplanes (some estimates range from 1,200 to nearly 2,000).
|2000, 3000, 4000, CW-14, Sportsman, Osprey|
|Travel Air 4000|
|Manufacturer||Travel Air, Curtiss-Wright|
|First flight||13 March 1925|
|Primary user||private owners, aerial sightseeing businesses|
|Number built||approx 1,300|
- 1 Design and development
- 2 Operational history
- 3 Variants
- 4 Operators
- 5 Aircraft on display
- 6 Surviving aircraft
- 7 Specifications (CW-A14D)
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Design and developmentEdit
Primary design and developmentEdit
The original Travel Air Model A was engineered chiefly by Lloyd Stearman—with input from Travel Air co-founders Walter Beech, Clyde Cessna, and Bill Snook—largely as a metal-framed improvement of his immediately previous design of the wood-framed, metal-cowled Swallow New Swallow biplane, with elements of the best fighter aircraft of World War I, the metal-framed German Fokker D-VII. Most subsequent Travel Air biplanes were derived, directly or indirectly, from the original Model A.
- (NOTE: An interim design, the Winstead Special was derived by the Winstead brothers from an initial metal fuselage frame developed at Swallow by Stearman and Walter Beech, and subsequently discarded by Swallow. The rejection of the metal frame concept, by Swallow president Jake Moellendick, triggered the departure of Stearman and Beech, and the creation of Travel Air.)
The types shared a common structure of a conventional single-bay biplane with staggered wings braced by N-struts. The fuselage was of fabric-covered steel tube and included two open cockpits in tandem, the forward of which could carry two passengers side-by-side.
In common with the Fokker D-VII, the rudder and ailerons of first Travel Air biplanes had an overhanging "horn" to partially aerodynamically counterbalance the aerodynamic resistance of the controls when deflected, to provide a lighter control feel, and a more responsive aircraft. This gave Travel Airs their distinctive "elephant ear" vertical tails, and the similarly counterbalanced ailerons were also referred to as "elephant ear" ailerons—leading to the airplane's popular nicknames "Old Elephant Ears" and "Wichita Fokker." Some subsequent models were offered without the counterbalance, providing a cleaner, more conventional appearance and less drag. Elevator forces were trimmed out by use of an inflight-adjustable horizontal stabilizer.
Like other aircraft in the Travel Air line, it was available with a variety of different, interchangeable wings, including a wing shorter and thinner than the rest known as the "Speedwing" designed, as the name suggests, for increased cruise speed. Travel Air entered a specially-modified Model 4000 (designated 4000-T) in the Guggenheim Safe Aircraft Competition of 1930, but it was disqualified.
Compared to other civilian ("commercial") open-cockpit biplanes of the era, Travel Airs were noted for their quality of construction, reliability, durability, speed, efficiency, payload and passenger capacity (two passengers in a small bench seat in the front cockpit, plus pilot in the rear cockpit—versus most biplanes of the era, which could only accommodate a single passenger in the front cockpit). They were also noted for superior comfort and easy flying. These various distinguishing characteristics led Travel Air to outsell all rivals by 1929.
In 1933 a Travel Air 2000 was modified by George and William Besler where the usual inline or radial gasoline piston engine was replaced by an oil-fired, reversible 90° angle V-twin angle-compound engine of their own design, which became the first fixed-wing airplane to successful fly using a steam engine of any type. The Beslers are thought[by whom?] to have sold the plane to the Japanese[who?] in 1937.
Following Travel Air Manufacturing Company purchase in August 1929 by Curtiss-Wright, the Model 4000 continued in production into the early 1930s as the CW-14, and the range was expanded to include a military derivative dubbed the Osprey. This was fitted with bomb racks, a fixed, forward-firing machine gun, and a trainable tail gun. These aircraft were supplied to Bolivia and used during the Gran Chaco War, which eventually led to Curtiss-Wright's successful prosecution for supplying these aircraft in violation of a U.S. arms embargo.
In addition to a wide range of normal aircraft applications, and conspicuous use in a minor South American war, Travel Air biplanes also saw extensive use in early motion pictures.
During the 1920s and very early 1930s, Travel Air biplanes were the most widely used civilian biplanes in America (not counting war-surplus military trainers re-purposed for civilian use) -- with the arguable exception of their chief competitors, WACO biplanes. (Travel Air production ended in the mid-1930s, under the Curtiss-Wright Corporation).
Initially, Travel Air biplanes were very widely used for executive transport, wealthy-sportsmen adventures, air taxi and air charter service, light air cargo transport, and some bush flying. Many were also used in barnstorming: exhibition and stunt flying, selling recreational rides, and early air racing.
Commercial operators found the Travel Air biplanes very versatile and useful, owing to their substantial payload, simple and reliable systems, rugged construction and (for the times) substantial speed and efficiency.
Towards the end of their useful lives (the late-1930s through the early 1970s), they were heavily used for the harsh work of bush flying and cropdusting, and Travel Air biplanes were among the most heavily used cropdusters in America—perhaps second only to the World War II surplus Stearman Kaydet biplanes (also designed by Lloyd Stearman).
Today, most remaining Travel Air biplanes are regarded as treasures, having been carefully restored at substantial cost, and are used sparingly and carefully for personal recreation and/or modern-day barnstorming (exhibition flying and selling rides).
The Osprey, a Travel Air biplane variant by Curtiss-Wright, was armed with bomb racks and machine guns, and supplied to Bolivia, who used them in the 1933 Gran Chaco War with Paraguay (in violation of a U.S. arms embargo, for which Curtiss-Wright's was eventually successfully prosecuted). Numerous plane-makers attempted to get their aircraft into the war, for publicity, and the Osprey initially benefitted the most from this international competition. Fitted with single machine guns fore (fixed) and aft (moveable), and bomb racks, the rugged, reliable Ospreys were the preferred mounts of the Bolivian pilots—of several competing aircraft supplied. The resulting heavy use led to high losses—half of the original 12 units being lost in accidents or action, another five or so were employed, though precise outcomes are unclear, owing in part to repairs on some of the "lost" aircraft, which were returned to service. However, the action brought favorable publicity and credibility to Curtiss-Wright aircraft.
Travel Air biplanes were widely used in 1920s/1930s war movies, particularly to represent the airplanes they were patterned after: Germany's Fokker D-VII fighter, the top fighter of World War I. In the motion picture industry, they were known as "Wichita Fokkers." In fact, Hollywood's demand for Travel Air biplanes was so intense that Travel Air's California salesman, Fred Hoyt, coaxed Travel Air co-founder and principal airplane designer, Lloyd Stearman, to come to Venice, California in 1926 to exploit the movie industry demand for his aircraft by starting a short-lived independent Stearman Aircraft Company (re-opened back in Wichita in 1927).
- Wings (1927) (Lauded for its technical accuracy, it won the first-ever Academy Award for Best Picture)
- Flying Fool (1929) (Pathè film, one of the early leading roles for William Boyd, later famous as "Hopalong Cassidy")
- Hell's Angels (1930) (Howard Hughes' extravagant war epic)
- The Dawn Patrol (1930)
- Heartbreak (1931)
- Ace Of Aces (1933) featured five Travel Air Model Bs, and numerous other planes.
- Hell in the Heavens (1933)
- Flying Devils (1933)
- Murder in the Clouds (1934) featured NC406N
Like other Travel Air aircraft, Model 4000 variants were distinguished by letters prefixed (or occasionally affixed) to the basic designation to denote different engine and wing fits. These letter codes included:
- original wing with "elephant-ear" ailerons
- Axelson engine
- "standard wing" with Frise-type ailerons and three fuel tanks
- Curtiss engine
- revised "standard wing" with a single fuel tank
- Kinner engine
- Lycoming engine
- Travel Air 2000
- first production model
- powered by a 160-hp (119-kW) Curtiss C-6 engine
- Travel Air 3000
- powered by a 150-hp / 180-hp (112-kW / 134-kW) Hispano-Suiza Model A or Model engine.
- Travel Air 4000
- powered by a 220-hp (164-kW) Wright J-5 engine
- powered by a 150-hp (112-kW) Axelson engine
- powered by a 220-hp (164-kW) Wright J-5 engine
- floatplane version
- powered by a 300-hp (224-kW) Wright J-6-9 engine
- powered by a 170-hp (127-kW) Challenger engine
- powered by a 165-hp (123-kW) Wright J-6-5 engine
- powered by a 100-hp (75-kW) Kinner K5 engine
- floatplane version
- powered by 110-hp (82-kW) Warner Scarab engine
- Travel Air 8000 (aka 4000-CAM)
- powered by a 120-hp (89-kW) Fairchild-Caminez 447 engine
- Travel Air 9000 (aka 4000-SH)
- powered by a 125-hp (93-kW) Ryan-Siemens engine
- Travel Air 11
- D-20000 powered by a Wright J-6 engine
Curtiss-Wright models builtEdit
- CW-14C Sportsman
- Version with 185 hp (138 kW) Curtiss Challenger engine (1 built).
- CW-A14D Deluxe Sportsman
- Three-seat version with 240 hp (180 kW) Wright J-6-7 engine and NACA cowling (5 built).
- CW-B14B Speedwing Deluxe
- Version with 300 hp (220 kW) Wright J-6-9 engine (2 built).
- CW-B14R Special Speedwing Deluxe
- Single-seat racer built for Casey Lambert with supercharged Wright R-975 engine (1 built)
- CW-C14B Osprey
- militarized version with Wright R-975E engine
- CW-C14R Osprey
- militarized version with Wright J-6-9 engine
- CW-17R Pursuit Osprey
- CW-B14B with uprated engine; possibly not built
Aircraft on displayEdit
These are surviving aircraft owned by museums:
- 206 – 2000 in storage at the Golden Age Air Museum in Bethel, Pennsylvania.
- 490 – 2000 airworthy at the Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum in Maryland Heights, Missouri.
- 321 – 3000 airworthy at the Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum in Maryland Heights, Missouri.
- 475 – 4000 airworthy at the Kelch Aviation Museum in Brodhead, Wisconsin.
- 766 – 4000 airworthy at the Cavanaugh Flight Museum in Addison, Texas.
- 850 – 4000 airworthy with the Western Antique Aeroplane & Automobile Museum in Hood River, Oregon.
- 1151 – D4D in storage at the Reynolds-Alberta Museum in Wetaskiwin, Alberta.
- 1365 – 4000 airworthy at the Fantasy of Flight in Polk City, Florida.
- 1379 – D-4000 airworthy at the Owls Head Transportation Museum in Owls Head, Maine.
- 1224 – E-4000 airworthy at the EAA Aviation Museum in Oshkosh, Wisconsin.
Data from Specifications of American Airplanes
- Crew: 1
- Capacity: 2 passengers
- Length: 23 ft 7 in (7.19 m)
- Wingspan: 31 ft 0 in (9.45 m)
- Height: 9 ft 10 in (3.00 m)
- Wing area: 248.0 sq ft (23.04 m2)
- Airfoil: Navy N-9
- Empty weight: 1,772 lb (804 kg)
- Gross weight: 2,870 lb (1,302 kg)
- Fuel capacity: 58 US gal (48 imp gal; 220 L)
- Powerplant: 1 × Wright Whirlwind , 250 hp (190 kW)
- Maximum speed: 155 mph (249 km/h, 135 kn)
- Cruise speed: 132 mph (212 km/h, 115 kn)
- Stall speed: 56 mph (90 km/h, 49 kn)
- Range: 530 mi (850 km, 460 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 18,000 ft (5,500 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,000 ft/min (5.1 m/s)
- Simpson 2007, p. 553
- Phillips, Edward H., book: Travel Air: Wings Over the Prairie, 1982, Wind Canyon Books, ISBN 9780911139174. (revised ed., Flying Books International, 1994, Eagan, MN, ISBN 0-911139-17-6)
- Phillips, Edward H., "An Abridged History of Travel Air," March, 2000, Travel Air Log, as reproduced on the TARA-History page of the Travel Air Restorers Association, retrieved January 28, 2017
- Bissionette, Bruce, The Wichita 4: Cessna, Moellendick, Beech and Stearman, 1999, Aviation Heritage, Destin FL ISBN 0-943691-50-8
- Wilkinson, Stephan, "'Wichita Fokker' Takes Flight," February 28, 2014, Aviation History, as posted on HistoryNet.com retrieved January 7, 2017.
- Cooper, Ann Lewis and Sharon Rajnus, Stars of the Sky, Legends All,, 2008, Zenith Imprint, ISBN 9781610607520, retrieved January 28, 2017
- "1929 Travel Air 4000," exhibit notes, Fantasy of Flight Museum, retrieved January 28, 2017
- Hagedorn, Dan and Antonio L. Sapienza, Aircraft of the Chaco War 1928-1935, Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., Atglen, Pa., 1997
- "World's First Steam Driven Airplane" Popular Science, July 1933, detailed article with drawings
- George & William Besler (April 29, 2011). The Besler Steam Plane (YouTube). Bomberguy.
- Where have all the Dobles gone, The Steam Automobile, Vol 7 No 1, Spring 1965, page 23
- Simpson 2001, p. 553
- "Book Review: Aircraft of the Chaco War 1928-1935 (Dan Hagedorn and Antonio L. Sapienza)," August 11, 2001, Aviation History Magazine in HistoryNet.com, retrieved January 28, 2017
- Colangelo, Anthony J., "Constitutional Limits on Extraterritorial Jurisdiction: Terrorism and the Intersection of National and International Law," Harvard International Law Journal, Volume 48, Number 1, Winter 2007, retrieved January 28, 2017
- Cite error: The named reference
Phillips_abridged_travel_air_historywas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "The Travel Air 4000 – a Working Ag Plane," May 19, 2014, The Heidrick Ag Museum, retrieved January 28, 2017
- "Travel Air 4000 1928-1936," in "Aircraft By Type," Delta Museum, retrieved January 28, 2017
- "What's New," page, Travel Air Restorers Association website, retrieved January 28, 2017
- Harris, Richard, "Early Movies" Archived 2017-02-03 at the Wayback Machine sub-section, "Motion Pictures" section, Wichita Aircraft in TV, Video & Film, website of The Wichita Aviation Centennial. retrieved Janualry 28, 2017
- "Aviation Films," Aerofiles.com
- Bowers 1979, p. 404.
- Hagedorn 1992, p. 72.
- "HISTORIC AIRCRAFT" (PDF). Virginia Aviation Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
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- "Travel Air D4D". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Smithsonian Institution. 2016-03-18. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
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- "FAA REGISTRY [N5290]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
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- "Aircraft". Cavanaugh Flight Museum. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
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- "1930 Curtiss-Wright Travel Air D-4000 Speedwing (Restoration)". Owls Head Transportation Museum. Owls Head Transportation Museum. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "FAA REGISTRY [N477N]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- Stadler, Fred. "1929 Travel Air E-4000 - NC648H". EAA. EAA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- "FAA REGISTRY [N648H]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation.
- Aviation March 1936, pp. 82–83.
- Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- Phillips, Edward H., (1982, 1994) Travel Air: Wings Over the Prairie, 1982, Wind Canyon Books, ISBN 9780911139174. (revised ed., Flying Books International, 1994, Eagan, MN, ISBN 0-911139-17-6) (the principal reference on Travel Air)
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- NASM website
- AirVenture Museum website
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Media related to Travel Air 2000 at Wikimedia Commons