Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid
The Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, also known as Prius PHV[Note 1] and Prius Prime (U.S.) since 2016, is a plug-in hybrid manufactured by Toyota. Deliveries of the production model began in Japan in January 2012, in late February in the United States, and by late June 2012 in Europe. The second generation model was first available in 2016 and is currently being produced.
|Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid|
2019 Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Business Edition Plus (ZVW52, UK)
|Production||January 2012 – present|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||5-door liftback|
The first generation Prius plug-in was produced from 2012 to 2016. Its total all-electric range in blended mode is 18 km (11 mi) as rated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA fuel economy rating is 95 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (2.5 L/100 km; 114 mpg-imp) in charge-depleting (all-electric or EV mode) and a combined city/highway rating of 4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg‑imp (50 mpg‑US) in hybrid mode, the same as the conventional Prius liftback. The first generation Prius plug-in was based on a third generation Toyota Prius (model ZVW30) outfitted with a 4.4 kWh lithium-ion battery co-developed with Panasonic. A total of about 75,400 first generation units were sold worldwide through April 2016.
The second generation Prius plug-in is called the Prius Prime in the United States and Prius PHV in Japan and Europe. It was first available in 2016 and is currently being produced. It has an EPA-rated all-electric range of 40 km (25 mi), over twice the range of the first generation model. The EPA-rated fuel economy is 25.9 kW⋅h/100 mi (133 mpg‑e) in all-electric mode, a 40% enhancement over the first generation model, and the highest mpg-e rating in EV mode of any EPA-rated vehicle with an internal combustion engine. The second generation Prius plug-in is based on the fourth generation Toyota Prius (model XW50) outfitted with a drive system powered by an 8.8 kWh lithium-ion battery. Retail deliveries of the Prime began in the United States in November 2016, and it was released in the Japanese market in February 2017.
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid ranked as the second most sold plug-in electric car in 2012, and listed as the world's all-time third best selling plug-in car by the end of December 2014. As sales declined after the end of its production, the Prius PHV fell to fifth place in the global ranking by November 2015, after being surpassed by both the Tesla Model S and the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV. As of December 2017[update], sales were led by North America with 66,800 units, followed by Japan with 48,800, and the European market with 13,100 units. The U.S. was the leading country market with 65,703 units sold by 2017. As of December 2019[update], cumulative global sales of both Prius plug-in generations totaled 209,000 units.
The Prius Plug-In Concept was exhibited at the September 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show, the October 2009 Tokyo Motor Show, and the December 2009 LA Auto Show. After displaying the concept version in these three shows, in December 2009 Toyota officially announced the introduction of the production model in Japan during the following six months.
A global demonstration program involving 600 pre-production test cars began in late 2009 and took place in Japan, Europe, Canada, China, Australia, New Zealand and the United States. Toyota's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle project began in 2007, with road trials of a prototype vehicle in France and the UK in 2008. The 600 Prius plug-in demonstration vehicles were made available for lease to fleet and government customers, of which, 230 were delivered in Japan beginning in late December 2009, 125 models released in the U.S. by early 2010, and 200 units in Europe in 2010. All program vehicles were sent to limited geographical areas and equipped with special data tracking devices designed to allow Toyota to monitor the car's usage for further development of the plug-in hybrid system.
Programs by countryEdit
The demonstration program in Australia included five Prius Plug-ins allocated to government agencies.
In March 2010 Toyota launched its demonstration program in Canada with five Prius Plug-ins in partnership with academic institutions, hydro-electric producers, and governmental agencies in each of the four provinces participating in the program:British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario and Québec. Canada is home to Toyota's global cold weather research center in Northern Ontario, and the country's cold weather will serve to evaluate its adverse effect on battery performance and range.
In July 2010 the first demonstration Prius PHV was delivered in Manitoba. The unit will be shared and tested by four partners:Manitoba Hydro, Manitoba Innovation, Energy and Mines, and the University of Manitoba. There are 15 trial partners in the four provinces that are part of the first phase of the Canadian demonstration trial.
On October 28, 2010, Toyota signed an agreement with China Automotive Technology and Research Center (CATARC) on jointly carrying out field trials of the Prius PHV in China.
Toyota leased 200 units in Europe to selected partners and customers in 18 European countries. A total of 150 demonstrator plug-in went to France, the United Kingdom and Germany. The largest fleet was deployed in Strasbourg, France, with 70 units.
The demonstration program in Strasbourg was launched in April 2010. The 3-year program involves 70 Prius Plug-ins and the deployment of dedicated charging infrastructure. The program will set up more than 150 charging points at private parking lots of firms participating in the program, user homes, public parking lots and on public roads. The program is run by Électricité de France (EDF) in partnership with Toyota and the City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg, and is financially supported through a research fund managed by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME).
The City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg will lease five Prius Plug-ins and also provide a subsidy to the local carsharing company to lease three Prius PHVs. The remaining vehicles will be leased to other public institutions and private companies.
The demonstration program in Germany was conducted in Baden-Württemberg with ten Prius Plug-ins and the corresponding dedicated charging infrastructure. The program was run by German energy provider EnBW.
- United Kingdom
The demonstration trial in the UK began in late June 2010 with a fleet of 20 Prius Plug-in Hybrids. Toyota Motor Company partnered with Électricité de France to carry out a three-year trial, and as part of the program a number of charging bays will be deployed in London. The trial Prius Plug-in Hybrids will be available through leasing to public sector organizations and business users. Among the organizations that received the first Prius Plug-ins are Transport for London, the Government Car and Despatch Agency, the Metropolitan Police Service, News International and Sky.
In Japan, TMC leased approximately 230 units to government ministries, local governments selected for the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry's EV & PHV Towns program, corporations such, as electric power companies, and other entities. As part of the demonstration program and beginning in July 2010, two Prius PHV were made available for short-term rental in the city of Gotō, Nagasaki. The rental fees are ¥8,400 (US$96) for up to six hours,¥9,450 (US$108) for up to 12 hours, ¥11,550 (US$131) for up to 24 hours, and ¥9,450 (US$108) for each additional day.
- United States
A total of 125 demonstrator plug-ins were deployed in the US since 2010. In October 2009, Toyota announced its first regional program partnership in the U.S. with Xcel Energy’s SmartGridCity program in Boulder, Colorado. The research project was coordinated by the University of Colorado at Boulder Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute (RASEI). Boulder offered the opportunity of monitoring the performance of Toyota's first generation lithium-ion battery at high altitude and under cold climate. Other partnerships were made with Qualcomm, Silicon Valley Leadership Group, Southern California Air Quality Management District, the University of California at Berkeley and Portland State University. Other regional programs considered wereNorthern and Southern California, Washington, D.C., New York City, Portland and Pittsburgh, which offered different conditions for vehicle performance and customer needs.
In June 2010 the first demonstration Prius PHVs were delivered to Portland State University and the Silicon Valley Leadership Group. An additional 30 demonstration program vehicles were assigned to Silicon Valley groups and companies, including the University of California, Berkeley in the following weeks. Also in June 2010 the first three Prius PHVs were delivered in Southern California to San Diego Gas & Electric and the nonprofit California Center for Sustainable Energy. In August 2010 two Prius plug-in hybrids were delivered to be tested in San Francisco's municipal fleet as part of the demonstration program.Georgetown University was the first partner in Washington, D.C. to participate in the program under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program. Two Prius Plug-ins were loaned in December 2010 and sixteen Georgetown employees are testing the vehicles in three-month rotations. Five Prius PHVs were delivered in New York City, two units to be tested by New York City Department of Transportation and three by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
As part of the demonstration program, Toyota delivered eight Prius plug-in hybrids to Zipcar in January 2011. The car sharing firm selected three markets to make the plug-in hybrids available to its members, three cars in Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts, three in San Francisco, California, and two in Portland, Oregon. Similar to all hybrids in Zipcar's fleet, the Prius plug-in can only be reserved by the hour at an hourly rate of US$7.
Field test resultsEdit
Toyota reported the following findings for the European demonstration fleet after nearly a year into the project, representing the driving experience acquired by the participants after 497,100 miles driven:
- Two thirds of commute trips traveled a distance of less than 20.1 km (12.5 mi), the expected all-electric range in EV mode.
- More than a third of the participants made long distance trips of more than 100 km (62 mi) at least once a week.
- Fuel consumption data shows that the Prius PHV consumed 36% less fuel than the comparable, best-in-class diesel vehicle, and almost 50% less than the best-in-class petrol vehicle.
- The maximum average fuel consumption figure observed was more than 2.00 L/100 km; 117 mpg‑US (141 mpg‑imp).
- United Kingdom
Based on the results from less than one year of real-world use for the 20 Prius Plug-in demonstrators leased to EDF Energy, Toyota reported the following findings:
- Driving in electric-only (EV) mode has accounted for one third of the distance driven in the demonstration.
- The average trip distance has been 11.7 km (7.3 miles), with 59% of all journeys covering between 5.0 to 20.0 km (3.1 to 12.4 miles).
- Twenty-two percent of drivers have even been able to drive further than the official 20.1 km (12.5 miles) range in EV mode.
- Fuel consumption data indicates performance is 27% better than an equivalent diesel-powered vehicle.
- United States
Consumer Reports field tested the Prius PHV for two weeks and reported an all-electric range between 23 to 27 km (14 to 17 miles) spent upfront at the beginning of each trip. On a 126 km (78-mile) commute trip the Prius Plug-in averaged 3.70 L/100 km; 76.3 mpg‑imp (63.5 mpg‑US) while on commute trips between 32 to 48 km (20 to 30 miles) the PHV averaged 81 miles per US gallon (2.9 L/100 km; 97 mpg‑imp) to 86 miles per US gallon (2.7 L/100 km; 103 mpg‑imp) with an EV ratio varying from 40 to 56 percent during those trips.
The California Center for Sustainable Energy tested two Prius Plug-in with 13 different drivers during seven weeks and reported an average combined fuel economy of 83 miles per US gallon (2.8 L/100 km; 100 mpg‑imp) on an average round trip commute of 35 km (22 miles). The best average attained was 2.40 L/100 km; 117.6 mpg‑imp (97.9 mpg‑US) on an average round trip commute of 77 km (48 miles).
Motor Trend field tested the Prius PHV for 32 days and reported average CO
2 emissions of 80 g/km (0.28 lb/mile), an average all-electric range of 18.8 km (11.7 miles), and an average combined fuel economy of 3.34 L/100 km; 84.5 mpg‑imp (70.4 mpg‑US) over the 3,030 km (1,880 miles) accumulated during their trial.
Based on the testing with 160 consumers across the United States, Toyota reported that users are charging the Prius Plug-in more frequently than the carmaker anticipated, with about 10 charges per week, but the electricity cost was lower than they thought, at about US$150 for the entire six-week trial.
Toyota is developing a wireless inductive charging system that uses resonance between an on-floor coil and an onboard coil to transmit power to the battery. The company plans to begin testing and verification work of the wireless battery charging system in Japan, the U.S. and Europe in 2014 for a future plug-in Prius. Toyota is also considering requests from Prius PHV owners for additional all-electric range.
Development of the second generationEdit
In August 2013, Toyota Managing Officer Satoshi Ogiso, who was chief engineer for the Prius line, announced some of the improvements and key features of the next generation Prius. The next-generation Prius plug-in hybrid vehicle was developed in parallel with the standard Prius model. Production of the first generation Prius Plug-in ended in June 2015. The second generation model, the Toyota Prius Prime, was unveiled at the 2016 New York International Auto Show. Retail deliveries began in the United States in November 2016.
The next-generation Prius was designed to deliver significantly improved fuel economy in a more compact package that is lighter in weight and lower in cost. These objectives were achieved through the development of a new generation of powertrains with significant advances in battery, electric motor and gasoline engine technologies. The next Prius features improved batteries with higher energy density; smaller electric motors, with higher power density than the current Prius motors; and the gasoline engine features a thermal efficiency greater than 40% (in the current Prius is 38.5%). The Prius fuel economy has improved on average by about 10% each generation, and Toyota has set the challenge to continue to improve at this rate.
In September 2016, Shoichi Kaneko, assistant chief engineer for the Prius Prime, said in an interview with the website AutoblogGreen that creating the next-generation Prius will be a tremendously difficult challenge due to the physical limitations to improve the Prius' fuel economy. And considering that Toyota "wants to lead the way in reducing (and eventually eliminating) fossil fuels from its vehicles, simply making a better standard hybrid powertrain might not be enough," the carmaker is considering making every future Prius a plug-in hybrid beginning with the fifth-generation models.
First generation (XW30; 2012–2016)Edit
|First generation (XW30)|
Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid
|Production||January 2012 – October 2016|
|Engine||1.8 L gasoline 4-cylinder port-injected inline-4 Atkinson cycle|
|Electric motor||80 hp (60 kW) electric motor|
|Transmission||Planetary gear eCVT|
|Hybrid drivetrain||Power-split hybrid (Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive)|
|Battery||4.4 kWh lithium-ion battery|
|Range||870 km (540 miles)|
|Electric range||18 km (11 miles) (EPA - blended mode) |
23 km (14 miles) (NEDC/Toyota)
26.4 km (16.4 miles) (Japanese cycle)
|Wheelbase||2,700 mm (106.3 in)|
|Length||4,460 mm (175.6 in)|
|Width||1,745 mm (68.7 in)|
|Height||1,490 mm (58.7 in)|
|Curb weight||1,420 kg (3,130 lb)|
The Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid total all-electric range in blended mode is 18 km (11 miles) as rated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has an expected total range of 870 km (540 miles), and a maximum electric-only speed of 100 km/h (62 mph). According to Toyota the Prius plug-in is expected to be rated in Europe at 2.10 L/100 km; 135 mpg‑imp (112 mpg‑US) equivalent, with CO
2 emissions of 49 g/km. The EPA fuel economy rating is 95 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (2.5 L/100 km; 114 mpg-imp) in charge-depleting (all-electric) mode and a combined city/highway rating of 4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg‑imp (50 mpg‑US) in hybrid mode, the same as the conventional Prius liftback. The production version was unveiled at the September 2011 International Motor Show Germany. Production of the first generation Prius Plug-in ended in October 2016.
A cumulative total of 75,400 first generation Prius PHVs were sold worldwide between December 2012 and April 2016. The United States led sales with 42,345 first generation units delivered through September 2016, when dealerships run out of stock. Japan ranked second with 22,100 units, followed by Europe with 10,600 units, both through January 2017.
The pre-production test cars are based on a third generation Toyota Prius (model ZVW30) outfitted with 5.2 kWh lithium-ion batteries. The selected battery capacity is the minimum required for the Prius Plug-in to be eligible for the U.S. federal tax credit of US$2,500, which is applicable to the first 200,000 plug-ins sold by Toyota according to the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009.
The pre-production Prius Plug-in uses three different batteries, two to provide all-electric drive and a third battery engages when the first two are depleted, allowing the car to operate in hybrid mode, like a regular 50-mpg Prius. According to Toyota, when the vehicle starts, the plug-in operates in all-electric mode, drawing electrical power directly from the first battery pack. When its charge is depleted, it disconnects from the circuit and the second pack engages and supplies electrical energy to the motor. When the second pack is depleted again it disconnects from the circuit and the system defaults to conventional hybrid mode, using the main battery as the sole electrical power source. Pack one and pack two will not reengage in tandem with the main battery pack until the vehicle is plugged in and charged.
According to Toyota the Prius plug-in demonstrator is rated at 1.76 L/100 km; 161 mpg‑imp (134 mpg‑US) on the Japanese JC08 cycle with a combined efficiency based on 43.6% of driving in EV mode, and CO
2 emissions of 41 g/km. Fuel efficiency operating as a gasoline-electric hybrid, like the regular Prius, is 3.3 L/100 km; 86 mpg‑imp (72 mpg‑US) with CO
2 emissions of 76 g/km.
The production Prius Plug-in has a number of key changes from the demonstration units that were deployed in the field for testing based on that experience and customer feedback. The production version has two key modifications from the demonstration vehicle to improve efficiency: the ability to select between EV and hybrid mode, and the ability to recharge the battery from regenerative braking. Toyota decided to include a selectable electric driving mode (EV mode), allowing drivers to conserve energy for use in those places where EV mode is more efficient, such as city driving. Production Prius PHVs may direct the regenerative braking energy to the electric-vehicle battery, rather than the regular hybrid system battery, thus providing additional range in EV mode.
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid uses the Hybrid Synergy Drive of the standard Prius model, with enhanced capabilities that incorporates a 4.4 kWh lithium-ion battery that significantly expands the all-electric range as compared to the regular Prius, and fully rechargeable from a domestic source. The hybrid system includes a 1.8-liter DOHC 16-valve VVT-i gasoline engine that develops 73 kW (98 hp) @ 5200 rpm, and 105 lb-ft (142 N·m) @ 4000 rpm, a third-generation hybrid transaxle, a power control unit (PCU), and an on-board charging system. The system uses two high-output electric motors, one 60 kW (80 hp) unit (MG2) that mainly works to power the compact, lightweight transaxle, and another smaller motor (MG1) rated at 42 kW (56 hp) that works as the electric power source for battery regeneration and as a starter for the gasoline engine. Maximum motor-drive voltage is 650 volts DC. After the electric driving range is exhausted, the plug-in switches into hybrid operation at a pre-determined state of battery charge (SOC) and operates as a conventional full hybrid with a similar efficiency of a standard Prius. Net hybrid system output is 134 bhp, allowing the Prius Plug-in to accelerate from 0 to 62 mph (0 to 100 km/h) in 10.7 seconds and reach a top speed of 180 km/h (112 mph). The maximum speed in EV mode is 100 km/h (62 mph), or 85 km/h (53 mph) on European models. With a weight of approximately 1,420 kg (3,130 lb), the plug-in version is only 50 kg (110 lb) heavier than the regular Prius.
The Prius Plug-in has three drive modes, all-electric (EV), and two hybrid modes: Eco and Power. The EV mode is user-selectable and when running in this mode the hybrid engine control unit (ECU) operates the vehicle using only the larger motor-generator (MG2) if pre-determined parameters are satisfied, such as sufficient battery state of charge (SOC) and vehicle speed within EV mode range. The Eco mode is designed to maximize fuel savings for any driving conditions, and modifies or smoothes out the electronic throttle control program to reduce throttle response, reducing the throttle opening to a maximum of 11.6%, and also modifies the operation of the air conditioning system. As an additional benefit, the Eco mode improves performance in low-traction conditions because the reduced output helps to minimize wheel skidding such as those caused by ice and snow. Power mode increases throttle response in the middle range more than normal.
Battery and rangeEdit
The production version was unveiled at the September 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show with a lithium-ion battery pack that stores 4.4 kWh. Toyota estimates that the all-electric range varies between 16 to 24 km (10 to 15 miles) on a full charge depending on quick acceleration and braking, road and vehicle conditions, or climate control use. The lithium-ion battery pack can be charged in 180 minutes at 120 volts or in 90 minutes at 240 volts.
Under the JC08 Japanese test cycle the Prius PHV range is 26.4 km (16.4 miles), 3 km (1.9 miles) more than the 23.4 km (14.5 miles) achieved by the demonstrator. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued two EV range ratings to the Prius Plug-in. A driving range for blended operation electric-gasoline of 18 km (11 miles) until the battery is depleted. The second rating is for all-electric operation with a range of 10 km (6 miles). EPA estimated a total range of 870 km (540 miles) until both sources of power are depleted. The regular gasoline-only Prius has a total range of 863 km (536 miles).
The 4.4 kWh lithium-ion battery developed for the Prius Plug-in fits under the rear cargo floor and weighs 80 kg (180 lb). As a comparison, the nickel-metal hydride battery of the third generation Prius, which has a capacity of only 1.3 kWh, weighs 42 kg (93 lb). A full charge using an external AC outlet takes approximately 2.5 to 3.0 hours from a standard North American 120 V 15 A household outlet, or 1.5 hours using a standard European 230 V household outlet. The battery requires approximately 3.2 kWh of electricity plus 1.1 l; 0.25 imp gal (0.3 US gal) of gasoline to provide 40 km (25 miles) of range. A fully charged battery state of charge reads 85% and the all-electric mode disengages at 23%, and the usable energy after charging loss is 2.73 kWh. The included charging cable connects to the charging port inlet located on the right-rear fender. The charge port location was moved from the front driver-side fender in the demonstration model based on input from the program participants. The battery charger cable weighs just 1.70 kg (3.75 lb), is 7.3 m (24 ft) in length, and fits in its own compartment in the trunk area. The charge port provides LED (Light Emitting Diode) illumination for convenient night-time charging. A timer allows charging to take place during off-peak hours and can be set for either a start or end time.
According to Toyota the Prius plug-in was expected to be rated at 2.10 L/100 km; 135 mpg‑imp (112 mpg‑US) and CO
2 emissions of 49 g/km under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). EPA's official fuel economy rating is 95 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (2.5 L/100 km; 114 mpg-imp) in all-electric mode and a combined city/highway rating of 4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg‑imp (50 mpg‑US) in hybrid mode, the same as the third generation Prius liftback.
The EPA's overall combined city/highway EV mode/hybrid fuel economy rating is 4.1 L/100 km; 70 mpg‑imp (58 mpg‑US) equivalent (MPG-e), with 4.0 L/100 km; 71 mpg‑imp (59 mpg‑US) equivalent in the city and 4.2 L/100 km; 67 mpg‑imp (56 mpg‑US) equivalent on the highway. The Prius PHEV overall EV mode/hybrid fuel economy is higher than the Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid (57 MPG-e) and both Ford Energi models (51 MPG-e), but lower than the BMW i3 REx (88 MPG-e), Chevrolet Volt (62 MPG-e) and the Cadillac ELR (65 MPG-e).
Based on the JC08 Japanese test cycle, the Prius PHV fuel efficiency is 61.0 km/L (143 mpg-US, 1.64 L/100 km), calculated from combined all-electric (EV) and hybrid (HV) driving modes, with only 38 g/km of CO
2 emissions. The electric power consumption rate is 8.74 km/kWh. After the battery has been depleted, the HV mode fuel efficiency is 31.6 km/L (74.3 mpg-US, 3.16 L/100 km).
The EPA's 2014 edition of the "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends" introduced utility factors for plug-in hybrids to represent the percentage of miles that will be driven using electricity by an average driver, in electric only or blended modes. The Prius PHV has a factor of 29%, compared with 83% for the BMW i3 REx, 66% for the Chevrolet Volt, 45% for the Ford Energi models, and 33% for the Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid.
In July 2014 Toyota GB set a record breaking lap around the Nürburgring Nordschleife circuit in Germany. This was made using a purely cosmetically modified Prius Plug-in. The 'Prius Plug-in TRD' achieved an impressive fuel consumption figure of 698mpg over the course of one lap.
The EPA rating for the model year 2012 through 2015 Prius PHEV tailpipe emissions is 133 grams of CO
2 per mile, (83 CO
2 g/km). The EPA also accounted for the upstream CO
2 emissions associated with the production and distribution of electricity required to charge the vehicle. Since electricity production in the United States varies significantly from region to region, the EPA considered three scenarios/ranges with the low end of the range corresponding to the California powerplant emissions factor, the middle of the range represented by the national average powerplant emissions factor, and the upper end of the range corresponding to the powerplant emissions factor for the Rockies. The following table shows the Prius PHEV tailpipe emission plus total upstream CO
2 emissions for the three scenarios, compared with other six popular plug-in hybrids and the average gasoline-powered car:
|Comparison of tailpipe and upstream CO|
2 emissions(1) estimated by EPA
for popular MY 2014 plug-in hybrids available in the U.S. market as compared with the Prius Plug-in Hybrid
|Tailpipe + Total Upstream CO2|
|Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid||58||0.29||133||195||221||249|
|BMW i3 REx(3)||88||0.83||40||134||207||288|
|Ford Fusion Energi/Ford C-Max Energi||51||0.45||129||219||269||326|
|Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid||57||0.33||130||196||225||257|
|Average MY 2014 gasoline car||24.2||0||367||400||400||400|
|Notes: (1) Based on 45% highway and 55% city driving. (2) The utility factor represents, on average, the percentage of miles that will be driven|
using electricity (in electric only and blended modes) by an average driver. (3) The EPA classifies the i3 REx as a series plug-in hybrid
In the United States the Prius Plug-in includes Toyota's Vehicle Proximity Notification System (VPNS), which is designed to alert pedestrians, the blind, and others of the vehicle's presence due to significant noise reduction typical of a hybrid vehicle traveling at low speeds in EV mode. This type of warning device is mandated by the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act of 2010. The warning sound is generated by externally mounted speakers and it activates automatically only at speeds below about 24 km/h (15 mph). The pitch varies with the vehicle's speed to give pedestrians a sense of whether the approaching Prius is accelerating or decelerating.
- Fire incident
In separate incidents during the storm and flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy on the night of October 29, 2012, one Toyota Prius PHV and 16 Fisker Karmas caught fire while being parked at Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal. The vehicles were partially submerged by flash floods caused by the hurricane. In the case of the Toyota's incident, a Prius PHV burned and two other Priuses, a conventional hybrid and a plug-in, just smoldered. A Toyota spokeswoman said the fire “likely started because saltwater got into the electrical system.” She also clarified that the incident affected only three cars out of the 4,000 Toyotas that were at the terminal during the storm, including more than 2,128 plug-in or hybrid models.
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid shares many of the same exterior and interior design elements as the standard 2012 Prius, keeping the coefficient of drag at Cd=0.25. Among the design features exclusive to the plug-in are: unique chrome grille and bumper trim, chrome door handles, unique 15-inch alloy wheels, blue-accented headlamps, a distinct tail lamp design, and a new Hybrid Synergy Drive Plug-in badge.
In the United States the Prius Plug-in Hybrid is available in two models, the standard Prius Plug-in and the Prius Plug-in Advanced, and offered in five exterior colors. The standard trim level includes all the features of the 2012 Prius Two Liftback grade, plus some features from the Prius Three and Prius Four grades. Standard features include heated front seats, remote air conditioning system (which can run either off the grid while the vehicle is plugged in or off the battery like the third-generation Prius), a charger timer, EV/ECO/POWER modes, three-door smart key with push-button start, new touch-screen display audio with navigation and an integrated backup camera, Toyota Entune, and LED daytime running lights. Additional features of the Prius Plug-in Advanced include head-up display, LED headlamps, softex interior seat trim, eight-way adjustable power driver seat, JBL premium audio and HDD navigation system and exclusive Entune Plug-in Hybrid Applications for smartphones. Additional safety features in the Advanced model include the Pre-Collision System with Dynamic Radar Cruise Control and Safety Connect system.
Second generation (XW50; 2016–present)Edit
|Second generation (XW50)|
2017 Toyota Prius Prime
|Also called||Toyota Prius Prime (US)|
|Production||November 2016 – present (United States)|
February 2017 – present (Japan)
|Body and chassis|
|Engine||2ZR-FXE 1.8 L gasoline 4-cylinder port-injected inline-4 Atkinson cycle|
|Electric motor||Dual motor generator drive system, same as Prius 4 (XW50; 2015–present): MG1 (model 1SM) up to 23kW, 40N⋅m; MG2 (model 1NM) up to 53kW, 163N⋅m|
|Transmission||Planetary gear eCVT|
|Hybrid drivetrain||Power-split hybrid (Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive)|
|Battery||8.8 kWh lithium-ion battery|
|Range||1,030 km (640 miles)|
|Electric range||40 km (25 miles) (EPA)|
64 km (40 miles) (Toyota Taiwan)
|Wheelbase||2,700.0 mm (106.3 in)|
|Length||4,645.7 mm (182.9 in)|
|Width||1,760.2 mm (69.3 in)|
|Height||1,470.7 mm (57.9 in)|
|Curb weight||1,526 kg (3,365 lb)|
The second generation Prius plug-in hybrid, known as the Toyota Prius Prime in the US, was unveiled at the March 2016 New York International Auto Show. Retail deliveries of the Prius Prime began in the US in November 2016, and, unlike the first generation model, it will be available in all 50 states. Toyota sales target for the US is about 20,000 Prius Prime models annually. The second generation Prius PHV was released in the Japanese market in February 2017, with a sales target of more than 30,000 units per year.
The Prime's all-electric range is 40 km (25 miles), twice the range of the first generation model. Its EPA rating is 25.9 kW⋅h/100 mi; 16.1 kW⋅h/100 km (133 mpg‑e), a 26% enhancement over the first generation model, and the highest mpg-e rating in all-electric mode of any vehicle with an internal combustion engine. Toyota targeted the fuel economy in hybrid mode to be equal to or better than regular fourth generation Prius liftback. Unlike its predecessor, the Prime runs entirely on electricity in all-electric mode (EV mode).
The 2017 model year Prius Prime has a different exterior and interior design. The Prime has a four-seat cabin layout, as Toyota decided to improve the car's efficiency to achieve its design goals.
The Prius Prime is powered by Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD) powertrain, combining a 1.8 L gasoline 4-cylinder port-injected inline-4 Atkinson cycle engine coupled with a dual motor generator drive system powered by an 8.8 kWh lithium-ion battery. The second generator motor is allowed to play the role of a supplemental traction motor while in all-electric mode.
Unlike its predecessor, the Prime is capable of running entirely on electricity in charge-depleting mode (EV mode) in more situations. The improved technology allows the Prius Prime to achieve a maximum of 68 kW (91 hp) from the electric motor system in EV mode. It also allowed Toyota to raise the maximum all-electric speed from 100 km/h (62 mph) to 135 km/h (84 mph), achieving a performance that is nearly as strong in electric mode, and quell concerns with the previous generation car that wouldn't have enough torque for safety if the gasoline engine were entirely kept out of the power flow.
Battery and rangeEdit
The Prius Prime has an 8.8-kilowatt-hour (32 MJ) lithium-ion battery that delivers an EPA-rated all-electric range of 40 km (25 miles), more than double that of the first generation model. The battery fits under the rear cargo floor and weighs 120 kg (265 lb). On one full tank of regular-grade gasoline and a full electric charge, total range is 1,030 km (640 miles). Its electric range lags behind the Hyundai Ioniq Plug-in, Hyundai Sonata PHEV and the Chevrolet Volt.
To keep up with the demands of charging the larger pack, the onboard charger was upgraded to 3.3 kW, up from 2.2 kW in the Prius Plug-in. The lithium-ion battery pack can be charged in 5.5 hours at 120 volts, or less than half that time at 240 volts.
The forced-air-cooled battery pack is located just under and slightly aft of the back seat. Toyota improved the precision in battery cell assembly working together with battery supplier Panasonic.
Toyota expected the Prius Prime to achieve an EPA rating of 29 kW⋅h/100 mi; 18 kW⋅h/100 km (120 mpg‑e), a 26% enhancement over the first generation model. Toyota targeted the fuel economy in hybrid mode to be equal or better than regular fourth generation Prius liftback. To reduce weight, Toyota used aluminum for the hood, and high-tensile strength steel. The Prius Prime features Toyota's first carbon fiber rear hatch, which saves weight, while a dual-wave rear glass design helps cut drag.
The 2017 model year Prius Prime has an EPA fuel economy rating of 25.9 kW⋅h/100 mi (133 mpg‑e) in all-electric mode (EV mode), the highest mpg-e rating of any vehicle with an internal combustion engine, making the Prime the most energy-efficient plug-in hybrid when operating in EV mode. However, the combined gasoline/electricity rating is not available yet. When operating in hybrid mode, the Prius Prime has an EPA-rated combined fuel economy of 4.4 L/100 km; 65 mpg‑imp (54 mpg‑US), 4.3 L/100 km; 66 mpg‑imp (55 mpg‑US) in city driving, and 4.4 L/100 km; 64 mpg‑imp (53 mpg‑US) in highway. Only the Prius Eco has a higher EPA-rated fuel economy rating in hybrid mode. Among all-electric cars, only the Hyundai Ioniq Electric has a higher energy efficiency, rated at 25.3 kW⋅h/100 mi; 15.7 kW⋅h/100 km (136 mpg‑e).
The 2017 model year Prius Prime has a different exterior design than the fourth generation Prius. The interior design is also different. The Prime has a four-seat cabin layout, as Toyota tested efficiency against their own internal benchmarks, and seating five people reduced the Prime's efficiency too much to achieve Toyota's design goals.
Markets and salesEdit
|First generation Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid sales|
by top national markets between 2012 and 2017
|Notes: (1) CYTD: current year-to-date sales through April 2016.|
(2) Total registered in the UK at the end of March 2016. (3) Sales in Finland through March 2016.
Toyota's initial global sales goal was to sell more than 60,000 Prius PHV a year, with Japan as the main market and aiming for 40,000 units, two-thirds of the carmaker's global sales goal. During its first year in the market, a total of 27,279 Prius PHVs were sold worldwide, allowing the Prius PHV to rank as the second most sold plug-in electric car for 2012. Sales in 2012 were led by the United States with 12,750 units delivered, followed by Japan with 10,970 units. In 2012, the Prius PHV was the best selling plug-in electric car in Sweden (499 units) and the top selling plug-in hybrid in the UK (470 units), France (413 units), and Norway (171 units). The top selling European market was the Netherlands, with 1,184 units sold during 2012.
Accounting for cumulative sales since its inception, the Prius PHV ranked as the world's third best selling PEV by December 2014. By May 2015, the Prius plug-in fell to fourth place after the Tesla Model S. and by November 2015 it was also surpassed in the global ranking by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, as the Prius sales declined after the end of its production in June 2015.
As of April 2016[update], global first generation Prius PHVs sales totaled 75,400 units since 2012, with the North American market accounting for 56.6% of all sales. The United States led sales with 42,345 units delivered through September 2016, when dealerships run out of stock. By the end of 2016, the Prius plug-in ranked as the world's all-time third top selling plug-in hybrid after the Volt/Ampera family of vehicles, and the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV.
The second generation Prius Prime was released to retail customers in the U.S. in November 2016, and in Japan in February 2017. Toyota expected to sell up to 60,000 units globally a year, with Japan accounting for more than half of those sales. Global cumulative sales of both Prius plug-in generations totaled 128,900 units at the end of 2017. Sales were led by North America with 66,800 units delivered, followed by Japan with 48,800 units sold, and the European market with cumulative sales of 13,100 units. About 200 units were sold in the rest of the world. The European market is led by the Netherlands with 4,134 units registered by the end of November 2015, followed by the UK with 1,580 units registered at the end of December 2015, and Sweden with 1,227 registrations up until April 2016. The U.S. continued as the top selling country market with 65,703 units delivered by the end of 2017. As of December 2019[update], cumulative sales of both Prius PHV generations totaled 209,000 units worldwide.
The Toyota Prius Plug-in was released in the Canadian market in September 2012 at a starting price of CA$35,700. During its first month in the market sold 21 units. The Prius Plug-in is eligible in several provinces for purchase rebates. According to its battery size, the Prius PHV was eligible in British Columbia for a CA$2,500 rebate starting on December 1, 2011. In Quebec the plug-in was eligible for a CA$5,000 rebate beginning on January 1, 2012, and a CA$5,000 rebate in Ontario under its Electric Vehicle Incentive Program. A total of 63 units were sold during 2012, and 212 in 2013. Cumulative sales totaled 1,102 units through December 2017.
In May 2017, Toyota Canada announced availability of the second-generation Prius Prime for the Canadian market. Initially available in both a standard and a Technology package, the model was exclusively available in Quebec (qualifying for a CA$4,000 provincial rebate) in recognition of a 60 percent increase in plug-in vehicle sales in the province during 2016. After selling more than 700 Prius Primes in Quebec, in January 2018 Toyota Canada announced a nationwide release for the Prius Prime and an additional Upgrade trim between the standard and Technology levels. It is eligible for a CA$2,500 rebate from the British Columbia government; a CA$7,100 rebate from the Ontario government was available until the cancellation of the province's cap-and-trade program in July 2018.
Deliveries of the Prius Plug-in Hybrid began in France in September 2012. Pricing started at €37,000 (~ US$48,275) including VAT and before any applicable government incentives. Excluding the environmental bonus, the plug in version is €9,000 (~ US$11,740) more expensive than the conventional hybrid model. The Prius PHV was the top selling plug-in hybrid in France for 2012 with 413 units registered, more than doubling Ampera sales (190). Sales were down to 393 units in 2013, and fell to 38 units in 2014. As of December 2015[update], registrations totaled 912 units since 2012.
Retail deliveries of the second generation Prius PHV are scheduled to begin in June 2017. The plug-in hybrid will be available only in one trim with pricing starting at €36,900 (~ US$39,200). Due to its CO
2 emissions (22 g/km), the Prius PHV is not eligible to the government's €6000 (~ US$6,370) ecological bonus.
Toyota began taking orders on late November 2011 and the Prius PHV was released on 30 January 2012. The price of the plug-in, including consumption tax, starts at ¥3,200,000 (US$32,930) for the entry-level S trim and goes up to ¥4,200,000 (US$43,223) for the G trim with leather option. Toyota's sales target for the Japanese market was set between 35,000 and 40,000 units per year. A total of 15,400 units had been sold between 2012 and December 2013. An additional 5,187 units were sold in 2014. Cumulative sales totaled about 22,100 first generation models through January 2017.
In October 2013 Toyota announced upgrades and reduced pricing for the 2014 Prius PHV in the Japanese market. The model will be offered in a new two-tone paint scheme, newly designed aluminium alloy wheels, LED illumination for the "PHV" and "Hybrid Synergy Drive" badges. Interior changes include a padded compartment box in the center of the dashboard for keeping the smartphone, and some dark wood grain inserts in the center console and the armrests. In addition, Toyota explained that the 2014 Prius Plug-In Hybrid will be manufactured using an improved spot-welding process that results in increased structural rigidity, which will reduce noise and vibration, and improve ride quality and steering feel. The Japanese-market 2014 Prius PHV will be offered in four trim levels: L, S, G and G Leather Package. The base price was reduced to ¥2,850,000 (US$29,330), and the advanced model will start at ¥3,990,000 (US$41,060).
The second generation Prius PHV was released in Japan on 15 February 2017. Toyota expected to sell more than 30,000 units a year in Japan. Sales in 2017 totaled about 26,700 units. As of December 2017[update], cumulative sales of both Prius plug-in generations totaled 48,800 units sold.
Deliveries began in August 2012. The Prius PHV pricing starts at €38,990 (~ US$52,100) and lease prices start at €599 (~ US$668) per month. The price includes installation of a charging station at home, and owners also benefit from several tax exemptions and enjoy free parking due to car's low emissions.
A total of 1,184 units were sold during 2012, making the Prius PHV the second best selling plug-in electric vehicle in the country after the Opel Ampera (2,693 units), and also making the Netherlands the top selling European market for the Prius PHV during 2012. Sales totaled 2,707 units during 2013, ranking third in the Dutch plug-in electric car segment after the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (8,038) and the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (6,238). Prius PHV registrations totaled 4,134 units at the end of November 2015.
The Prius PHEV was the top selling plug-in electric car in the country during 2012, with 499 units sold. An additional 376 units were sold in 2013, and ranked as the second most sold PEV that year. A total of 1,085 Prius PHEVs had been registered in Sweden through December 2014, ranking as the third top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the country after the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (2,385) and the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (1,388). A total of 132 units were registered in 2015, and cumulative registrations totaled 1,217 units through December 2015.
The Prius Plug-in pricing starts at GB£32,895 (~ US$52,161) before taking into account the government's GB£5,000 Plug-in Car Grant. After the subsidy is applied, the Prius Plug-in ends up on par with the Nissan Leaf electric car. Deliveries to fleet customers began in August 2012. As of 31 December 2012[update], a total of 470 units were sold since its introduction to the market in July 2012, allowing the Prius PHV to surpass the Vauxhall Ampera and ranking as the top selling plug-in hybrid in the country. In 2013 the Prius PHV ranked again as the top selling plug-in hybrid with 509 units sold, up 8.5% from 2012. Cumulative sales through December 2013 reached 979 units. As of March 2014[update], the Prius plug-in ranked second after the Nissan Leaf, then the British market leader, but by December 2014 it fell to fifth place among plug-in electric cars, and second place among plug-in hybrids after the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV. A total of 1,580 Prius PHVs were registered in the UK by the end of December 2015.
Retail deliveries of the second generation Prius PHV are scheduled to begin in March 2017. The plug-in hybrid will be available in two trims, Business Edition Plus and Excel, with pricing starting at GB£31,695 (~ US$39,340) for the Business Edition, and GB£33,895 (~ US$42,070), both, before any government's incentives. The Prius PHV is eligible for a GB£2,500 (~ US$3,100) purchase grant.
The production Prius Plug-in Hybrid was introduced in the U.S. on September 16, 2011, at the Green Drive Expo in Richmond, California. For the 2012 and 2013 model year the sales price in the U.S. started at US$32,000 for the base model and US$39,525 for the advanced trim before any applicable government incentives. All trims had a US$760 delivery fee. In October 2013 Toyota announced a price reduction for the 2014 model year Prius Plug-in, cutting US$2,000 off the base price, and US$4,620 for the advanced version, in order to boost flagging sales. There were no changes in the vehicle content as compared to the 2013 model, and the price reduction took effect in November 2013, when deliveries of the new model year began. The 2017 Prius Prime starts at US$27,100 for the base model and US$33,100 for the advanced trim before any applicable federal government incentives and local rebates. All trims have a mandatory US$850 delivery fee.
Due to its battery size, the first generation Prius Plug-in qualified for a federal tax credit of US$2,500, and also met eligibility for additional incentives at the state and local level, such as California's US$1,500 rebate. The Prius Plug-in also qualified for California's Enhanced Advanced Technology-Partial Zero-Emissions Vehicle (EAT-PZEV) status, which allowed plug-in owners to have free access to use carpool lanes even when traveling solo. The Prius Prime is eligible for federal tax credit of US$4,500 due to its larger 8.8 kWh battery. Also meets eligibility for additional incentives at the state and local level. The Prime also qualifies for California's clean air green sticker for free access to high-occupancy vehicle lanes.
On April 22, 2011 Toyota introduced its priority registration website for customers interested in ordering the Prius Plug-in Hybrid, even though the purchase price had not been announced at that time. Registration guaranteed first access to Toyota's Online Order System, which began sales in October 2011, but limited to the 14 launch states. Toyota reported that during its first month since the process began, more than 17,000 potential buyers signed up through its reservation website, by mid July 2011, 29,000 potential buyers had registered, and deposits were taken by dealers beginning in November 2011. The plug-in hybrid is available in two trims and five colors.
Production began in January 2012, and retail deliveries began in late February 2012. Initial availability was limited, and, as of October 2013[update], the Prius PHV was offered only in 15 states: Arizona, California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia and Washington. According to Toyota these are the states where nearly 60% of all Prius models are currently sold in the country. The Prius Plug-in was originally advertised to become available in all remaining states in 2013; however, nationwide availability never materialized and the car was only sold in the original 15 states until its discontinuation in 2015. Toyota announced it expects to sell in the U.S. market around 15,000 units a year initially. Toyota delivered seven plug-ins in February, sold 891 units in March 2012, its first full month on the market, and in April 2012 the Prius PHV was the top selling plug-in electric car for that month.
As of October 2016[update], cumulative sales of first generation Prius PHV totaled 42,345 units since 2012, ranking as the second top selling plug-in hybrid car in the U.S. after the Chevrolet Volt. Only 52 units were sold during the first three quarters of 2016, as Toyota dealerships run out of stock in October due to the earlier end of production. Retail deliveries of the second generation Prius Prime began in November 2016. A total of 781 units were sold during its first month in the American market, setting a new record monthly sales volume debut for any plug-in electric car released in the U.S. Combined sales of both Prius plug-in generations totaled with 65,703 units sold since inception through December 2017.
The Toyota Prius Plug-in was a finalist for the 2010 Green Car Vision Award. The Prius Plug-in won the 2012 Urban Green Vehicle of the Year Award. Shared with the Toyota Prius v, the Prius plug-in was awarded Green Car Report's Best Car to Buy 2012.
- PHV, plug-in hybrid vehicle
- Toyota Motor Company (29 October 2011). "Toyota starts taking orders for soon-to-be-launched Prius PHV plug-in hybrid in Japan; targeting 35,000-40,000 units per year". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
- Stephen Munday (30 September 2011). "Prius Plug-In Hybrid On Sale January in Japan – Charging Stations at 5,500 Dealerships and Car Rental Locations". Integrity Exports. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- John Voelcker (3 April 2012). "Plug-In Car Sales Soar In March, Led By Chevrolet Volt". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- Toyota Motor Europe (13 July 2012). "Solid 13% Q2 sales increase for Toyota and Lexus vehicles in Europe". Toyota Media Press Release. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- LeSage, Jon (5 October 2016). "2017 Prius Prime Offers Industry's Best 'MPGe' and 25 Miles Electric Range". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- Toyota News Release (28 February 2012). "Prius Plug-In eligibile for a $1,500 California consumer incentive plus $2,500 Federal tax credit". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- Blanco, Sebastian (16 September 2011). "Toyota Plug-in Prius priced at $32,000* and Prius V from $26,400*". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- "2010 Prius Plug-in Hybrid Makes North American Debut at Los Angeles Auto Show; First Li-ion Battery Traction Battery Developed by Toyota and PEVE". Green Car Congress. 2 December 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- "Worldwide Sales of Toyota Hybrids Surpass 9 Million Units" (Press release). Toyota City, Japan: Toyota. 20 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016. Global sales of the Prius PHV totaled 75,400 units through April 2016, with 42,700 sold in North America, 22,100 in Japan, 10,500 in Europe, and about 100 units in the rest of the world.
- Tajitsu, Naomi (15 February 2017). "Toyota sees plug-in hybrids catching on faster than conventional hybrids". Reuters. Automotive News. Retrieved 19 February 2017. Around 75,000 first generation Prius plug-ins have been sold since its launch in 2012.
- Edelstein, Stephen (21 November 2016). "Hyundai Ioniq Electric beats Prius Prime, BMW i3 on energy efficiency". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- Kageyama, Yuri (17 June 2016). "Toyota gets bullish on plug-in hybrids with new Prius Prime". Japan Today. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
- Voelcker, John (1 December 2016). "Plug-in electric car sales for Nov: Volt soars, Prius Prime arrives (UPDATE)". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Eric Loveday (8 April 2013). "World's Most Comprehensive 2012 Global Plug-In Vehicle Sales List". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- Jeff Cobb (24 October 2014). "The World's 10-Best Selling Plug-in Cars". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- Jeff Cobb (14 December 2015). "How Much Electric Range Does The New Toyota Prius Plug-in Need To Be Competitive?". HybriCars.com. Retrieved 14 December 2015. The Prius PHV ended production in June 2015, and its 75,000 cumulative global sales are only exceeded as of December by the Mitsubishi Outlander (85,000), Tesla Model S (100,000), Chevy Volt (about 104,000), and Nissan Leaf (200,000).
- "Toyota sells 1.52 million electrified vehicles in 2017, three years ahead of 2020 target" (Press release). Toyota City, Japan: Toyota. 2 February 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Cobb, Jeff (4 January 2018). "December 2017 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Cobb, Jeff (5 January 2017). "December 2016 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Cobb, Jeff (1 September 2016). "Americans Buy Their Half-Millionth Plug-in Car". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2 February 2018. See Prius PHV cumulative sales figure in graphs: "Top-12 selling plug-in electrified cars in the United States"
- Zentrum für Sonnenenergieund Wasserstoff‐Forschung Baden‐Württemberg (ZSW) (26 February 2020). "ZSW analysis shows global number of EVs at 7.9 million". electrive.com. Retrieved 14 May 2020. As of December 2019[update], cumulative sales of both generations of the Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid totaled 209,000 units since inception.
- "2010 Prius Plug-in Hybrid Debuts at Frankfurt Motor Show". Totyota. 9 September 2009. Archived from the original on 17 February 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- "TMC to Display 3 Concepts, F1 Car at Tokyo Motor Show". 6 October 2009. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
- "Report: Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid Officially Launched With Retail Sales Starting in Late 2011". AutoGuide.com. 14 December 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- "Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Demo Program". Toyota. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- "TMC Introduces 'Prius Plug-in Hybrid' into Key Markets". Toyota News release. 14 December 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- "Toyota to Start Trials of Plug-in Prius in China". Green Car Congress. 25 April 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- Blanco, Sebastian (14 September 2011). "2012 Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid now offers 111 MPGe". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 16 September 2011. See details in Toyota Press Release
- Hiroko Tabuchi (14 December 2009). "Toyota to Sell Plug-In Hybrid in 2011". New York Times. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- "Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid Unveiled". Automoblog.net.
- Blanco, Sebastian (11 January 2010). "Detroit 2010: Toyota FT-CH a younger, cheaper brother for the Prius". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- "Toyota Australia Announces Prius Plug-in Hybrid Test Fleet". The Motor Report. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2010.
- Scott Deveau (25 March 2010). "Toyota tests Prius plug-in hybrid in Canada". Financial Post. Retrieved 9 April 2010.[permanent dead link]
- "Canada Joins Global Test of Plug-in Priuses". HybridCars.com. 25 March 2010. Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- "Toyota delivers plug-in Prius to Manitoba". Canadian Driver. 14 July 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
- "Toyota Partners with CATARC on Prius PHEV Trials in China". ChinaAutoWeb.com.
- "Toyota, EDF and Strasbourg Launch Large-Scale, 3-Year Plug-in Hybrid Demonstration Project". Green Car Congress. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "Toyota, EDF trial plug-in Prius in Britain". Reuters. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- English, Andrew (5 January 2010). "Toyota Plug-In Prius review". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
- "UK: Toyota begins Prius PHV fleet trials". Just Auto. 21 June 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Plug-in Prius trial gets under way". Next Green Car. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Toyota Introduces 'Prius Plug-in Hybrid' into Key Markets". The Wall Street Journal. 14 December 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2010.[permanent dead link]
- "Toyota Begins Short-Term Renting of Plug-in Prius in Nagasaki Prefecture". Green Car Congress. 4 July 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
- "Toyota introduces 2012 Prius Plug-in Hybrid". Green Car Congress. 17 September 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "Prius Plug In Demo Program". Toyota Motor Corporation. 3 February 2010. Archived from the original on 15 April 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- Brad Berman (11 June 2010). "Prius Plug-in Hybrid Arrives at Ultra-Green Portland State University". PlugInCars.com. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- Silicon Valley Leadership Group (15 June 2010). "Silicon Valley Leadership Group Receives First Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrids for U.S. Demonstration Program". Sun Herald. Retrieved 17 June 2010.[dead link]
- Bruce V. Bigelow (29 June 2010). "Toyota Delivers Three Prius Plug-In Hybrids for Year-Long Demo". Xconomy San Diego. Retrieved 12 July 2010.
- "Toyota, San Francisco Partner of Plug-in Prius Trial". EV World. 29 August 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2010.
- "Georgetown to Help Toyota Test Prius Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles". Yahoo Finance. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2010.[permanent dead link]
- "Georgetown Demonstration Site". Georgetown Electric Vehicle Research Initiative, Georgetown University. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
- Jonathan Welsh (2 December 2010). "Toyota Delivers Prius Plug-In Hybrids To New York City Officials". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
- Jonathan Schultz (27 January 2011). "Zipcar Adds Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrids to Fleet". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
- Toyota Press Release (26 July 2011). "Toyota says Prius Plug-in is "27 percent better than an equivalent diesel"". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- Gabe Shenhar (12 October 2010). "Behind the wheel: Toyota Prius Plug-in - A viable green technology that doesn't save money for now". Consumer Reports. Archived from the original on 13 October 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
- "CCSE Finishes Initial Two-Month Trial with Toyota PriusPlug-in Hybrid Vehicles". California Center for Sustainable Energy. September 2010. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
- Kim Reynolds (2 September 2010). "First Test: 2010 Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Prototype". Motor Trend. Retrieved 13 October 2010.
- John Gartner (13 July 2011). "Growing EV Industry Still Divided Over DC Charging". PluginCars.com. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Mark Rechtin (28 August 2013). "Next Prius will cost less, get better fuel economy, Toyota engineer says". Automotive News. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- Toyota Press Release (28 August 2013). "Toyota broadly outlines next-generation Prius; developing wireless inductive charging for the plug-in model; bullish on hydrogen". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- Joann Muller (29 August 2013). "Toyota Unveils Plans For 15 New Or Improved Hybrids (It Already Has 23)". Forbes. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- Craig Trudell & Alan Ohnsman (28 August 2013). "Toyota Refines Battery Chemistry to Boost Next Prius Efficiency". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- Brad Berman (1 May 2015). "Toyota Halts Production of Prius Plug-in Hybrid Until Late 2016". Plugincars.com. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Blanco, Sebastian (28 September 2016). "Toyota: Every future Prius might be a plug-in hybrid". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- John Stewart (21 April 2010). "2010 Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid First Drive". Edmunds.com. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- Colum Wood (14 September 2011). "Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid Gets 112-MPG Rating: 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show". AutoGuide.com. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- Undercoffler, David (1 February 2016). "Toyota's fuel-thrifty Prius family may shrink as automaker ponders strategy". Automotive News. Retrieved 25 March 2016. Prius PHV sales totaled 42,293 units through December 2015.
- Staff. "Monthly Plug-In Sales Scorecard". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 19 February 2017. See annual sales in 2016. First generation Prius Plug-in Hybrid sales totaled 52 units in 2016 through September, when dealerships run out of stock. Deliveries of the second generation Prius Prime began in November 2016. A total of 3,788 Prius Prime cars have been sold between November 2016 and January 2017.
- "Worldwide Sales of Toyota Hybrids Surpass 10 Million Units" (Press release). Toyota City, Japan: Toyota. 14 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Abuelsamid, Sam (14 December 2009). "Toyota officially launches plug-in Prius program, retail sales in 2011". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 22 December 2009.
- John Voelcker (14 December 2009). "Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid On Sale in 2011, Less Than $10K More". GreenCarReports.com. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
- "Despite Caveats, Prius Plug-in Hybrid Could Be Surprise Hit". hybridCars.com. 15 April 2010. Archived from the original on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
- Blanco, Sebastian (13 April 2010). "Toyota announces first details of U.S. plug-in Prius test program". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
- "2012 Toyota Prius PHEV to feature selectable EV mode, full regen". AutoblogGreen. 16 June 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- Eric Evarts (20 June 2011). "Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid will have new efficiency tricks". Consumer Reports. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- "Toyota Introduces 2012 Prius Plug-in Hybrid" (Press release). Toyota. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Toyota. "Prius plug-in specs". Toyota.com. Archived from the original on 23 September 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011. Click on the MPG tab to display fuel economy and range.
- Toyota. "The First Ever prius plug-in hybrid: Technology". Toyota. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- John Voelcker (13 March 2012). "2012 Toyota Prius Plug-In: Parsing The EPA Efficiency Sticker". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. "Compare Side-by-Side". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- "Fueleconomy.gov's Top Ten EPA-Rated Fuel Sippers (2012)". U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
- U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (October 2014). "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2014" (PDF). EPA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014. See Table 7.2 - MY 2014 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Powertrain and Range; pp. 98; Table 7.3 for overall fuel economy (mpg-e), pp. 100; Table 7.4 for tailpipe CO2 emissions, pp. 102; and Table 7.5 for upstream CO2 Emission, pp. 105.
- "Nürburgring and Prius Plug-in: charged for assault". Toyota GB Blog. Toyota GB. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (13 October 2014). "Compare Side-by-Side - 2015/2014/2013/2012 Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid - Energy and Environment". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Antuan Goodwin (22 September 2011). "Prius' artificial engine noise demonstrated, explained". CNET Cartech. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- Antuan Goodwin (22 September 2011). "Prius' artificial engine noise demonstrated, explained". CNET Cartech. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- Josie Garthwaite (2 November 2012). "Mystery at Port Newark: Why Did 17 Plug-In Cars Burn?". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- Viknesh Vijayenthiran (31 October 2012). "Fisker Karmas Catch Fire After Being Submerged By Hurricane Sandy Flood". Motor Authority. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- White, Annie (December 2017). "2018 Toyota Prius Prime | In-Depth Model Review". Car and Driver. US. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- Blanco, Sebastian (23 March 2016). "Toyota Prius Prime plugs in with 22 EV miles". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- "Toyota Prius PHV". Taiwan: Toyota. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
- Vaughn, Mark (3 October 2016). "2017 Toyota Prius Prime plug-in hybrid review with range, price and power". Autoweek. US. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
- Undercoffler, David (23 March 2016). "Toyota looks to boost Prius with all-new plug-in Prime". Automotive News. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- Halvorson, Bengt (24 March 2016). "2016 Toyota Prius Prime: details on 120 MPGe plug-in hybrid, all-electric mode". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- "2017 Toyota Prius Prime". www.fueleconomy.gov.
- "Toyota's Prius Prime Shows One Way for a Better Plug-in Hybrid - HybridCars.com". 7 April 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- Reuters (31 October 2016). "Toyota Will Use Lithium Batteries in New Prius Prime". Fortune. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
- "Toyota Launches Redesigned 'Prius PHV' in Japan" (Press release). Toyota. 15 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
- Evarts, Eric C. (8 July 2019). "Toyota covers Prius Prime with solar panels to test mileage". Green Car Reports. US. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
- Voelcker, John (10 October 2016). "At 133 MPGe, Toyota Prius Prime wallops BMW i3 on energy efficiency". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (16 November 2016). "Most Efficient EPA Certified Vehicles". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 21 November 2016. The 2014–16 BMW i3 BEV was the most efficient EPA-certified vehicles considering all fuels and of all years until November 2016, when it was surpassed by the 2017 Hyundai Ioniq Electric. As of November 2016[update], the 2016 Toyota Prius Eco hybrid car is most efficient EPA-certified vehicle with a gasoline engine without plug-in capability.
- Cobb, Jeff (4 May 2016). "April 2016 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
- Jeff Cobb (8 January 2013). "December 2012 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 9 February 2013. See the section: December 2012 Plug-in Electric Car Sales Numbers
- Jeff Cobb (6 January 2015). "December 2014 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2 August 2015. See section "December 2014 Plug-in Hybrid Car Sales Numbers" for total sales in 2013 and 2014.
- Cobb, Jeff (6 January 2016). "December 2015 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
- "実績データ（ハイブリッド車グローバル販売）" [Actual data (global sales hybrid vehicles)] (Press release) (in Japanese). Toyota City, Japan: Toyota. 20 May 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
- The Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB (18 January 2013). "Best verkochte elektrische auto's 2012 Opel Ampera verkooptopper" [Best selling electric cars in 2012 - Opel Ampera top selling] (in Dutch). ANWB. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- "Verkoopcijfers stekkerauto's 2013: de eindsprint" [Plug-in car sales in 2013: the final sprint] (in Dutch). Groen7. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- Jose, Pontes (6 January 2015). "Netherlands December 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- Jose, Pontes (7 January 2016). "Netherlands December 2015". EVSales.com. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- Jose, Pontes (26 May 2016). "Netherlands April 2016". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- Jon LeSage (8 January 2013). "Toyota Prius Plug-In wins 2012 sales battle in UK". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Faye Sunderland (7 January 2014). "Plug-in car sales boom on back of recovering car market". The Green Car Website. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 509 Prius PHVs were sold 2013.
- RAC Foundation. "Plug-in grant eligible vehicles licensed - 1Q 2016". UK: RAC Foundation. Retrieved 17 June 2016. Figures correspond to the number of vehicles registered at the end of the corresponding quarter. Shown net registrations between 2014 and 1Q 2016.
- Bil Sweden (2 January 2014). "Nyregistreringar december 2013 prel" [New registrations in December 2013 prel] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 3 January 2014. Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2013 prel.pdf" see table "NYREGISTRERADE SUPERMILJÖBILAR DECEMBER 2013" with summary of PEV sales by model for 2013 and 2012.
- Bil Sweden (2 January 2015). "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" [New registrations in December 2014 (preliminar)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 4 January 2015. Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" see tables: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2014" with summary of plug-in passenger car registrations by model for 2013 (revised) and 2014.
- Bil Sweden (4 January 2016). "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" [New Registrations December 2015 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 19 January 2016. Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" See table: Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2015
- Bil Sweden (2 May 2016). "NNyregistreringar april 2016" [New Registrations April 2016] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 1 June 2016. Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar april 2016" See table: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar april 2016"
- Michaël Torregrossa (15 January 2013). "Voitures hybrides – Le bilan des immatriculations 2012 en France" [Hybrid Cars - The balance of 2012 registrations in France] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Michaël Torregrossa (19 January 2014). "Hybride rechargeable – Le marché français stagne en 2013" [Rechargeable hybrids - The French market stagnated in 2013] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Jose Pontes (17 January 2015). "France December 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (25 January 2016). "Marché du véhicule hybride rechargeable : bilan 2015 et perspectives pour 2016" [Plug-in Hybrid Market: 2015 review and outlook for 2016] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 26 March 2016. See graph: A total of 68 Prius PHVs were registered in France in 2015.
- Pontes, Jose (10 May 2016). "France April 2016". EVSales.com. Retrieved 4 June 2016. A total of 33 Prius PHV were sold during the first four months of 2016.
- "Over 10.000 ladbare biler på norske veier" [Over 10,000 plug-in cars in Norwegian roads] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. 4 January 2013. Archived from the original on 29 April 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Staff (8 January 2014). "Over 20.000 ladbare biler på norske veier" [Over 20,000 rechargeable electric cars on Norwegian road] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. Archived from the original on 23 January 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Jose Pontes (18 January 2015). "Norway December 2014". EV-Sales. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Moberg, Knut (16 January 2016). "Bilsalget i 2015: Tidenes bronseplass" [Car sales in 2015: The bronze age]. Dinside.com (in Norwegian). Retrieved 4 June 2016. See table: "Ladbare hybrider - salget i 2015" A total of 23 Prius PHVs were registered in Norway in 2015.
- Jose, Pontes (11 May 2016). "Norway April 2016". EVSales.com. Retrieved 4 June 2016. Prius PHEV sales totaled 3 units during the first fourth months of 2016.
- Klippenstein, Matthew (January 2018). "Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- Jose Pontes (15 January 2014). "Finland December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Jose Pontes (25 January 2015). "Finland December 2014". EV Sales. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- Pontes, Jose (13 January 2016). "Finland December 2015". EV Sales. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
- Pontes, Jose (24 April 2016). "Finland March 2016". EV Sales. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
- Jose Pontes (13 January 2013). "Spain Full Year 2012". EV Sales. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 58 units sold in 2012.
- Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (2 January 2014). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2013 - Matriculaciones de automóviles" [Market data: December 2013 - Automobiles registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 17 February 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre13.xls (929KB)" with current month and cumulative sales for 2013.
- Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2015). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2014 - Matriculaciones" [Market data: December 2014 - Registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 22 August 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre14.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales for full year 2014.
- Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (January 2016). "Datos de Mercado: Diciembre 2015 - Matriculaciones" [Market data: December 2015 - Registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 4 June 2016.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_diciembre15.xls (929KB)*" with current month and cumulative sales CYTD through December 2015.
- Asociación Nacional de Importadores de Automóviles, Camiones, Autobuses y Motocicletas (ANIACAM) (May 2016). "Datos de Mercado: Abril 2016 - Matriculaciones" [Market data: April 2016 - Registrations] (in Spanish). ANIACAM. Retrieved 4 June 2016.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Download the file "DossierAutomóviles_abril16.xls (929KB)**" with current month and cumulative sales CYTD through April 2016.
- Takeshi Narabe (10 May 2012). "Toyota rolls out rechargeable Prius plug-in hybrid". Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- Toyota Global Newsroom (14 October 2014). 実績データ（ハイブリッド車グローバル販売） [Actual data (hybrid vehicles sold globally)] (in Japanese). Toyota. Retrieved 18 October 2014. Prius Plug-in Hybrid sales by year between 2012 and September 2014.
- "2012 (Full Year) Sweden: Best-Selling Electric Cars & Plug-In Hybrid Models". BestSellingCars.com. 2 April 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- Jeff Cobb (15 June 2015). "Three More Plug-in Cars Cross 25,000 Sales Milestone". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Cobb, Jeff (31 January 2017). "Tesla Model S Is World's Best-Selling Plug-in Car For Second Year In A Row". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 19 February 2017. See detailed 2016 sales and cumulative global sales in the two graphs.
- Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (December 2015). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer - Top 5 geregistreerde modellen plug-in hybride elektrische voertuigen (30-11-2015)" [Figures electric transport - Top 5 registered plug-in electric hybrid vehicle models (11-30-2015)] (PDF) (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- RAC Foundation. "Plug-in grant eligible vehicles licensed". UK: RAC Foundation. Retrieved 15 April 2016. Figures correspond to the number of vehicles registered at the end of the corresponding quarter.
- Philippe Crowe (7 September 2012). "Prius Plug-in Hybrid Now Available In Canada". HybridCars.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Timothy Cain (2 October 2012). "Chevrolet Volt Sales Figures". Good Car Bad Car. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Table 1 –Examples of Clean Energy Vehicles and Incentive Levels" (PDF). LiveSmart BC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "Running on Green Power! Electric Vehicles: 2011-2020 Québec Action Plan" (PDF). Gouvernement du Québec. 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. See Table Box 7 for the rebate details and how it changes by year.
- "Which cars are eligible for Ontario's Electric Vehicle Incentive Program?". Ontario Ministry of Transportation. 21 September 2011. Archived from the original on 9 September 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "Launching exclusively in Quebec in response to Quebecers' leadership in the adoption of hybrid and electric cars, the 2017 Toyota Prius Prime goes on sale June 1 at a price that's sure to please" (Press release). Canada: Toyota. 16 May 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- Layson, Greg (17 May 2017). "Toyota rewards Quebec ZEV leadership with Prius Prime launch". Automotive News. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- Mio, Kevin (14 January 2018). "Toyota Prius Prime To Go On Sale Across Canada". autoTRADER. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- "Get Ready For The Total Package: The 2018 Toyota Prius Prime To Launch Across Canada" (Press release). Canada: Toyota. 14 January 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- "Ontario regulator cautions consumers as EV program winds down". Driving. 3 August 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
- Michaël Torregrossa (20 September 2012). "Essai Toyota Prius rechargeable – L'hybride branchée !" [Testing the Toyota Prius Rechargeable - The Hybrid Plugged in!] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 29 June 2013.
- France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (14 February 2017). "La nouvelle Toyota Prius hybride rechargeable arrive en France" [The new Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid arrives in France] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- Toyota News (15 January 2014). トヨタ自動車、 ハイブリッド車のグローバル累計販売台数が600万台を突破 [Toyota cumulative global sales of hybrid vehicles exceeded 6 million] (in Japanese). Toyota. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- STEPHEN EDELSTEIN (8 October 2013). "2014 Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid Gets Facelift--In Japan". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Nic de Boer. "Prijs Toyota Prius Plug-in" [Price Toyota Prius Plug-in] (in Dutch). Auto Week Netherlands. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- The Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB (7 September 2012). "Eerste autotest Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (met video)" [First car test Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (with video)] (in Dutch). ANWB. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2014). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer - Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland - Top 5 geregistreerde modellen elektrische auto (31-12-2013)" [Figures electric transport - Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands and Top 5 registered electric vehicle models (12-31-2013)] (PDF) (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014. See under the heading "31-12-2013" for total registrations figures at the end of December 2013.
- "Toyota Prius Plug-In Toyota UK". Toyota UK. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- Eric Loveday (21 September 2011). "2012 Toyota Prius Plug-in priced same as Nissan Leaf in UK". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 22 September 2011. See details in Press Release.
- Huw Evans (7 August 2012). "Toyota Delivers First Fleet Customer Prius Plug-In". HybridCars.com. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Ben Lane (6 August 2014). "UK electric fleet passes 13,000 mark". UK: Next Green Car. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Joe Finnerty (6 May 2015). "UK £5,000 electric car grant to run out in months". Auto Express. Retrieved 20 June 2015. A total of 1,324 Prius PHVs were registered in the UK through December 2014.
- "The New Toyota Prius Plug-In" (Press release). Toyota UK. 6 February 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- Chris Woodyar (9 October 2013). "Toyota cuts price of plug-in Prius". USA Today. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Toyota USA (9 October 2013). "Toyota reduces pricing on 2014 Prius Plug-In in US". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Blanco, Sebastian (3 October 2016). "2017 Toyota Prius Prime starts at $27,100 for 25 EV miles and 54 MPG". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Volcker, John (3 October 2016). "2017 Toyota Prius Prime: first drive of new plug-in hybrid". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Alan Ohnsman (20 July 2011). "Toyota Targets at Least 16,000 U.S. Plug-In Prius Sales". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Jim Motavalli (20 September 2011). "Banished from the H.O.V. Lane, Prius Drivers May Be First to Embrace New Plug-In Model". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- Brad Berman (19 April 2011). "Prius Plug-in Hybrid Preliminary Ordering Starts on Friday". PluginCars.com. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Jack Rosebro (24 May 2011). "Toyota previews Prius v; first expansion of planned Prius "family"". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- Eric Loveday (8 August 2011). "Report: Prius Plug-in deliveries set for March 2012; will have two trims, five colors". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- Toyota USA (11 September 2012). "Toyota Prius Plug-In Model Helping Propel Hybrid Cause". Toyota Newsroom. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "Toyota Reveals Prius Family of Vehicles at the North American International Auto Show". Toyota USA Newsroom. 10 January 2011. Archived from the original on 6 April 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- John Voelcker (1 May 2012). "April Electric Car Sales Lower; Plug-In Prius Leads Sales". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- Staff (1 December 2016). "Monthly Plug-In Sales Scorecard". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 1 December 2016. During the first nine months of 2016 Prius PHV sales totaled 52 units. None were sold in October 2016 as dealerships run out of stock of the first generation model
- Cole, Jay (2 December 2016). "Several Plug-Ins Hit New 2016 Highs, As November EV Sales In US Rise Sharply". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Nissan Leaf Electric Car Wins 2010 Green Car Vision Award". Green Car Journal. 26 January 2010. Archived from the original on 4 May 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
- "Toyota Prius Plug-in Earns 2012 Urban Green Vehicle Award". Toyota USA Newsroom. 27 October 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
- John Voelcker (28 November 2011). "2012 Toyota Prius: GreenCarReports' Best Car To Buy 2012". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toyota Prius (XW50) Plug-in Hybrid.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toyota Prius (XW35) Plug-in Hybrid.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid demonstrator.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toyota Prius (XW30) Plug-in Hybrid Concept.|