Toropets

Toropets (Russian: Торо́пец) is a town and the administrative center of Toropetsky District in Tver Oblast, Russia, located where the Toropa River enters Lake Solomennoye. Population: 13,015 (2010 Census);[3] 14,600 (2002 Census);[10] 17,510 (1989 Census).[11]

Toropets

Торопец
View of Toropets
View of Toropets
Coat of arms of Toropets
Coat of arms
Location of Toropets
Toropets is located in Russia
Toropets
Toropets
Location of Toropets
Toropets is located in Tver Oblast
Toropets
Toropets
Toropets (Tver Oblast)
Coordinates: 56°30′N 31°39′E / 56.500°N 31.650°E / 56.500; 31.650Coordinates: 56°30′N 31°39′E / 56.500°N 31.650°E / 56.500; 31.650
CountryRussia
Federal subjectTver Oblast[1]
Administrative districtToropetsky District[2]
Urban settlementToropets[2]
First mentioned1074
Elevation
180 m (590 ft)
Population
 • Total13,015
 • Estimate 
(2018)[4]
12,048 (-7.4%)
 • Capital ofToropetsky District[5], Toropets Urban Settlement[2]
 • Municipal districtToropetsky Municipal District[6]
 • Urban settlementToropets Urban Settlement[6]
 • Capital ofToropetsky Municipal District[7], Toropets Urban Settlement[6]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[8])
Postal code(s)[9]
172840, 172842, 172899
OKTMO ID28655101001

HistoryEdit

Historical affiliations
Principality of Smolensk 1074–1167

Principality of Toropets 1167–ca. 1362
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania ca. 1362–1386
  Poland-Lithuania 1386–1503
  Grand Duchy of Moscow 1503–1547
  Tsardom of Russia 1547–1721
  Russian Empire 1721–1917
  Russian Republic 1917
  Soviet Russia 1917–1922
  Soviet Union 1922–1991

  Russian Federation 1991–present

In 1074, when the town was first mentioned in chronicles, Toropets belonged to the Princes of Smolensk.[12] By 1167, it was large enough to have its own princes. The most famous of its rulers was Mstislav the Bold, whose grandson Alexander Nevsky wed Alexandra of Polotsk in Toropets in 1239.[13][14]

In the mid-14th century the town passed to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which had to surrender it to Ivan III following the Battle of Vedrosha in 1503. In the early 17th century, Toropets was ransacked by the Polish army. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Toropets was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off. Toropets was included into Velikiye Luki Province.[15] In 1772, as a result of the First Partition of Poland, Inflanty Voivodeship and eastern Belarus were transferred to Russia. In order to accommodate these areas, Pskov Governorate was created, and Velikiye Luki was transferred to Pskov Governorate. The town of Opochka was made the administrative center of the governorate. Pskov Governorate has proven to be too big to be administered properly, and in 1776, the decree of the empress, Catherine the Great, was issued. It divided the governorate into Pskov and Polotsk Governorates. Pskov was made the administrative center of Pskov Governorate, and Toropets remained in Pskov Governorate. In 1777, Pskov Governorate was transformed into Pskov Viceroyalty, which was administered from Novgorod by Jacob Sievers. In 1796, the viceroyalty was abolished, and on 31 December 1796 the emperor Paul I issued a decree restoring Pskov Governorate.[16] Toropets was the center of Toropetsky Uyezd of Pskov Governorate.

The Soviet authority in Toropets was established on October 30 (November 12), 1917. On August 1, 1927 Pskov Governorate was abolished, and Leningrad Oblast was established. Toropetsky Uyezd was abolished as well, and Toropetsky District, with the administrative center in Toropets, was established. It belonged to Velikiye Luki Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On June 17, 1929, the district was transferred to Western Oblast. On August 1, 1930 the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were subordinated directly to the oblast. On January 29, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Toropetsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast.[17][18] The town was occupied by the Wehrmacht during WWII, from August 29, 1941 until January 21, 1942, when it was retaken during the Toropets–Kholm Offensive. On August 22, 1944, the district was transferred to newly established Velikiye Luki Oblast. On October 2, 1957, Velikiye Luki Oblast was abolished, and Toropetssky District was transferred back to Kalinin Oblast. In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.[18]

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Toropets serves as the administrative center of Toropetsky District.[5] As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Toropetsky District as Toropets Urban Settlement.[2] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban settlement status and is a part of Toropetsky Municipal District.[6]

EconomyEdit

IndustryEdit

There are enterprises of chemical, metallurgical, textile, and food industries in Toropets.[19]

TransportationEdit

 
Toropets in 1909

The railway connecting Bologoye with Velikiye Luki passes through Toropets. There is infrequent passenger traffic.

The M9 highway connecting Moscow with Riga also crosses the southern part of Toropetsky District. Toropets has access to it via a paved road. The same road continues to the north to Kholm and further to Staraya Russa.

Culture and recreationEdit

 
The Watchtower is a symbol of Toropets
 
Church of the Theotokos of Korsun, built between 1795 and 1804
 
Toropets. Monument of urban planning and architecture

Toropets contains 66 cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally 30 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federal monuments include plenty of buildings in the historical center of Toropets.[20] The oldest brick churches in the town are dedicated to St. Nicholas (1666–1669), to Our Lady of Kazan (1698–1765), and to John the Baptist (1704).

There are a number of museums in Toropets, which include the Toropets District Museum, the Museum of the History of Photography, the house-museum of Patriarch Tikhon (Tikhon, in the future the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, lived here as a child for ten years).

Notable peopleEdit

The town is where Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow spent his childhood (between 1869 and 1878) and attended school .

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Law #34-ZO
  2. ^ a b c d Law #34-ZO stipulates that the borders of the settlements (administrative-territorial divisions) are identical to the borders of the urban and rural settlements (municipal divisions), and that the borders of the administrative districts are identical to the borders of the municipal districts. Law #50-ZO, which describes the borders and the composition of the municipal formations in Toropetsky Municipal District, lists the town of Toropets as a part and the administrative center of Toropets Urban Settlement of that district.
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 255», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 28 255, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  6. ^ a b c d Law #50-ZO
  7. ^ Law #4-ZO
  8. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  9. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  10. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  11. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  12. ^ Торопецкий район (in Russian). Литературная карта Тверского края. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
  13. ^ Краткая историческая справка (in Russian). Toropetsky District Administration. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  14. ^ Янин, В.Л. (1998). "Новгород и Литва: Пограничные ситуации XIII-XV веков" (in Russian). Moscow: Moscow State University. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
  15. ^ Снытко, О.В.; et al. (2009). С.Д. Трифонов; Т.Б. Чуйкова; Л.В. Федина; А.Э. Дубоносова (eds.). Административно-территориальное деление Новгородской губернии и области 1727–1995 гг. Справочник (PDF) (in Russian). Saint Petersburg. p. 16. Retrieved February 4, 2012.
  16. ^ Псковская губерния (in Russian). Руниверс. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  17. ^ Воробьёв, М. В. (1993). Г. В. Туфанова (ed.). Административно-территориальное деление Смоленской области (in Russian). Государственный архив Смоленской области. pp. 118–133.
  18. ^ a b Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области (in Russian). Архивы России. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
  19. ^ Промышленность Торопецкого района (in Russian). Toropetsky District Administration. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  20. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved June 2, 2016.

SourcesEdit

  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №34-ЗО от 17 апреля 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области», в ред. Закона №66-ЗО от 1 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 18 Закона Тверской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №17 (специальный выпуск), 19 апреля 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #34-ZO of April 17, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast, as amended by the Law #66-ZO of October 1, 2014 On Amending Article 18 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №50-ЗО от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Торопецкий район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №20-ОЗ от 28 марта 2013 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований Торопецкого района Тверской области и внесении изменений в Закон Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Торопецкий район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №10, 11–17 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #50-ZO of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Which the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Toropetsky District" Comprises and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements, as amended by the Law #20-OZ of March 28, 2013 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations of Toropetsky District of Tver Oblast and on Amending the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Which the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Toropetsky District" Comprises and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, as amended by the Law #65-ZO of July 24, 2012 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit