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Thomas Austin Yawkey, born Thomas Yawkey Austin (February 21, 1903 – July 9, 1976), was an American industrialist and Major League Baseball executive. Born in Detroit, Yawkey became president of the Boston Red Sox in 1933 and was the sole owner of the team for 44 seasons, longer than anyone else in baseball history. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1980. In 2018, the Red Sox have publicly distanced themselves from Yawkey, due to allegations of racism and resistance to baseball's integration.
Tom Yawkey with his first wife Elise Sparrow Yawkey in 1938
|Born: Thomas Yawkey Austin|
February 21, 1903
Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
|Died: July 9, 1976 (aged 73)|
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Member of the National|
|Baseball Hall of Fame|
Yawkey was born in Detroit on February 21, 1903 to insurance executive Thomas J. Austin and his wife Augusta. Augusta was the eldest child of William Clyman Yawkey, who had become wealthy in the lumber and iron ore industries of the Midwestern United States. In addition to these interests, William Clyman Yawkey had agreed in principle to buy the Detroit Tigers baseball team in 1903, but he died before the deal closed. His son, Bill Yawkey, eventually completed the purchase, though the younger Yawkey had little interest in the team and allowed team executive Frank Navin to control day-to-day operations and eventually purchase part of the team.
Shortly after Tom Yawkey's birth, his father, Thomas J. Austin, died. Tom, his mother, and his sister later went to live with Tom's uncle Bill Yawkey in New York City. After his mother died in 1918, Bill Yawkey and his wife adopted him, and he took the Yawkey name.
Bill Yawkey died in 1919 and left his $40 million estate to his adopted son Tom, but a clause in the will forbade him from taking possession of it until he turned 30 years old. Tom Yawkey was a graduate of the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale University in 1925 and was a member of the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity.
Boston Red SoxEdit
On February 25, 1933, four days after his 30th birthday, Yawkey bought the Red Sox for $1.25 million, and persuaded friend and former Philadelphia Athletics second baseman Eddie Collins to be the team's vice president and general manager.
The Red Sox had been the dregs of the American League for more than a decade following the infamous Babe Ruth sale to the New York Yankees by former owner Harry Frazee before the 1920 season, and had just finished the 1932 season with a record of 43-111—still the worst in franchise history. Yawkey directed Collins to buy up as much talent as possible to turn the team around. He also heavily renovated Fenway Park, which had fallen into disrepair over the years.
Yawkey devoted his time and finances for the rest of his life to attempting to build winning teams, with The Boston Globe citing Yawkey's estimation in 1974 that he lost $10 million on the team during his tenure owning the Red Sox. His teams' best seasons took place in 1946, 1967, and 1975, when the Red Sox captured the American League pennant but then went on to lose each World Series in seven games, against the St. Louis Cardinals (1946, 1967) and the Cincinnati Reds (1975). He would never achieve his ultimate goal of winning a world championship.
Criticism and controversiesEdit
The Red Sox had multiple black players in their farm system during the 1950s, with the team failing to promote them despite the successes other teams realized after integrating black players. During this period, the Red Sox went from perennial contender to failing to finish within ten games of first place for 16 years (1951–1966). As owner of the Boston Red Sox, the team's policy on integration ultimately was Yawkey's responsibility. In 1959, the Red Sox became the last major league team to field a black player, Pumpsie Green, twelve years after Jackie Robinson's rookie season with the Brooklyn Dodgers and two-and-a-half years after Robinson's retirement. Robinson would later call Yawkey "one of the most bigoted guys in baseball".
Another controversy involved longtime clubhouse attendant Donald Fitzpatrick. Fitzpatrick was accused of sexual abuse of minors between 1971 and 1991 while working in the Red Sox spring training clubhouse in Winter Haven, Florida. The abuse was reported to the team by victims and players who witnessed it, but Fitzpatrick remained employed. Yawkey, and later his wife Jean after Tom's death, protected Fitzpatrick from the allegations, according to two sources with knowledge of their relationship. In 2002, Fitzpatrick pleaded guilty after being charged with four counts of attempted sexual battery for actions between 1975 and 1989.
Yawkey was a popular figure in Boston and a respected voice in major league councils, as evidenced by his fellow American League owners naming him vice president between 1956 and 1973, though fellow owners regarded him as a "strange fish" in the words of one contemporary sports writer for Yawkey's willingness to spend lavishly on salaries and perks for star players at the expense of profits.
Yawkey died from leukemia in Boston on July 9, 1976. His wife, Jean R. Yawkey, became president of the club following his death. The Yawkey Foundation was established in 1976 through a bequest in his will. The foundation later recorded $420 million in 2002 income after the sale of the Red Sox. Alongside a second foundation formed in 1982 by Jean Yawkey, the Yawkey Foundations donated $30 million in 2007 for the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute to build the Yawkey Center for Cancer Care in Boston.
In 1977, the section of Jersey Street where Fenway Park is located was renamed Yawkey Way in his honor. However, in August 2017, Red Sox principal owner John W. Henry announced the team was seeking to change the name, adding he was "haunted" by Yawkey's legacy, which some have characterized as racist. The change was approved by the City of Boston in April 2018, and the name reverted to Jersey Street in May 2018. A plaque honoring Yawkey, from "his Red Sox employees," that had hung at the administrative office entrance to Fenway Park since shortly after his death was removed in May 2018. An MBTA Commuter Rail station near the park, Yawkey station, was renamed Lansdowne station in April 2019. 
A chain of islands off the coast of Georgetown, South Carolina, near the entrance of Winyah Bay, make up the Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center Heritage Preserve. The nature preserve was formed from 24,000 acres of land along a tidal estuary, which Yawkey willed to the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. He originally purchased the land for use as a hunting and fishing retreat, and often allowed access to Red Sox players, including Ted Williams. It consists of North Island, South Island, Sand Island  and a majority of Cat Island.
Yawkey married Elise Sparrow in 1925, with the couple adopting a daughter named Julia in 1936. With different interests, the couple would drift apart and divorce in November 1944. Both remarried within a few weeks of the divorce, Tom Yawkey to department store model Jean R. Hiller. Tom and Jean Yawkey had no children.
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Boston was an all-white ball club until 1959—12 years after Jackie Robinson became a Dodger.