Timeline of the Chagatai Khanate

This is a timeline of the Chagatai Khanate (1226–1348) and its successor states, Moghulistan (1347–1462), Yarkent Khanate (1514–1696), and the Turpan Khanate (1462–1680).

Chagatai Khanate, late 13th century.
Moghulistan in 1372
After the collapse of the Chagatai Khanate, 1490.

12th centuryEdit

1180sEdit

Year Date Event
1183 22 December Chagatai is born

13th centuryEdit

1200sEdit

Year Date Event
1208 Qocho, Qayaligh, and Almaliq submit to Genghis Khan; Almaliq and the Issyk-Kul region given to Chagatai[1]

1210sEdit

Year Date Event
1211 Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Jochi, Ögedei, and Chagatai invade Inner Mongolia[2]
1213 autumn Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Jochi, Ögedei, and Chagatai ravage Hebei and Shanxi[3]
1219 fall Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Ögedei and Chagatai take Otrar and massacres its population; Genghis Khan dispatches Jochi to conquer Syr Darya and another army to conquer Fergana[4]
Chagatai oversees the road construction for the Mongol Empire[2]

1220sEdit

Year Date Event
1220 16 March Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Genghis Khan takes Samarkand (given to Chagatai along with Jimsar County) and Muhammad II of Khwarezm flees to Nishapur; Genghis Khan dispatches Jebe and Subutai to destroy the sultan[4]
1221 April Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Jochi, Chagatai, and Ögedei destroy Urgench while Tolui takes Nishapur and Herat[4]
Siege of Bamyan (1221): Genghis Khan takes Bamyan; Chagatai's son Mutukan dies in the process[2]
1227 Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Chagatai takes Taiyuan and gains the advisors Vajir the Uyghur and Qutb-ud-Din Habash 'Amid[2]
1229 Chagatai supports Ögedei's enthronement and is granted Transoxiana[2]

1240sEdit

Year Date Event
1242 1 July Chagatai Khan dies and his grandson Qara Hülegü succeeds him[5]
1246 Güyük Khan appoints Yesü Möngke as head of the Chagatai Khanate[6]

1250sEdit

Year Date Event
1251 Möngke Khan appoints Qara Hülegü as head of the Chagatai Khanate, who dies soon after, and his wife Orghana becomes regent for her young son Mubarak Shah[6]

1260sEdit

Year Date Event
1260 Toluid Civil War: Alghu, a grandson of Chagatai Khan, deposes Mubarak Shah, an appointee to the Chagatai Khanate of the Mongol Empire, and sets up court in Kashgar while attacking Otrar and Afghanistan[7]
1262 Toluid Civil War: Alghu betrays Ariq Böke and allies with Kublai Khan[6]
1266 Alghu dies and is succeeded by Mubarak Shah, who is deposed by Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq[8]
1269 Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq is defeated by the Golden Horde and loses a third of Transoxiana[6]

1270sEdit

Year Date Event
1270 Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq of the Chagatai Khanate invades the Ilkhanate but suffers defeat at the battle of Qara-Su near Herat[6]
1271 Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq dies and Kaidu takes control of the Chagatai Khanate, installing Negübei as puppet khan[6]
1275 Chagatai Khanate gains Ghazni[9]
1276 Chagatai Khanate secures control of Almaliq[9]

1280sEdit

Year Date Event
1282 Kaidu enthrones Duwa as khan of the Chagatai Khanate[6]
1286 Chagatai Khanate secures control of the Tarim Basin[9]

1290sEdit

Year Date Event
1291 Chagatai Khanate raids Ilkhanate[10]
1292 Chagatai Khanate raids India[9]
1295 Chagatai Khanate secures control of Turpan and Hami[9]
1298 winter Kaidu–Kublai war: Duwa of the Chagatai Khanate defeats Yuan forces in Mongolia and captures Temür Khan's son in law, Körgüz[11]

14th centuryEdit

1300sEdit

Year Date Event
1301 September Kaidu–Kublai war: Duwa and Kaidu suffer injuries in battle with Yuan forces east of the Altai Mountains and Kaidu dies soon after[12]
1304 Temür Khan, Chapar Khan of the House of Ögedei, and Duwa of the Chagatai Khanate send envoys to the Ilkhanate to establish peace and restore unity among Mongols; Chagatai Khanate becomes a Yuan tributary[12]
1306 Temür Khan sends Külüg Khan to aid Duwa in his war against Chapar Khan[13]
1307 Chapar Khan is defeated and Duwa installs his brother Yangichar as puppet[13]
Duwa dies and his son Könchek succeeds him[10]
1308 Könchek dies and Taliqu, a Muslim grandson of Büri, succeeds him[10]
1309 Kebek, son of Duwa, murders Taliqu and enthrones his brother Esen Buqa I[10]

1310sEdit

Year Date Event
1312 Ilkhanate seizes Ghazni[10]
1316 Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war: Conflict breaks out between the Chagatai Khanate and the Yuan dynasty and Ilkhanate[13]
1318 Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war: Esen Buqa I dies and Kebek succeeds him[13]

1320sEdit

Year Date Event
1326 Kebek dies and his brother Eljigidey succeeds him[10]
1328 Chagatai Khanate invades India, reaching as far as Delhi[10]

1330sEdit

Year Date Event
1330 Eljigidey is deposed by his brother Duwa Temür[14]
1331 Duwa Temür is deposed by his brother Tarmashirin, who converts the nation to Islam[14]
1334 Rebels discontent with the conversion to Islam killTarmashirin, who is succeeded by Buzan, his nephew[14]
1335 Buzan is overthrown by his cousin Changshi[14]
1338 Changshi is murdered by his brother Yesun Temur, who succeeds him[14]
Black Death strikes the Chagatai Khanate[14]

1340sEdit

Year Date Event
1342 Yesun Temur is deposed by 'Ali-Sultan[14]
1343 The Chagatai Khanate is split in two, with Qazan Khan ibn Yasaur taking control of the western portion (Transoxania) and Tughlugh Timur the eastern portion (Moghulistan)[14]
1347 Qazan Khan ibn Yasaur is defeated by Amir Qazaghan, who sets up Danishmendji, an Ögedeiid prince, as puppet khan; effective end of the united Chagatai Khanate[14]
1348 Transoxania: Danishmendji is killed by Amir Qazaghan, who enthrones Bayan Qulï as khan[15]

1350sEdit

Year Date Event
1350 Moghulistan: Tughlugh Timur gets circumsized and becomes a Muslim[16]
1351 Transoxania: Amir Qazaghan attacks the Kart dynasty and sacks Herat[15]
1357 Transoxania: Amir Qazaghan is assassinated and his son Abdullha succeeds him[15]
1358 Transoxania: Abdullha had Bayan Qulï killed, angering Hajji Beg, Timur's uncle, the lord of Kesh, who drove him into exile and his death[15]

1360sEdit

Year Date Event
1360 March Moghulistan: Tughlugh Timur invades Transoxania and forces Hajji Beg to retreat to Khorasan; where he is assassinated at Shindand; Timur becomes head of the Barlas clan due to the death fo Hajji Beg[17]
1363 Transoxania: Amir Husayn and Timur invade and take Transoxania from Moghulistan; while fleeing Ilyas Khoja learns of his father Tughlugh Timur's death[18]
1364 Transoxania: Amir Husayn and Timur enthrone Khabul Shah[18]
1365 Moghulistan: Ilyas Khoja invades Transoxania and lays siege to Samarkand but is forced to retreat after his army is hit by an epidemic[19]
1368 Moghulistan: Qamar-ud-din Khan Dughlat murders Ilyas Khoja and usurps the title of khan[20]

1370sEdit

Year Date Event
1370 10 April Transoxania: Timur crowns himself king in Balkh after defeating Amir Husayn and enthrones Suurgatmish as khan, killing Khabul Shah[21]
1375 Transoxania: Timur invades Moghulistan, devastating the Ili region, to which Qamar-ud-din Khan Dughlat responds by invading Fergana and ambushing Timur, who barelly escapes[22]

1380sEdit

Year Date Event
1388 Transoxania: Timur declares himself sultan and enthrones Sultan Mahmud as khan after Suurgatmish dies[23]
1389 Transoxania: Timur invades Moghulistan reaching almost Turpan and defeating Khizr Khoja[24]

1390sEdit

Year Date Event
1390 Transoxania: Timur invades Moghulistan and drives Qamar-ud-din Khan Dughlat into hiding, enabling Khizr Khoja to gain control of the region[25]
1397 Moghulistan: Khizr Khoja's daughter marries Timur[25]
1399 Moghulistan: Khizr Khoja dies and his son Shams-i-Jahan succeeds him[25]

15th centuryEdit

1400sEdit

Year Date Event
1400 Transoxania: Timur sends his grandson Mirza Iskander to invade Moghulistan, seizing Aksu and Khotan[26]
1402 Transoxania: Sultan Mahmud dies; effective end of the Western Chagatai Khanate[23]
1408 Shams-i-Jahan is succeeded by his brother Muhammad Khan[25]

1410sEdit

Year Date Event
1415 Muhammad Khan is succeeded by his brother Naqsh-i-Jahan[25]
1418 Naqsh-i-Jahan is succeeded by Uwais Khan[27]

1420sEdit

Year Date Event
1421 Uwais Khan is succeeded by Sher Muhammad[28]
1425 Shah Rukh sends his son Ulugh Beg to invade Moghulistan and defeats Sher Muhammad; Uwais Khan becomes ruler of Moghulistan again[28]
1429 Uwais Khan is killed by Satuq Khan; two factions supporting his sons Esen Buqa II and Yunus Khan go to war with Esen winning[29]

1430sEdit

Year Date Event
1433 Moghulistan recovers Kashgar from the Timurid Empire[29]

1450sEdit

Year Date Event
1451 Esen Buqa II raids the Timurid Empire; in response Abu Sa'id Mirza lends Yunus Khan troops to occupy Moghulistan near the Ili River, splitting the western portion into what would come to be known as the Yarkent Khanate[30]

1460sEdit

Year Date Event
1462 Esen Buqa II dies and is succeeded by his son Dost Muhammad[30]
1469 Dost Muhammad dies and is succeeded by his son Kebek Sultan[30]

1470sEdit

Year Date Event
1472 Kebek Sultan is assassinated, leaving Yunus Khan sole ruler of Moghulistan[30]
1473 Ming–Turpan conflict: Yunus Khan occupies Hami[31]
1479 Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat rebels and takes possession of Yarkand, defeating Yunus Khan twice[31]

1480sEdit

Year Date Event
1482 Ming–Turpan conflict: Hami is retaken by Qanšin[32]
1484 Taking advantage of the conflict between Umar Shaikh Mirza II and Sultan Ahmed Mirza, Yunus Khan occupies Fergana and Sayram[31]
1486 Yunus Khan dies and is succeeded by his sons Ahmad Alaq (Turpan Khanate) and Mahmud Khan (Yarkent Khanate)[32]
1488 Yarkent Khanate: Mahmud Khan defeats a Timurid invasion[33]
Ming–Turpan conflict: Ahmad Alaq kills Qanšin and takes control of Hami[33]
1489 Ming–Turpan conflict: Engke Bolad retakes Hami[33]

1490sEdit

Year Date Event
1493 Ming–Turpan conflict: Ahmad Alaq captures Šamba and occupies Hami[34]
1497 Ming–Turpan conflict: Ahmad Alaq abandons Hami[34]
1499 Turpan Khanate: Ahmad Alaq seizes Kashgar and Yengisar from Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat[32]

16th centuryEdit

1500sEdit

Year Date Event
1502 Muhammad Shaybani captures both Ahmad Alaq and Mahmud Khan in battle[33]
1503 Turpan Khanate: Muhammad Shaybani releases the Moghul khans but Ahmad Alaq dies soon after and is succeeded by his son Mansur Khan[33]
1508 Yarkent Khanate: Mahmud Khan is defeated by his nephew Sultan Said Khan, flees to Muhammad Shaybani, who executes him[33]
1509 Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat captures Kashgar[35]

1510sEdit

Year Date Event
1513 Ming–Turpan conflict: Kara Del submits to Mansur Khan[36]
1514 Yarkent Khanate: Sultan Said Khan overthrows Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat and takes all of his territory, ruling it in his own right; so ends the unified Moghulistan[35]
1517 Ming–Turpan conflict: Mansur Khan launches raids into the Ming dynasty[36]

1520sEdit

Year Date Event
1529 Yarkent Khanate: Sultan Said Khan invades Badakhshan[37]

1530sEdit

Year Date Event
1533 Yarkent Khanate: Sultan Said Khan dies while trying to invade Tibet and is succeeded by his son Abdurashid Khan - during his reign he loses the northern pastures to nomads[36]

1540sEdit

Year Date Event
1543 Makhdum-i-Azam dies and his sons create the Aq Taghliq and Qara Taghliq religious orders[38]
1545 Turpan Khanate: Mansur Khan is succeeded by his son Shah Khan[36]

1550sEdit

Year Date Event
1558 Yarkent Khanate: Kazakh Khanate invades but is repelled[39]

1560sEdit

Year Date Event
1565 Yarkent Khanate: Abdurashid Khan is succeeded by his son Abdul Karim Khan[40]

1570sEdit

Year Date Event
1570 Turpan Khanate: Shah Khan dies and is succeeded by his brother Muhammad Khan ibn Mansur Khan; records don't mention much of the Turpan Khanate after this[36]

1590sEdit

Year Date Event
1593 Yarkent Khanate: Abdul Karim Khan is succeeded by his brother Muhammad Sultan[40]

17th centuryEdit

1610sEdit

Year Date Event
1610 Yarkent Khanate: Muhammad Sultan is succeeded by his son Shudja ad Din Ahmad Khan[39]
1619 Yarkent Khanate: Shudja ad Din Ahmad Khan is assassinated and succeeded by Abd al-Latif (Afak) Khan[39]

1630sEdit

Year Date Event
1631 Yarkent Khanate: Abd al-Latif (Afak) Khan is succeeded by his nephew Sultan Ahmad Khan (Pulat Khan)[39]
1636 Yarkent Khanate: Sultan Ahmad Khan (Pulat Khan) is overthrown by Abdallah (Moghul Khan)[39]

1650sEdit

Year Date Event
1655 Yarkent Khanate: Yarkent becomes a tributary of the Qing dynasty[38]

1660sEdit

Year Date Event
1667 Yarkent Khanate: Abdallah (Moghul Khan) is overthrown by his son, YuIbars Khan[41]

1670sEdit

Year Date Event
1670 Yarkent Khanate: Yulbars Khan is overthrown and his uncle Ismail Khan is enthroned[41]
1678 Dzungar conquest of Altishahr: Ismail Khan drives out to the Aq Taghliq Khoja Afaq Khoja, who seeks help from the 5th Dalai Lama, who in turn writes a letter to the Dzungar Khanate for help.[42]

1680sEdit

Year Date Event
1680 Dzungar conquest of Altishahr: The Dzungars invade and kill Ismail's family. Abd ar-Rashid Khan II is installed as ruler.[41]
1682 Riots break out, forcing Abd ar-Rashid Khan II to flee; his brother Muhammad Imin Khan succeeds him[43]

1690sEdit

Year Date Event
1693 Muhammad Imin Khan invades the Dzungar Khanate but is overthrown by Afaq Khoja, whose son Yahiya Khoja is enthroned[43]
1695 Afaq Khoja and Yahiya Khoja are killed in a rebellion[43]
1696 Akbash Khan is enthroned but the begs of Kashgar refuse to acknowledge him. Dzungar troops are brought in by Akbash to enforce his rule. However the Dzungars install Mirza Alim Shah Beg; so ends the Yarkent Khanate and Chagatai rule[44]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Atwood 2004, p. 445.
  2. ^ a b c d e Atwood 2004, p. 81.
  3. ^ Atwood 2004, p. 416.
  4. ^ a b c Atwood 2004, p. 307.
  5. ^ Atwood 2004, p. 82.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Atwood 2004, p. 83.
  7. ^ Twitchett 1994, p. 411.
  8. ^ Atwood 2004, p. 202.
  9. ^ a b c d e Atwood 2004, p. 85.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Atwood 2004, p. 86.
  11. ^ Twitchett 1994, p. 502.
  12. ^ a b Twitchett 1994, p. 503.
  13. ^ a b c d Twitchett 1994, p. 504.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Atwood 2004, p. 87.
  15. ^ a b c d Grousset 1970, p. 343.
  16. ^ Grousset 1970, p. 344.
  17. ^ Grousset 1970, p. 345.
  18. ^ a b Grousset 1970, p. 411.
  19. ^ Grousset 1970, p. 412.
  20. ^ Grousset 1970, p. 422.
  21. ^ Grousset 1970, p. 415.
  22. ^ Grousset 1970, p. 423.
  23. ^ a b Grousset 1970, p. 416.
  24. ^ Grousset 1970, p. 424.
  25. ^ a b c d e Grousset 1970, p. 425.
  26. ^ Grousset 1970, p. 426.
  27. ^ Grousset 1970, p. 491.
  28. ^ a b Grousset 1970, p. 459.
  29. ^ a b Grousset 1970, p. 492.
  30. ^ a b c d Grousset 1970, p. 493.
  31. ^ a b c Grousset 1970, p. 494.
  32. ^ a b c Grousset 1970, p. 495.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Grousset 1970, p. 496.
  34. ^ a b Grousst 1970, p. 496.
  35. ^ a b Grousset 1970, p. 497.
  36. ^ a b c d e Grousset 1970, p. 499.
  37. ^ Adle 2003, p. 182.
  38. ^ a b Adle 2003, p. 184.
  39. ^ a b c d e Adle 2003, p. 183.
  40. ^ a b Grousset 1970, p. 500.
  41. ^ a b c Adle 2003, p. 185.
  42. ^ Grousset 1970, p. 501.
  43. ^ a b c Adle 2003, p. 192.
  44. ^ Adle 2003, p. 193.

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