Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology



  • 1592–1593 — Galileo Galilei builds a device showing variation of hotness known as the thermoscope using the contraction of air to draw water up a tube.[1]



  • 1701 — Newton publishes a method of determining the rate of heat loss of a body and introduces a scale, which had 0 degrees represent the freezing point of water, and 12 degrees for human body temperature.
  • 1701 — Ole Christensen Rømer made one of the first practical thermometers. As a temperature indicator it used red wine. (Rømer scale), The temperature scale used for his thermometer had 0 representing the temperature of a salt and ice mixture (at about 259 s).
  • 1709 — Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit constructed alcohol thermometers which were reproducible (i.e. two would give the same temperature)
  • 1714 — Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury-in-glass thermometer giving much greater precision (4 x that of Rømer). Using Rømer's zero point and an upper point of blood temperature, he adjusted the scale so the melting point of ice was 32 and the upper point 96, meaning that the difference of 64 could be got by dividing the intervals into 2 repeatedly.[3]
  • 1731 — René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur produced a scale in which 0 represented the freezing point of water and 80 represented the boiling point. This was chosen as his alcohol mixture expanded 80 parts per thousand. He did not consider pressure.[4]
  • 1738 — Daniel Bernoulli asserted in Hydrodynamica the principle that as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases. (Kinetic theory)
  • 1742 — Anders Celsius proposed a temperature scale in which 100 represented the temperature of melting ice and 0 represented the boiling point of water at a particular pressure.[4]
  • 1743 — Jean-Pierre Christin had worked independently of Celsius and developed a scale where zero represented the melting point of ice and 100 represented the boiling point but did not specify a pressure.[4]
  • 1744 — Carl Linnaeus suggested reversing the temperature scale of Anders Celsius so that 0 represented the freezing point of water and 100 represented the boiling point.
  • 1782 — James Six invents the Maximum minimum thermometer



See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Vincenzo Viviani (1654) Racconto istorico della vita del Sig.r Galileo Galilei
  2. ^ a b R. P. Benedict (1984) Fundamentals of Temperature, Pressure, and Flow Measurements, 3rd ed., ISBN 0-471-89383-8, p. 4
  3. ^ Henry Carrington Bolton (1800): Evolution of the thermometer 1592–1743. The Chemical pub. co., Easton, Pennsylvania. pp. 60-79.
  4. ^ a b c Henry Carrington Bolton (1800): Evolution of the thermometer 1592–1743. The Chemical pub. co., Easton, Pennsylvania. pp. 79-87.
  5. ^ Louis Figuier; Émile Gautier (1867). L'Année scientifique et industrielle. L. Hachette et cie. pp. 485–486.
  6. ^ Ronalds, B.F. (2016). Sir Francis Ronalds: Father of the Electric Telegraph. London: Imperial College Press. ISBN 978-1-78326-917-4.
  7. ^ Ronalds, B.F. (2016). "The Beginnings of Continuous Scientific Recording using Photography: Sir Francis Ronalds' Contribution". European Society for the History of Photography. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  8. ^ Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, Encyclopædia Britannica