Climate of London

  (Redirected from The weather in London)

The climate of London features a temperate oceanic climate (Cfb).[1] This gives the city cool winters, warm summers with frequent precipitation all year round. London has a very rich history of meteorological observations, with precipitation records beginning as early as January 1697 at Kew Gardens.[2] Irregular observations were made at multiple locations in the ensuing years. An observing station has been located at Greenwich since 1841, giving London its longest continuous reliable temperature series.[3] Other stations include Heathrow, beginning in 1948,[4] Hampstead, beginning in 1910,[5] Northolt, beginning in 1948,[6] and St James's Park, beginning in 1910.[7]

London, United Kingdom
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
London on a snowy day in 2018.

The highest temperature ever observed in London is 38.1 °C (100.6 °F) on 10 August 2003 and the lowest is −18.9 °C (−2.0 °F) 15 February 1929.[8] The lowest daily maximum temperature is −8.3 °C (17.1 °F) occurring on 3 occasions: 8 January 1841, 4 January 1867 and 12 January 1987.[9] The highest daily minimum temperature recorded is 23.3 °C (73.9 °F) on 29 July 1948. This is also the highest minimum temperature ever reported during the month of July in the United Kingdom.[10] In addition to this, London holds multiple national records, including the record maximum for the months of February, April, May and June.[11]

The city can sometimes experience extremes. Snowfall is a somewhat common occurrence in winter, falling on average 16 days per year, although it is infrequently heavy. Thunderstorms are a similarly rare feature, occurring on average 15 days per year. London has been known to experience tornadoes. Most recently an F2 struck Kensal Green on 7 December 2006.

ClassificationsEdit

London Climate according to major climate systems
Climatic scheme Initials Description
Köppen system[12][13] Cfb Oceanic climate[a]
Trewartha system[14][15] Do Temperate oceanic climate
Alisov system[16] N/A Temperate climate[b]
Strahler system[17] N/A Marine west-coast
Thornthwaite system[18]
C2 B'1
Moist subhumid and mesothermal
Neef system[19][20] N/A West side/maritime climate

Climate data tablesEdit

London Weather CentreEdit

Climate data for London Weather Centre, 2001-2014 seminormals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
8.9
(48.0)
11.7
(53.1)
15.7
(60.3)
18.5
(65.3)
22.4
(72.3)
23.6
(74.5)
23.2
(73.8)
20.8
(69.4)
16.1
(61.0)
11.9
(53.4)
8.6
(47.5)
15.8
(60.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
6.8
(44.2)
8.8
(47.8)
11.9
(53.4)
14.7
(58.5)
18.2
(64.8)
19.5
(67.1)
19.3
(66.7)
17.3
(63.1)
13.5
(56.3)
9.9
(49.8)
7.0
(44.6)
12.8
(55.0)
Average low °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
4.7
(40.5)
5.8
(42.4)
8.2
(46.8)
10.9
(51.6)
14.1
(57.4)
15.5
(59.9)
15.5
(59.9)
13.7
(56.7)
10.9
(51.6)
8.0
(46.4)
5.4
(41.7)
9.8
(49.7)
Source 1: Weather Online [21]
Source 2: Tutiempo [22]

Heathrow - Airport Weather Station in the suburbs of West LondonEdit

Climate data for LHR, elevation: 25 m (82 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1948–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.0
(60.8)
20.1
(68.2)
22.8
(73.0)
27.4
(81.3)
31.8
(89.2)
34.8
(94.6)
37.9
(100.2)
37.9
(100.2)
31.3
(88.3)
28.8
(83.8)
18.6
(65.5)
16.6
(61.9)
37.9
(100.2)
Average high °C (°F) 8.1
(46.6)
8.4
(47.1)
11.3
(52.3)
14.2
(57.6)
17.9
(64.2)
21.0
(69.8)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
19.9
(67.8)
15.5
(59.9)
11.1
(52.0)
8.3
(46.9)
15.2
(59.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
5.3
(41.5)
7.6
(45.7)
9.9
(49.8)
13.3
(55.9)
16.4
(61.5)
18.7
(65.7)
18.5
(65.3)
15.7
(60.3)
12.0
(53.6)
8.0
(46.4)
5.5
(41.9)
11.3
(52.3)
Average low °C (°F) 2.3
(36.1)
2.1
(35.8)
3.9
(39.0)
5.5
(41.9)
8.7
(47.7)
11.7
(53.1)
13.9
(57.0)
13.7
(56.7)
11.4
(52.5)
8.4
(47.1)
4.9
(40.8)
2.7
(36.9)
7.4
(45.4)
Record low °C (°F) −13.2
(8.2)
−9.6
(14.7)
−5.1
(22.8)
−2.6
(27.3)
−0.9
(30.4)
1.5
(34.7)
5.6
(42.1)
5.9
(42.6)
1.8
(35.2)
−3.3
(26.1)
−7.0
(19.4)
−11.8
(10.8)
−13.2
(8.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.2
(2.17)
40.9
(1.61)
41.6
(1.64)
43.7
(1.72)
49.4
(1.94)
45.1
(1.78)
44.5
(1.75)
49.5
(1.95)
49.1
(1.93)
68.5
(2.70)
59.0
(2.32)
55.2
(2.17)
601.7
(23.68)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.1 8.5 9.3 9.1 8.8 8.2 7.7 7.5 8.1 10.8 10.3 10.2 109.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.5 77.9 114.6 168.7 198.5 204.3 212.0 204.7 149.3 116.5 72.6 52.0 1,632.6
Source 1: Met Office [23]
Source 2: KNMI [24][25]


Climate data for Kew Gardens, elevation: 6 m (20 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1901–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.1
(61.0)
21.2
(70.2)
22.0
(71.6)
29.1
(84.4)
30.6
(87.1)
34.2
(93.6)
35.0
(95.0)
38.1
(100.6)
33.3
(91.9)
27.8
(82.0)
18.9
(66.0)
15.7
(60.3)
38.1
(100.6)
Average high °C (°F) 8.2
(46.8)
8.7
(47.7)
11.6
(52.9)
14.4
(57.9)
18.0
(64.4)
21.0
(69.8)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
20.0
(68.0)
15.8
(60.4)
11.3
(52.3)
8.5
(47.3)
15.4
(59.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
5.2
(41.4)
7.5
(45.5)
9.6
(49.3)
13.0
(55.4)
15.9
(60.6)
18.3
(64.9)
18.0
(64.4)
15.2
(59.4)
11.6
(52.9)
7.7
(45.9)
5.3
(41.5)
11.0
(51.8)
Average low °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
1.7
(35.1)
3.4
(38.1)
4.7
(40.5)
7.9
(46.2)
10.8
(51.4)
13.0
(55.4)
12.7
(54.9)
10.3
(50.5)
7.4
(45.3)
4.1
(39.4)
2.1
(35.8)
6.7
(44.1)
Record low °C (°F) −12.8
(9.0)
−11.7
(10.9)
−8.3
(17.1)
−2.1
(28.2)
−3.1
(26.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.9
(39.0)
2.1
(35.8)
1.4
(34.5)
−3.9
(25.0)
−7.1
(19.2)
−11.7
(10.9)
−12.8
(9.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 57.2
(2.25)
41.9
(1.65)
42.8
(1.69)
45.3
(1.78)
48.8
(1.92)
49.3
(1.94)
46.8
(1.84)
51.2
(2.02)
52.2
(2.06)
69.7
(2.74)
60.6
(2.39)
56.6
(2.23)
622.5
(24.51)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.6 9.0 10.0 9.1 9.0 8.5 7.7 8.1 8.5 10.7 11.1 10.6 113.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 59.8 79.9 118.2 173.3 205.3 203.6 218.4 211.1 146.4 117.2 70.6 49.6 1,653.3
Source: Met Office [26]


Hampstead - Weather Station in North LondonEdit

The weather station enclosure is the most elevated of any in the London area, and as a result daytime temperatures are typically one degree lower than Heathrow, Kew, Northolt and Greenwich.

Climate data for Hampstead, elevation: 137 m (449 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1960–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.7
(60.3)
18.3
(64.9)
23.1
(73.6)
26.6
(79.9)
29.8
(85.6)
33.7
(92.7)
34.4
(93.9)
37.4
(99.3)
29.4
(84.9)
28.3
(82.9)
17.9
(64.2)
15.3
(59.5)
37.4
(99.3)
Average high °C (°F) 7.1
(44.8)
7.4
(45.3)
10.5
(50.9)
13.3
(55.9)
16.8
(62.2)
19.9
(67.8)
22.4
(72.3)
22.0
(71.6)
18.8
(65.8)
14.6
(58.3)
10.3
(50.5)
7.4
(45.3)
14.3
(57.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.6
(40.3)
4.6
(40.3)
7.0
(44.6)
9.2
(48.6)
12.4
(54.3)
15.4
(59.7)
17.8
(64.0)
17.6
(63.7)
14.9
(58.8)
11.4
(52.5)
7.6
(45.7)
5.0
(41.0)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F) 2.0
(35.6)
1.7
(35.1)
3.5
(38.3)
5.0
(41.0)
8.0
(46.4)
10.9
(51.6)
13.2
(55.8)
13.1
(55.6)
11.0
(51.8)
8.1
(46.6)
4.8
(40.6)
2.5
(36.5)
7.0
(44.6)
Record low °C (°F) −10.8
(12.6)
−12.2
(10.0)
−6.9
(19.6)
−3.2
(26.2)
−0.6
(30.9)
1.8
(35.2)
5.6
(42.1)
4.7
(40.5)
2.4
(36.3)
−2.4
(27.7)
−5.8
(21.6)
−8.4
(16.9)
−12.2
(10.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 64.7
(2.55)
46.6
(1.83)
48.9
(1.93)
51.5
(2.03)
58.0
(2.28)
54.2
(2.13)
50.4
(1.98)
64.4
(2.54)
56.9
(2.24)
77.7
(3.06)
68.3
(2.69)
62.9
(2.48)
704.5
(27.74)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.0 9.7 10.2 9.9 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.9 8.8 11.0 11.4 11.4 120.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 57.5 76.4 107.1 151.6 192.2 191.0 199.9 193.0 140.8 109.9 69.4 51.6 1,540.4
Source 1: Met Office[27]
Source 2: KNMI [28]


Northolt - Airfield Weather Station in the North West of LondonEdit

Temperature extremes range from 37.7 °C (99.9 °F) in August 2003, down to −16.1 °C (3.0 °F) in January 1962.

Climate data for NHT, elevation: 40 m (131 ft), 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7.9
(46.2)
8.3
(46.9)
11.3
(52.3)
14.1
(57.4)
17.7
(63.9)
20.8
(69.4)
23.2
(73.8)
22.9
(73.2)
19.7
(67.5)
15.4
(59.7)
11.0
(51.8)
8.2
(46.8)
15.1
(59.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
4.9
(40.8)
7.4
(45.3)
9.5
(49.1)
12.9
(55.2)
15.9
(60.6)
18.2
(64.8)
17.9
(64.2)
15.1
(59.2)
11.5
(52.7)
7.6
(45.7)
5.2
(41.4)
10.9
(51.6)
Average low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
1.5
(34.7)
3.4
(38.1)
4.8
(40.6)
8.0
(46.4)
10.9
(51.6)
13.2
(55.8)
12.9
(55.2)
10.5
(50.9)
7.6
(45.7)
4.1
(39.4)
2.1
(35.8)
6.8
(44.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 58.2
(2.29)
43.4
(1.71)
45.5
(1.79)
45.8
(1.80)
56.0
(2.20)
47.5
(1.87)
45.3
(1.78)
51.3
(2.02)
50.6
(1.99)
72.2
(2.84)
64.9
(2.56)
59.0
(2.32)
639.8
(25.19)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.4 9.2 10.0 9.3 9.2 8.6 8.0 8.2 8.3 10.8 10.7 10.5 114.2
Source: Met Office [29]


Greenwich - Weather Station in South East London near the river ThamesEdit

Climate data for Greenwich Park, elevation: 47 m (154 ft), 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
19.7
(67.5)
21.7
(71.1)
25.6
(78.1)
30.0
(86.0)
32.8
(91.0)
35.3
(95.5)
37.5
(99.5)
30.0
(86.0)
25.6
(78.1)
18.9
(66.0)
15.0
(59.0)
37.5
(99.5)
Average high °C (°F) 8.1
(46.6)
8.6
(47.5)
11.6
(52.9)
14.6
(58.3)
18.1
(64.6)
21.0
(69.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.1
(73.6)
20.0
(68.0)
15.5
(59.9)
11.3
(52.3)
8.4
(47.1)
15.3
(59.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
5.7
(42.3)
8.1
(46.6)
10.3
(50.5)
13.5
(56.3)
16.4
(61.5)
18.6
(65.5)
18.5
(65.3)
15.7
(60.3)
12.2
(54.0)
8.6
(47.5)
5.9
(42.6)
11.6
(52.9)
Average low °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
2.7
(36.9)
4.6
(40.3)
5.9
(42.6)
8.9
(48.0)
11.8
(53.2)
13.7
(56.7)
13.8
(56.8)
11.4
(52.5)
8.8
(47.8)
5.8
(42.4)
3.4
(38.1)
7.8
(46.0)
Record low °C (°F) −9.4
(15.1)
−9.4
(15.1)
−7.8
(18.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
5.0
(41.0)
7.2
(45.0)
6.1
(43.0)
2.8
(37.0)
−3.3
(26.1)
−5.0
(23.0)
−7.2
(19.0)
−9.4
(15.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41.6
(1.64)
36.3
(1.43)
40.3
(1.59)
40.1
(1.58)
44.9
(1.77)
47.4
(1.87)
34.6
(1.36)
54.3
(2.14)
51.0
(2.01)
61.1
(2.41)
57.5
(2.26)
48.4
(1.91)
557.4
(21.94)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.4 8.5 9.8 9.0 9.2 7.4 6.3 8.1 8.6 10.9 10.9 9.5 109.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 44.7 65.4 101.7 148.3 170.9 171.4 176.7 186.1 133.9 105.4 59.6 45.8 1,410
Source 1: Met Office[30][31][32]
Source 2: BBC Weather[33]


Average UV indexEdit

Ultraviolet index [34]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
1 1 2 4 5 6 6 5 4 2 1 0 3.4

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Also called marine west coast.
  2. ^ Mid-latitude temperate maritime climate

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Peel, M.C.; Finlayson, B.L. "World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". The University of Melbourne. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  2. ^ "Monthly precipitation totals KEW GARDENS 1697- 1987". Wetterzentrale.de. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  3. ^ "Temperaturmonatsmittel GREENWICH/MARITIME M 1841- 1960". Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  4. ^ "Heathrow". CEDA Archive. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  5. ^ "Hampstead". CEDA Archive. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  6. ^ "Northolt". CEDA Archive. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  7. ^ "St James's park". CEDA Archive. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  8. ^ "February 1929". Met Office. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  9. ^ "British weather in January". Trevor Harley. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  10. ^ "UK climate extremes". Met Office. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  11. ^ "UK climate extremes". Met Office. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  12. ^ Union, Publications Office of the European (5 January 2017). "Modelling inclusion, testing and benchmarking of the impacts of ozone pollution on crop yields at regional level". publications.europa.eu. doi:10.2788/68501. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  13. ^ "London, England Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  14. ^ "GLOBAL ECOLOGICAL ZONING FOR THE GLOBAL FOREST RESOURCES ASSESSMENT 2000". www.fao.org. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  15. ^ "Trewartha maps". kkh.ltrr.arizona.edu. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  16. ^ Cmapm, Kliimavöötmed svg: Urmasderivative work (16 June 2011), Русский: Климатические пояса Земли по Б. П. Алисову., retrieved 1 July 2019
  17. ^ "World Strahler Climate Map".
  18. ^ Feddema, Johannes J. (January 2005). "A Revised Thornthwaite-Type Global Climate Classification". Physical Geography. 26 (6): 442–466. doi:10.2747/0272-3646.26.6.442. ISSN 0272-3646.
  19. ^ "Klimaklassifikation". www.spektrum.de (in German). Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  20. ^ "Klimazonen nach E. Neef (1989)". Klett-Perthes.
  21. ^ "London Weather Centre analysis". Weather Online. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  22. ^ "climate: Climate London Weather Centre". Tutiempo. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  23. ^ "London Heathrow Airport". Met Office. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  24. ^ "Heathrow Airport Extreme Values". KNMI. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  25. ^ "Heathrow 1981–2010 mean maximum and minimum values". KNMI. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  26. ^ "Kew 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  27. ^ "Hampstead 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  28. ^ "Indices data - Hampstead 1859". KNMI. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  29. ^ "Northolt 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  30. ^ "Greenwich 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  31. ^ "Hot Spell - August 2003". Met Office. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  32. ^ "Record Breaking Heat and Sunshine - July 2006". Met Office. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  33. ^ "London Forecast". Met Office. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  34. ^ Average UV index London, United Kingdom – weather-atlas.com

External linksEdit