The Lord of the Rings (film series)

The Lord of the Rings is a film series of three epic fantasy adventure films directed by Peter Jackson, based on the novel written by J. R. R. Tolkien. The films are subtitled The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Two Towers (2002) and The Return of the King (2003). Produced and distributed by New Line Cinema with the co-production of WingNut Films, it is an international venture between New Zealand and the United States. The films feature an ensemble cast including Elijah Wood, Ian McKellen, Liv Tyler, Viggo Mortensen, Sean Astin, Cate Blanchett, John Rhys-Davies, Christopher Lee, Billy Boyd, Dominic Monaghan, Orlando Bloom, Hugo Weaving, Andy Serkis and Sean Bean.

The Lord of the Rings
Lotr logos.png
The Lord of the Rings trilogy original logos
Directed byPeter Jackson
Produced by
Screenplay by
Based onThe Lord of the Rings
by J. R. R. Tolkien
Starring
Music byHoward Shore
CinematographyAndrew Lesnie
Edited by
Production
companies
Distributed byNew Line Cinema
Release date
2001–2003
Running time
Total (3 films):
  • 558 minutes (theatrical)
  • 686 minutes (extended)
Country
  • New Zealand
  • United States
LanguageEnglish
BudgetTotal (3 films):
$281 million
Box officeTotal (3 films):
$2.981 billion

Set in the fictional world of Middle-earth, the films follow the hobbit Frodo Baggins as he and the Fellowship embark on a quest to destroy the One Ring, to ensure the destruction of its maker, the Dark Lord Sauron. The Fellowship eventually splits up and Frodo continues the quest with his loyal companion Sam and the treacherous Gollum. Meanwhile, Aragorn, heir in exile to the throne of Gondor, along with Legolas, Gimli, Boromir, Merry, Pippin and the wizard Gandalf, unite to rally the Free Peoples of Middle-earth in the War of the Ring in order to aid Frodo by distracting Sauron's attention.

The three films were shot simultaneously and entirely in Jackson's native New Zealand from 11 October 1999 until 22 December 2000, with pick-up shots done from 2001 to 2004. It was one of the biggest and most ambitious film projects ever undertaken, with a budget of $281 million. The first film in the series premiered at the Odeon Leicester Square in London on 10 December 2001; the second film premiered at the Ziegfeld Theatre in New York City on 5 December 2002; the third film premiered at the Embassy Theatre in Wellington on 1 December 2003. An extended edition of each film was released on home video a year after its theatrical release.

The Lord of the Rings is widely regarded as one of the greatest and most influential film series ever made. It was a major financial success and is among the highest-grossing film series of all time with $2.981 billion in worldwide receipts. Each film was critically acclaimed and heavily awarded, the series winning 17 out of its 30 Academy Award nominations.

FilmsEdit

The Fellowship of the RingEdit

In the Second Age of Middle-earth, the lords of Elves, Dwarves, and Men are given Rings of Power. Unbeknownst to them, the Dark Lord Sauron forges the One Ring in Mount Doom, instilling into it a great part of his power, in order to dominate the other Rings so he might conquer Middle-earth. A final alliance of Men and Elves battles Sauron's forces in Mordor. Isildur of Gondor severs Sauron's finger and the Ring with it, thereby destroying his physical form. With Sauron's first defeat, the Third Age of Middle-earth begins. The Ring's influence corrupts Isildur, who takes it for himself. Isildur is later killed by Orcs and the Ring is lost in a river for 2,500 years until it is found by Gollum, who owns it for five centuries. The Ring is then found by a hobbit named Bilbo Baggins, who is unaware of its history.

Sixty years later, Bilbo celebrates his 111th birthday in the Shire, reuniting with his old friend, the wizard Gandalf the Grey. Bilbo reveals that he intends to leave the Shire for one last adventure, and he leaves his inheritance, including the Ring, to his nephew Frodo. Gandalf investigates the Ring, discovers its true nature, and learns that Gollum was captured and tortured by Sauron's Orcs, revealing two words during his interrogation: "Shire" and "Baggins." Gandalf returns and warns Frodo to leave the Shire. As Frodo departs with his friend, gardener Samwise Gamgee, Gandalf rides to Isengard to meet with the wizard Saruman, but learns that he has joined forces with Sauron, who has dispatched his nine undead Nazgûl servants to find Frodo.

Frodo and Sam are joined by fellow hobbits Merry and Pippin, and they evade the Nazgûl before arriving in Bree, where they are meant to meet Gandalf. However, Gandalf never arrives, having been taken prisoner by Saruman. The hobbits are then aided by a Ranger named Strider, who promises to escort them to Rivendell; however, they are ambushed by the Nazgûl on Weathertop, and their leader, the Witch-King, stabs Frodo with a Morgul blade. Arwen, an elf and Strider's betrothed, locates Aragorn and rescues Frodo, summoning flood-waters that sweep the Nazgûl away. She takes him to Rivendell, where he is healed by the elves. Frodo meets with Gandalf, who escaped Isengard with help from Gwaihir the Great Eagle by asking for him with a moth. That night, Strider reunites with Arwen, and they confirm their love for each other. Arwen's father, Lord Elrond, holds a council that decides the Ring must be destroyed in the fires of Mount Doom. Frodo volunteers to take the Ring, accompanied by Gandalf, Sam, Merry, Pippin, Elf Legolas, Dwarf Gimli, Boromir of Gondor, and Strider, who is revealed to be Aragorn, Isildur's heir and the rightful King of Gondor. Collectively, they are known as the Fellowship Of The Ring. Bilbo, now living in Rivendell, gives Frodo his sword, Sting.

The Fellowship of the Ring sets off over the mountain Caradhras, intending to use the pass of Caradhras, but Saruman summons a storm that forces them to travel through the Mines of Moria. After finding all of the Dwarves of Moria have been slain, the Fellowship is attacked by Orcs and a cave troll. They hold them off but are confronted by Durin's Bane, a Balrog residing within the mines. Gandalf casts the Balrog into a vast chasm, after shouting "YOU SHALL NOT PASS", but it drags him down into the darkness. The devastated Fellowship reaches Lothlórien, ruled by the Elf-queen Galadriel and her husband Celeborn. Galadriel privately informs Frodo that only he can complete the quest and that one of his friends in the Fellowship will try to take the Ring. Meanwhile, Saruman creates an army of Uruk-hai in Isengard to track down and kill the Fellowship.

The Fellowship travels by river to Parth Galen. Frodo wanders off and is confronted by Boromir, who tries to take the Ring as Lady Galadriel had predicted. The Fellowship is then ambushed by the Uruk-hai. Merry and Pippin are taken captive, and Boromir is mortally wounded by the Uruk chieftain, Lurtz. Aragorn arrives, slays Lurtz, and watches Boromir die. Afraid of the Ring corrupting his friends, Frodo decides to travel to Mordor alone, but then reconsiders by allowing Sam to come after hearing his promise from Gandalf. Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli decide to rescue Merry and Pippin after finding them missing.

The Two TowersEdit

Awakening from a dream of Gandalf fighting the Balrog in Moria, Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee find themselves lost in the Emyn Muil near Mordor and discover they are being tracked by Gollum, a former bearer of the One Ring. Capturing Gollum, Frodo takes pity and allows him to guide them, reminding Sam that they will need Gollum's help to infiltrate Mordor.

Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli pursue a band of Uruk-hai to save their companions Merry and Pippin, entering the kingdom of Rohan. The Uruk-hai are ambushed by a group of Rohirrim, allowing the Hobbits to escape into Fangorn Forest. Meeting Aragorn's group, the Rohirrim’s leader Éomer explains that he and his men have been exiled by Rohan's king, Théoden, who is under the control of Saruman and his servant Gríma Wormtongue. Éomer believes Merry and Pippin were killed during the raid, but leaves the group two horses. Searching for the Hobbits in Fangorn, Aragorn's group encounters Gandalf, who reveals that after his fight against the Balrog he was resurrected as Gandalf the White to help save Middle-earth.

Gandalf leads the trio to Rohan's capital, Edoras, where Gandalf frees Théoden from Saruman's control. Aragorn stops Théoden from executing Wormtongue, who flees. Learning of Saruman's plans to destroy Rohan with his Uruk-hai army, Théoden evacuates his citizens to the fortress of Helm's Deep. Gandalf departs to find Éomer and his followers, hoping they will fight for their restored king. Aragorn befriends Théoden's niece, Éowyn, who becomes infatuated with him. When the refugees travelling to Helm's Deep are attacked by Saruman’s Warg-riding Orcs, Aragorn falls from a cliff and is presumed dead. He is revealed to have survived and rides to Helm's Deep, witnessing Saruman's army marching to the fortress.

In Rivendell, Arwen is told by her father Elrond that Aragorn will not return. He reminds her that if she remains in Middle-earth, she will outlive Aragorn by thousands of years, and she reluctantly departs for Valinor. Elrond is contacted by Galadriel of Lothlórien, who convinces him that the elves should honor their alliance to men, and they dispatch an army of elves to Helm's Deep.

In Fangorn, Merry and Pippin meet Treebeard, an Ent. Convincing Treebeard that they are allies, they are brought to an Ent Council, where the Ents decide not to take part in the coming war. Pippin asks Treebeard to take them in the direction of Isengard, where they witness the deforestation caused by Saruman’s war effort. Enraged, Treebeard and the Ents overwhelm Isengard, trapping Saruman in his tower.

Aragorn arrives at Helm's Deep and reveals that Saruman's army is close and Théoden must prepare for battle, despite the overwhelming Uruk-hai numbers. The army of Elves from Lothlórien arrives, as does Saruman's army, and a night battle ensues. The Uruk-hai breach the outer wall with explosives and kill the elves' commander, Haldir. The defenders retreat into the keep, where Aragorn convinces Théoden to meet the Uruk-hai in one last charge. At dawn, as the defenders are overwhelmed, Gandalf and Éomer arrive with the Rohirrim, winning the battle. The surviving Uruk-hai flee into Fangorn Forest and are killed by the Ents. Gandalf warns that Sauron will retaliate.

Gollum leads Frodo and Sam through the Dead Marshes to the Black Gate, but recommends they enter Mordor by another route. Frodo and Sam are captured by Rangers of Ithilien led by Faramir, brother of the late Boromir. Frodo helps Faramir catch Gollum to save him from being killed by the Rangers. Learning of the One Ring, Faramir takes his captives to Gondor to bring the ring to his father Denethor. Passing through the besieged Gondorian city of Osgiliath, Frodo tries to explain to Faramir the true nature of the ring, and Sam explains that Boromir was driven mad by its power. A Nazgûl nearly captures Frodo, who falls under the ring's power and momentarily attacks Sam, who reminds him that they are fighting for the good still left in Middle-earth. Impressed by Frodo's resolve, Faramir releases them. Gollum decides to betray Frodo and reclaim the Ring by leading the group to "Her" upon arriving at Cirith Ungol.

The Return of the KingEdit

Two Hobbits, Sméagol and Déagol, are fishing when Déagol discovers the One Ring in the river. Sméagol is ensnared by the Ring, and kills his friend for it. He retreats into the Misty Mountains as the Ring twists his body and mind, until he becomes the creature Gollum.

Centuries later, during the War of the Ring, Gandalf leads Aragorn, Legolas, Gimli, and King Théoden to Isengard, where they reunite with Merry and Pippin. Gandalf retrieves the defeated Saruman's palantír. Pippin later looks into the seeing-stone and is seen by Sauron. From Pippin's description of his visions, Gandalf surmises that Sauron will attack Gondor's capital Minas Tirith. He rides there to warn Gondor's steward Denethor, taking Pippin with him.

Gollum leads Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee to Minas Morgul, where they watch the Witch-king of Angmar, leader of the nine Nazgûl, lead an army of Orcs towards Gondor. The hobbits begin climbing a stair carved in the cliff face that leads to a secret tunnel into Mordor, unaware that Gollum plans to kill them and take the Ring. The Witch-king and his forces strike and overwhelm Osgiliath, forcing Faramir and his garrison to retreat to Minas Tirith.

Gollum disposes of the Hobbits' food, blaming Sam. Believing that Sam desires the Ring, Frodo tells him to go home before he and Gollum continue to the tunnel leading to Mordor. Gollum tricks him into venturing into the lair of the giant spider Shelob. Frodo narrowly escapes and confronts Gollum, telling him that he must destroy the Ring for both their sakes. Gollum attacks Frodo but falls down a chasm. Frodo continues on, but Shelob discovers, paralyses, and binds him. Sam returns and injures Shelob, driving her away, but then hides as Orcs appear and take Frodo with them. The Orcs then fight over ownership of Frodo's mithril vest, allowing Sam to escape with Frodo and continue their journey.

As King Théoden gathers the Rohirrim army, Aragorn learns from Elrond that Arwen is dying, having refused to leave Middle Earth to be with Aragorn after seeing a vision of their future son. Arwen convinced a reluctant Elrond to order the shards of King Elendil's sword, Narsil, be reforged into Andúril so that Aragorn can reclaim his birthright and gain reinforcements from the ghostly Dead Men of Dunharrow. Joined by Legolas and Gimli, Aragorn travels to the Dead Men's lair, pledging to release them from Isildur's undead curse should they come to Gondor's aid.

Faramir is gravely wounded after a futile effort to recapture Osgiliath; believing his son to be dead, Denethor falls into madness. Gandalf is left to defend the city against the Orc army, led by Gothmog. As Gothmog's army forces its way into the city, Denethor attempts to kill himself and Faramir on a pyre. Pippin alerts Gandalf and they save Faramir, but a burning Denethor leaps to his death from the top of Minas Tirith just before Théoden and his nephew, Éomer, arrive with the Rohirrim. During the ensuing battle, they are overwhelmed by the Oliphaunt-riding Haradrim, while the Witch-King mortally wounds Théoden. Though Théoden's niece Éowyn kills the Witch-king with Merry's help, Théoden dies. Aragorn arrives with the Army of the Dead, who overcome Sauron's forces and win the battle; Aragorn then frees the Dead Men from their curse.

Aragorn decides to march upon the Black Gate as a distraction so Frodo and Sam can reach Mount Doom. Aragorn's army draws out Sauron's remaining forces and empties Mordor, allowing Frodo and Sam to reach the volcano, but Gollum attacks them just as they reach Mount Doom. As Frodo stands on the ledge over the volcanic fire, he succumbs to the Ring and claims it as his own, putting it on his finger. Gollum finds the invisible Frodo and attacks him, biting his finger off to reclaim the Ring. Frodo attacks Gollum in an attempt to reclaim the Ring, and in the ensuing struggle they both fall off the ledge. Gollum falls into the lava with the Ring and dies. Frodo clings to the side of the ledge and is rescued by Sam as the Ring disintegrates in the lava. As Frodo and Sam escape, Sauron is defeated—along with his Orcs and Nazgûl—as Mordor crumbles.

Gandalf flies in with eagles to rescue the Hobbits, who awaken in Minas Tirith and are reunited with the surviving Fellowship. Aragorn is crowned King of Gondor and takes Arwen as his queen. The Hobbits return home to the Shire, where Sam marries Rosie Cotton. A few years later, Frodo departs Middle-earth for the Undying Lands with his uncle Bilbo, Gandalf, and the Elves. He leaves Sam the Red Book of Westmarch, which details their adventures. Sam returns to the Shire, where he embraces Rosie and their children. The last words of both the book and the film are the same - "Well, I'm back."

Cast and crewEdit

CastingEdit

Jackson began abstract discussions on casting during the development of the scripts with Miramax.[1] Jackson, Walsh and Boyens compiled a casting wishlist, which included Cate Blanchett for Galadriel and Ian Holm for Bilbo.[2] Jackson considered Sir Nigel Hawthorne for Gandalf, but the actor was suffering from pancreatic cancer.[3] Wondering whether Patrick Stewart would be right for the part, Philippa Boyens drew a tape of him performing opposite Ian McKellen, only to suggest the latter to Jackson.[4] McKellen became Jackson's first choice for Gandalf.[5] Christopher Lee sent Jackson a photograph of him in a wizard's costume, wanting to play Gandalf,[6] but Jackson decided he would be a perfect Saruman, instead.

Miramax wanted a recognisable name for Gandalf, and suggested Max von Sydow or Paul Scofield and, wanting an American star, even mentioned Morgan Freeman.[1][7] When New Line took over, they suggested Christopher Plummer or Sean Connery for the part (both declined),[8] and put a veto against Richard Harris when his name came up. When von Sydow inquired for the part later, his agent told him they were looking for an English actor.[9]

While casting, Jackson looked for backup options for the various parts, including Lucy Lawless and Nicole Kidman for Galadriel; Anthony Hopkins or Sylvester McCoy (eventually recast as Radagast) for Bilbo; Paul Scofield, Jeremy Irons, Malcolm McDowell or Tim Curry for Saruman.[3] For Gandalf, they looked into Tom Baker, Tom Wilkinson, Sam Neil, Bernard Hill (who was instead cast as Theoden)[4] and Peter O'Toole,[10] and into several older actors who auditioned for other parts like Patrick McGoohan and Anthony Hopkins.

Miramax and Jackson discussed Sir Daniel Day-Lewis for Aragorn, starting "fanciful internet speculation"[8] that Day-Lewis was approached for the part numerous times, although Jackson eventually inquired about him. Jackson cast Stuart Townsend, whom the studio deemed too young. After shooting began, Jackson agreed and decided to recast the role. They approached Viggo Mortensen, but also spoke to Russell Crowe (who auditioned for Boromir previously), as a backup choice.[11]

Patrick McGoohan, their first choice for Denethor, proved "quite grumpy"[12] when they met, and they instead looked into Donald Sutherland and John Rhys-Davies, and ultimately cast John Noble. Davies was recast as Gimli, instead of Billy Connolly (later cast as Dain), Robert Trebor and Timothy Spall. In conversations with Miramax, Liam Neeson's name came up[1] for Boromir, but he declined. Daniel Craig auditioned. New Line suggested Nicolas Cage, but the filmmakers declined[8] and cast Sean Bean.

CastEdit

The following is a list of cast members who voiced or portrayed characters appearing in the extended version of the films.[13][14][15]

Character
The Fellowship of the Ring The Two Towers The Return of the King
The Fellowship
Frodo Baggins Elijah Wood
Aragorn Viggo Mortensen
Boromir Sean Bean
Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck Dominic Monaghan
Samwise Gamgee Sean Astin
Gandalf Ian McKellen
Gimli John Rhys-Davies
Legolas Orlando Bloom
Peregrin "Pippin" Took Billy Boyd
The Shire and Bree
Bilbo Baggins Ian Holm Ian Holm
Mrs. Bracegirdle Lori Dungey
Barliman Butterbur David Weatherley
Rosie Cotton Sarah McLeod Sarah McLeod
Gaffer Gamgee Norman Forsey Norman Forsey
Elanor Gamgee Alexandra Astin
Bree Gate-Keeper Martyn Sanderson
Farmer Maggot Cameron Rhodes
Old Noakes Bill Johnson
Everard Proudfoot Noel Appleby Noel Appleby
Mrs. Proudfoot Megan Edwards
Otho Sackville Peter Corrigan
Lobelia Sackville-Baggins Elizabeth Moody
Ted Sandyman Brian Sergent
Rivendell and Lothlórien
Arwen Liv Tyler
Celeborn Marton Csokas Marton Csokas
Elrond Hugo Weaving
Figwit Bret McKenzie Bret McKenzie
Galadriel Cate Blanchett
Haldir Craig Parker
Rúmil Jørn Benzon
Isengard and Mordor
Gollum/Sméagol Andy Serkis
Gorbag Stephen Ure
Gothmog Lawrence Makoare
Craig Parker (voice)
Gríma Wormtongue Brad Dourif
Grishnákh Stephen Ure
Lurtz Lawrence Makoare
Mauhúr Robbie Magasiva
Andy Serkis (voice)
Mouth of Sauron Bruce Spence
The One Ring Alan Howard (voice) Alan Howard (voice)
Saruman Christopher Lee
Sauron Sala Baker
Alan Howard (voice)
Sala Baker
Alan Howard (voice)
Shagrat Peter Tait
Sharku Jed Brophy
Snaga Jed Brophy
Andy Serkis (voice)
Uglúk Nathaniel Lees
Witch-king of Angmar Brent McIntyre
Andy Serkis (voice)
Lawrence Makoare
Rohan and Gondor
Damrod Alistair Browning
Denethor John Noble
Éomer Karl Urban
Éothain Sam Comery
Éowyn Miranda Otto
Faramir David Wenham
Freda Olivia Tennet
Gamling Bruce Hopkins
Grimbold Bruce Phillips
Háma John Leigh
Haleth Calum Gittins
Irolas Ian Hughes
King of the Dead Paul Norell
Madril John Bach
Morwen Robyn Malcolm
Théoden Bernard Hill
Théodred Paris Howe Strewe
Treebeard John Rhys-Davies (voice)
Historical figures
Déagol Thomas Robins (hand only) Thomas Robins
Elendil Peter McKenzie
Gil-galad Mark Ferguson
Isildur Harry Sinclair Harry Sinclair

CrewEdit

Crew
The Fellowship of the Ring The Two Towers The Return of the King
Director Peter Jackson
Producers Barrie M. Osborne, Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh and Tim SandersFOTR
Screenwriters Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens, Peter Jackson and Stephen SinclairTT
Composer Howard Shore
Cinematographer Andrew Lesnie
Editors John GilbertFOTR Michael HortonTT Jamie SelkirkROTK
Production designers Dan Hennah and Grant Major
Conceptual designers Alan Lee and John Howe
Costume designers Ngila Dickson and Richard Taylor
Visual effects supervisor Jim Rygiel
Production companies New Line Cinema and WingNut Films
Distributing company New Line Cinema
FOTR.^ He only worked on The Fellowship of the Ring.
TT.^ He only worked on The Two Towers.
ROTK.^ He is only credited as editor on The Return of the King.

DevelopmentEdit

Previous attemptsEdit

Previous attempts to film Tolkien's works were made by William Snyder, Peter Shaffer and John Boorman. These attempts resulted in a couple of unproduced scripts, concept art and an animated short. Other filmmakers and producers to have had an interest in adapting Tolkien are said to include Walt Disney, Al Brodax, Forrest Ackerman, Denis O'Dell (who considered Richard Lester to direct, but instead approached David Lean, Stanley Kubrick and Michelangelo Antonioni) and George Lucas. The rights to adapt Tolkien's works passed through the hands of several studios, having been briefly leased to Rembrandt Films before being sold perpetually to United Artists. In 1976, UA passed the rights to The Lord of the Rings (and a part of the rights to The Hobbit) to Fantasy Films.

In 1977, an animated adaptation of The Hobbit was produced as a TV special by Rankin and Bass (followed in 1980 by a TV animated adaptation of The Return of the King), and in 1978 Ralph Bakshi made an animated feature of the first half of The Lord of the Rings. While profitable, the film didn't make enough money to automatically warrant the sequel which would close the story, and an argument with producer Saul Zaentz led Bakshi to abandon the project. Several Tolkien-esque fantasy films were produced at the time, as well, including Boorman's Excalibur and George Lucas' production of Willow.

At the time that Bakshi's film aired, a teenager Peter Jackson hadn't read the book, but "heard the name",[16] and went to see the film: "I liked the early part – it had some quaint sequences in Hobbiton, a creepy encounter with the Black Rider on the road, and a few quite good battle scenes – but then, about half way through, the storytelling became very disjointed and disorientating and I really didn't understand what was going on. However, what it did do was to make me want to read the book – if only to find out what happened!"[17] Jackson bought a tie-in paperback edition. He later read The Hobbit and The Silmarillion, and listened to the 1981 BBC radio adaptation. Assuming someone will one day adapt it to a live-action film, Jackson read on some previous attempts to bring the piece to the screen.[18] He hadn't watched the Rankin and Bass TV Specials.[19][20]

Pitch to MiramaxEdit

In 1995, while completing post-production on The Frighteners, Jackson and Fran Walsh discussed making an original fantasy film, but couldn't think of a scenario that wasn't Tolkien-esque, and eventually decided to look up the film rights. They went to Harvey Weinstein from Miramax, who got the rights from Saul Zaentz. Jackson knew it would take multiple films to do Tolkien justice,[21][22] but initially pitched a single trilogy: one film based on The Hobbit and, if that would prove successful, two Lord of the Rings films shot back-to-back.[18] Jackson began rereading The Hobbit, looking at illustrations and commissioning concept art from the book, but the rights eventually proved unattainable, having been split between Zaentz and United Artists. Harvey tried to buy the studio's share of the rights, but was unsuccessful.

With the Hobbit postponed for a later prequel, Jackson proceeded with making two or more[22] Lord of the Rings films: "We pitched the idea of three films and Miramax didn't really want to take that risk, but we agreed on two."[21] He began writing the scripts with Walsh and Stephen Sinclair, storyboard with Christian Rivers and discussing casting ideas with the Weinsteins. Meanwhile Weta Digital began software development for the digital effects required,[21] and WETA Workshop were producing props and concept art. Sinclair later dropped from the project, but Jackson felt that some of his contributions survived into the finished scripts, particularly the middle film, The Two Towers, for which he is credited.

Move to New LineEdit

However, as the scripts took shape, it became clear that the budget required would exceed Miramax's capabilities. The Weinsteins suggested cutting the project to one film.[21] Jackson inquired whether it could be around four-hours in duration, but Miramax insisted on two hours, suggesting major cuts to the story, which Jackson refused. Harvey Weinstein threatened to replace Jackson with screenwriter Hossein Amini and directors John Madden or Quentin Tarantino. Jackson believes this was an empty threat to get him to concede to making a one-film version himself.[23]

Harvey eventually relented to putting the project on a turnaround, but the onerous conditions were meant to prevent the project from being taken up by another studio.[23] Jackson got an audience with New Line CEO Robert Shaye, who accepted the project, but requested that it be expanded into a trilogy. Final Cut rights were shared contractually between Jackson and Bob Shaye, but there was never any interference in Jackson's cut.

ProductionEdit

 
Alan Lee, a Tolkien illustrator who assisted in the visual design, at Worldcon 2005 in Glasgow.

Jackson began storyboarding and screenwriting the series with Christian Rivers, Fran Walsh and Philippa Boyens in 1997 and assigned his crew to begin designing Middle-earth at the same time.[24] Jackson, Walsh, and Boyens did not write each film to correspond exactly to its respective book, opting instead to write a three-part adaptation with some sequences missing, some sequences created from scratch, and some sequences moved from one area to another regardless of its placement in the books. To allow the story to be clearer for viewers, Jackson takes a more chronological approach to the story than did Tolkien. During shooting, the screenplays continued to evolve, in part due to contributions from cast members looking to further explore their characters.[25]

Earlier versions of the script included additional characters like Fatty Bolger, Glorfindel, Elladan, Elrohir, Erkenbrand, Imrahil and Forlong.[26] At one point, Jackson even considered reintroducing Tom Bombadil in a cameo.[27] Gimli was going to swear throughout the films, and Arwen would join the Fellowship in Rohan and share a nude scene with Aragorn in the pools of the Glittering Caves.[28]

Jackson hired long-time collaborator Richard Taylor to lead Weta Workshop on five major design elements: armour, weapons, prosthetic makeup, creatures, and miniatures. At New Line's request, animation supervisor Jim Rygiel replaced Weta Digital's Mark Stetson. In November 1997, famed Tolkien illustrators Alan Lee and John Howe joined the project;[25] most of the imagery in the films is based on their various illustrations,[29] but Jackson also relied on the work of Ted Nasmith, who later had to turn down an offer to join Alan and John. Jackson wanted realistic designs in the style of historical epics rather than fantasy films, citing Braveheart as an inspiration:[30][31][32][33][34]

"It might be clearer if I described it as an historical film. Something very different to Dark Crystal or Labyrinth. Imagine something like Braveheart, but with a little of the visual magic of Legend. [...]It should have the historical authority of Braveheart, rather than the meaningless fantasy mumbo-jumbo of Willow.[35]

Production designer Grant Major was charged with the task of converting Lee and Howe's designs into architecture, creating models of the sets, while Dan Hennah worked as art director, scouting locations and organizing the building of sets. Ngilla Dickson collaborated with Richard Taylor on producing costumes, while Peter King and Peter Owen designed makeup and hair. Most of these crew members (and others) returned to work on The Hobbit.

Jackson and cinematographer Andrew Lesnie considered shooting in large-format like 65 mm film[35][36] and/or to master the films at 4K, but both were cost-prohibitive and couldn't be done on New Zealand soil.[37][36] They decided to shoot on fine-grain Super-35mm film and subject the films to rigorous digital grading.

 
The house of Bilbo and Frodo Baggins in the Shire, as filmed in New Zealand.

Principal photography for all three films was conducted concurrently in many locations within New Zealand's conservation areas and national parks. Filming took place between 11 October 1999 and 22 December 2000. Pick-up shoots were conducted annually from 2001 to 2004.[38] The series was shot at over 150 different locations, with seven different units shooting, as well as soundstages around Wellington and Queenstown.[39] Along with Jackson directing the whole production, other unit directors included John Mahaffie, Geoff Murphy, Fran Walsh, Barrie M. Osborne, Rick Porras, and any other assistant director, producer, or writer available. Miniature Photography took place throughout the entire period, amounting to over 1000 shooting days.

Weta Digital developed new technologies to allow for the groundbreaking digital effects required for the trilogy, including the development of the MASSIVE software to generate intelligent crowds for battle scenes, and advancing the art of motion capture, which was used on bipedal creatures like the Cave Troll or Gollum. With Jackson's future films, motion-capture technology had been pushed so far that it became referred to as "digital makeup", although it was later clarified that during The Lord of the Rings period, it was still fairly reliant on the CG animators.[40]

Each film had the benefit of a full year of post-production time before its respective December release, often finishing in October–November, with the crew immediately going to work on the next film. Jackson originally wanted to edit all three films with Jamie Selkirk, but this proved too much work. The next idea was to have John Gilbert, Michael Horton and Selkirk, respectively, editing the three films simultaneously, but after a month that proved too difficult for Jackson,[41] and the films were edited in consecutive years, although Selkirk continued to act as "Supervising Editor" on the first two entries. Daily rushes would often last up to four hours, and by the time The Fellowship of the Ring had been released, assembly cuts of the other two films (4½ hours each) were already prepared.[31][25] In total, 1828 km (six million feet) of film was edited down to the 11 hours and 26 minutes (686 minutes) of extended running time.[39]

MusicEdit

 
Howard Shore, composer of the music of the films.

Howard Shore composed, orchestrated, conducted, and produced the trilogy's music. Shore visited the set in 1999, and composed a version of the Shire theme and Frodo's Theme before Jackson began shooting.[42] In August 2000 he visited the set again, and watched the assembly cuts of The Fellowship of the Ring and The Return of the King.[43] In the music, Shore included many (85 to 110) leitmotifs to represent various characters, cultures, and places – the largest catalogue of leitmotifs in the history of cinema, surpassing – for comparison – that of the entire Star Wars film series. For example, there are multiple leitmotifs just for the hobbits and the Shire. Although the first film had some of its score recorded in Wellington, virtually all of the trilogy's score was recorded in Watford Town Hall and mixed at Abbey Road Studios.[25] Jackson planned to advise the score for six weeks each year in London, though for The Two Towers he stayed for twelve.[44]

The score is primarily played by the London Philharmonic Orchestra, ranging from 93 to 120 players throughout the recording. London Voices, the London Oratory School Schola boy choir, and many artists such as Ben Del Maestro, Enya, Renée Fleming, James Galway, Annie Lennox and Emilíana Torrini contributed. Even actors Billy Boyd, Viggo Mortensen, Liv Tyler, Miranda Otto (extended cuts only for the latter two), and Peter Jackson (for a single gong sound in the second film) contributed to the score. Fran Walsh and Philippa Boyens served as librettists, writing lyrics to various music and songs, which David Salo translated into Tolkien's languages. The third film's end song, "Into the West", was a tribute to a young filmmaker Jackson and Walsh befriended named Cameron Duncan, who died of cancer in 2003.[45]

Shore composed a main theme for the Fellowship rather than many different character themes, and its strength and weaknesses in volume are depicted at different points in the series. On top of that, individual themes were composed to represent different cultures. Infamously, the amount of music Shore had to write every day for the third film increased dramatically to around seven minutes.[45] The music for the series has been voted best movie soundtrack of all time for the six years running, passing Schindler's List (1993), Gladiator (2000), Star Wars (1977), and Out of Africa (1985) respectively.[46]

The film’s music editor was Suzana Peric.

SoundtracksEdit

Title U.S. release date Length Composer Label
The Fellowship of the Ring: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack 20 November 2001 (2001-11-20) 71:29 Howard Shore Reprise Records
The Two Towers: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack 10 December 2002 (2002-12-10) 72:46
The Return of the King: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack 25 November 2003 (2003-11-25) 72:05

ReceptionEdit

Box officeEdit

The trilogy's online promotional trailer was first released on 27 April 2000, and set a new record for download hits, registering 1.7 million hits in the first 24 hours of its release.[47] The trailer used a selection from the soundtrack for Braveheart and The Shawshank Redemption among other cuts. In 2001, 24 minutes of footage from the series, primarily the Moria sequence, was shown at the 54th Cannes Film Festival, and was very well received.[48] The showing also included an area designed to look like Middle-earth.[39]

The Fellowship of the Ring was released 19 December 2001. It grossed $47.2 million in its U.S. opening weekend and made around $887.8 million worldwide. A preview of The Two Towers was inserted just before the end credits near the end of the film's theatrical run.[49] A promotional trailer was later released, containing music re-scored from the film Requiem for a Dream.[50] The Two Towers was released 18 December 2002. It grossed $62 million in its first U.S. weekend and out-grossed its predecessor with $951.2 million worldwide. The promotional trailer for The Return of the King was debuted exclusively before the New Line Cinema film Secondhand Lions on 23 September 2003.[51] Released 17 December 2003, its first U.S. weekend gross was $72.6 million, and became the second film, after Titanic (1997), to gross over $1 billion worldwide.

Film U.S. release date Box office gross All-time ranking Budget Ref(s)
U.S. and Canada Other territories Worldwide U.S. and Canada Worldwide
Rank Peak Rank Peak
The Fellowship of the Ring 19 December 2001 (2001-12-19) $315,544,750 $572,389,161 $887,933,911 78 9 64 5 $93 million [52][53]
The Two Towers 18 December 2002 (2002-12-18) $342,551,365 $608,676,051 $951,227,416 57 7 56 4 $94 million [54][55]
The Return of the King 17 December 2003 (2003-12-17) $377,845,905 $764,425,193 $1,142,271,098 45 6 24 2 $94 million [56][57]
Total $1,035,942,020 $1,945,490,405 $2,981,432,425 $281 million [note 1]
  1. ^ Sources other than Box Office Mojo that refer to the trilogy's budget being $281 million include: The New York Times,[58] The Independent,[59][60] The Telegraph,[61] Business Insider,[62] Collider,[63] and IndieWire.[64][65]

Critical and public responseEdit

The Lord of the Rings trilogy received widespread acclaim and is ranked among the greatest film trilogies ever made.[66] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times wrote that "the trilogy will not soon, if ever, find its equal",[67] while Todd McCarthy of Variety described the films as "one of the most ambitious and phenomenally successful dream projects of all time".[68] The Fellowship of the Ring was voted the greatest fantasy movie of all time in a reader's poll conducted by American magazine Wired in 2012, while The Two Towers and The Return of the King placed fourth and third respectively.[69]

The series appears in the Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association: Top 10 Films, Time's All-Time 100 Movies, and James Berardinelli's Top 100.[70] In 2007, USA Today named the series as the most important films of the past 25 years.[71] Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade, "best-of" list, saying, "Bringing a cherished book to the big screen? No sweat. Peter Jackson's trilogy — or, as we like to call it, our preciousssss — exerted its irresistible pull, on advanced Elvish speakers and neophytes alike."[72] Paste named it one of the 50 Best Movies of the Decade (2000–2009), ranking it at No. 4.[73] In another Time magazine list, the series ranks second in "Best Movies of the Decade".[74] In addition, six characters and their respective actors made the list of 'The 100 Greatest Movie Characters', also compiled by Empire, with Viggo Mortensen's portrayal of Aragorn ranking No. 15, Ian McKellen's portrayal of Gandalf ranking No. 30, Ian Holm's portrayal of Bilbo Baggins (shared with Martin Freeman for his portrayal of the same character in The Hobbit films) ranking No. 61, Andy Serkis' portrayal of Gollum ranking No. 66, Sean Astin's portrayal of Samwise Gamgee ranking No. 77, and Orlando Bloom's portrayal of Legolas ranking No. 94.[75]

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic CinemaScore
The Fellowship of the Ring 91% (8.18/10 average rating) (231 reviews)[76] 92/100 (34 reviews)[77] A−[78]
The Two Towers 95% (8.49/10 average rating) (253 reviews)[79] 87/100 (39 reviews)[80] A[78]
The Return of the King 93% (8.69/10 average rating) (273 reviews)[81] 94/100 (41 reviews)[82] A+[78]

Industry responseEdit

The series also drew acclaim from within the industry, including from Steven Spielberg, James Cameron and George Lucas.[83][84] John Boorman, who once wrote a script for a Lord of the Rings film, said he was happy his own version was unmade[85] as Jackson's films was "of such scope and magnitude that it can only be compared to the building of the great Gothic cathedrals."[86] Forrest J. Ackerman, who once presented a film treatment to Tolkien, and appeared on Jackson's Bad Taste said his pitch "could never have been given the grand treatment that Peter Jackson afforded it."[87]

However, some filmmakers were more critical. Heinz Edelmann, who pitched the idea of an animated feature when United Artists considered shooting the films with the Beatles, thought it was "badly directed."[88] Ralph Bakshi, who made an animated film based on the first half of the trilogy, didn't watch the films, but was told[89] that Jackson's film was derivative of his.[90] Ahead of the films' release, he said he did not "understand it" but that he does "wish it to be a good movie."

After the films were released, however, Bakshi said that while, "on the creative side", he does "feel good that Peter Jackson continued" he begrudges Saul Zaentz for not notifying him of the live-action films. He also said that, with his own film already made, Jackson could study it and therefore had "a little easier time than I did."[91] Afterwards, he grumbled that Jackson "didn't understand"[92] Tolkien and created "special effects garbage" to sell toys,[93] as well as being derivative of his own film.[91] Bakshi further blamed Jackson for not acknowledging the influence that the animated film had on him, saying that he denied having seen Bakshi's film at all[91] until being forced to mention him, at which point (according to Bakshi) he mentioned Bakshi's influence "only once" as "PR bologny."[93] However, he did praise Jackson's special effects[94] and, in 2015, even apologized for some of his remarks.[93]

In fact, Jackson did acknowledge Bakshi's film as early as 1998, when he told a worried fan that he hoped to outdo Bakshi,[35] as well as mentioning in the behind-the-scenes features that "the black Riders galloping out of Bree was an image I remember very clearly [...] from the Ralph Bakshi film."[95] In the audio commentary to The Fellowship of the Ring, Jackson says Bakshi's film introduced him to The Lord of the Rings and "inspired me to read the book." Jackson watched the film for the first time since its premiere in 1997, when Harvey Weinstein screened it to begin the story conferences. Jackson singles out his one homage to the cartoon: a low-angle shot of Odo Proudfoot calling out "Proudfeet!" which Jackson thought was "a brilliant angle."[96] Another influence came through John Howe, who unwittingly copied a scene from Bakshi's film in a painting that depicted the four Hobbits hiding under a branch from a Ringwraith,[97] which Jackson turned into a scene in the film. Jackson's decision to do a scene that misdirects the audience to think the wraiths slew the Hobbits may also derive from Bakshi. Other similarities, including a few costume designs (such as Barliman's night attire and Bilbo's pants) and scenes like the prologue or Saruman's speech to the Uruks, seem coincidental, as Jackson admits: "our film is stylistically very different and the design is different."[96] Jackson, a fan of Bakshi's earlier films, is puzzled over Bakshi's anger.[85] In 2018, Bakshi clarified that he's "not mad about it. I don't care."[98]

AccoladesEdit

 
Ian McKellen received multiple accolades for his portrayal of Gandalf, including a nomination for Best Supporting Actor at the 74th Academy Awards.

The three films together were nominated for a total of 30 Academy Awards, of which they won 17, both records for any movie trilogy.[99] The Fellowship of the Ring earned 13 nominations, the most of any film at the 74th Academy Awards, winning four; The Two Towers won two awards from six nominations at the 75th Academy Awards; The Return of the King won in every category in which it was nominated at the 76th Academy Awards, setting the current Oscar record for the highest clean sweep, and its 11 Academy Awards wins ties the record held by Ben-Hur (1959) and Titanic (1997).[100] The Return of the King also became only the second sequel to win the Oscar for Best Picture after The Godfather Part II (1974).

Additionally, members of the production crew won the Academy Award for Technical Achievement for the rendering of skin textures on creatures on The Return of the King,[101] and Stephen Regelous won the Academy Award for Scientific and Engineering Award for the design and development of MASSIVE, "the autonomous agent animation system used for the battle sequences in The Lord of the Rings trilogy."[102]

The Lord of the Rings film series at the Academy Awards[103][104][105]
Category
74th Academy Awards 75th Academy Awards 76th Academy Awards
The Fellowship of the Ring The Two Towers The Return of the King
Picture Nominated Nominated Won
Director Nominated Won
Adapted Screenplay Nominated Won
Supporting Actor Nominated[a]
Art Direction Nominated Nominated Won
Cinematography Won
Costume Design Nominated Won
Film Editing Nominated Nominated Won
Makeup Won Won
Original Score Won Won
Original Song Nominated[b] Won[c]
Sound Editing Won
Sound Mixing Nominated Nominated Won
Visual Effects Won Won Won

As well as Academy Awards, each film in the series won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, the MTV Movie Award for Movie of the Year, and the Saturn Award for Best Fantasy Film. The first and third films also won the BAFTA Award for Best Film. The New York Film Critics Circle awarded The Return of the King its Best Picture Award at the 2003 Awards Ceremony, hosted by Andrew Johnston, chair of the organization at that time, who called it "a masterful piece of filmmaking."[106]

Comparisons with the written workEdit

Commentators have compared Jackson's film trilogy with Tolkien's written work, remarking that while both have been extremely successful commercially, they differ in many respects. Critics have admired Jackson's ability to film the long and complex work at all; the beauty of the cinematography, sets, and costumes; and the epic scale of his version of Tolkien's story. They have however found the characters and the story greatly weakened by Jackson's emphasis on action and violence at the expense of psychological depth; the loss of Tolkien's emphasis on free will and individual responsibility; and the replacement of Frodo's inner journey by an American monomyth with Aragorn as the hero.[107][108]

As for whether the film trilogy is faithful to the novel, opinions range from Verlyn Flieger's feeling that a film adaptation is not even worth attempting,[108][109] Wayne G. Hammond's opinion that the film sacrifices the book's richness of characterisation and narrative for violence, thrills, and cheap humour,[110] or Christopher Tolkien's view that Jackson's interpretation is unacceptable,[111] to granting, with Jackson and Boyens, that the film version is inevitably different.[112] From that standpoint, critics such as Brian Rosebury and Tom Shippey have described the films as a partial success, giving some of the feeling and capturing some of the key themes of the novel.[113][114] Yvette Kisor considers that Jackson was unfaithful to many of Tolkien's details, but succeeded in achieving something of the same impact and feelings of providence, eucatastrophe, and interconnectedness. Dimitra Fimi suggests that Jackson was continuing Tolkien's tradition of adapting folklore, incorporating both the fans' views on that folklore and cinematic traditions such as the zombie in the film trilogy to produce its own modern folklore.[107][108]

Home mediaEdit

 
Blu-ray editions of the trilogy.

The first two films were released on standard two-disc edition DVDs containing previews of the next film. The success of the theatrical cuts brought about four-disc extended editions, with new editing, added special effects and music.[115] Jackson came up with the idea of an extended cut for LaserDisc and DVD formats while in preproduction.[35] He could insert some of the violence that he thought he'd have to trim to get a PG-13 rating for the theatre, and he could tailor the pacing to the demands of the small-screen, which he said were "completely different."[116] He observed that the extended cuts will be "ultimately seen as the more definitive versions of the films."[117]

The extended cuts of the films and the included special features (labeled "Appendices" as an homage to the books) were spread over two discs, and a limited collector's edition was also released. The Fellowship of the Ring was released on 12 November 2002, containing 30 minutes more footage, an Alan Lee painting of the Fellowship entering Moria, and the Moria Gate on the back of the sleeve; an Argonath-styled bookend was included with the Collector's Edition. The Two Towers, released on 18 November 2003, contained 46 minutes extra footage and a Lee painting of Gandalf the White's entrance; the Collector's Edition contained a Sméagol statue, with a crueller-looking statue of his Gollum persona available by order for a limited time.

The Return of the King was released on 14 December 2004, having 52 minutes more footage, a Lee painting of the Grey Havens and a model of Minas Tirith for the Collector's Edition, with Minas Morgul available by order for a limited time. The Special Extended DVD Editions also had in-sleeve maps of the Fellowship's travels. They have also played at cinemas, most notably for a 16 December 2003 marathon screening (dubbed "Trilogy Tuesday") culminating in a late afternoon screening of the third film. Attendees of "Trilogy Tuesday" were given a limited edition keepsake from Sideshow Collectibles containing one random frame of film from each of the three movies. Both versions were put together in a Limited Edition "branching" version, plus a new feature-length documentary by Costa Botes. The complete series was released in a six-disc set on 14 November 2006.

Warner Bros. released the trilogy's theatrical versions on Blu-ray in a boxed set on 6 April 2010.[118] An extended edition Blu-ray box set was made available for pre-order from Amazon.com in March 2011 and was released on 28 June 2011.[119] Each film's extended Blu-ray version is identical to the extended DVD version; the total running time is longer due to added credit sequence listing the names of "The Lord of the Rings fan-club members" who contributed to the project.[120][121]

In 2014, brand new Blu-ray steelbook editions of the five-disc Extended Editions were released. The first, The Fellowship of the Ring, was released on 24 March 2014.[122] The discs are identical to those found in the previous five-disc Blu-ray set.[123]

Film Theatrical edition length Extended edition length
The Fellowship of the Ring 178 minutes (2 hr, 58 min)[124] 208 minutes (3 hr, 28 min)[125]
The Two Towers 179 minutes (2 hr, 59 min)[126] 226 minutes (3 hr, 46 min)[127]
The Return of the King 201 minutes (3 hr, 21 min)[128] 252 minutes (4 hr, 12 min)[129]
Total runtime 558 minutes (9 hr, 18 min) 686 minutes (11 hr, 26 min)

LegacyEdit

The release of the films saw a surge of interest in The Lord of the Rings and Tolkien's other works, vastly increasing his impact on popular culture.[130] The success of the films spawned numerous video games and many other kinds of merchandise.

ReunionEdit

On 31 May 2020, through his YouTube channel, actor Josh Gad aired a virtual cast reunion via Zoom as the fourth episode of the web series Reunited Apart, a charity fundraising effort during the COVID-19 pandemic, with The Lord of the Rings reunion supporting Share Our Strength's campaign called "No Kid Hungry". A large part of the original cast participated, including Sean Astin, Sean Bean, Orlando Bloom, Billy Boyd, Ian McKellen, Dominic Monaghan, Viggo Mortensen, Miranda Otto, John Rhys-Davies, Andy Serkis, Liv Tyler, Karl Urban, and Elijah Wood. In addition to the cast, director Peter Jackson, screenwriter Philippa Boyens and composer Howard Shore were also present. Furthermore, filmmaker Taika Waititi and castmate Bernard Hill also made an appearance.[131][132][133] On 2 June 2020, Josh Gad announced that the charity had raised over $100,000.[134]

Effects on the film industry and tourismEdit

 
Air New Zealand painted this Airbus A320 in The Lord of the Rings livery to promote The Return of the King in 2004.

As a result of the series' success, Peter Jackson has become a major figure in the film industry in the mould of Steven Spielberg and George Lucas, in the process befriending some industry heavyweights like Bryan Singer and Frank Darabont. Jackson has since founded his own film production company, Wingnut Films, as well as Wingnut Interactive, a video game company. He was also finally given a chance to remake King Kong in 2005. The film was a critical and box office success, although not as successful as the Lord of the Rings series. Jackson has been called a "favourite son" of New Zealand.[135] In 2004, Howard Shore toured with The Lord of the Rings Symphony, playing two hours of the score. Along with the Harry Potter films, the series has renewed interest in the fantasy film genre. Tourism in New Zealand is up, possibly due to its exposure in the series,[136] with the country's tourism industry waking up to an audience's familiarity.[137]

In December 2002, The Lord of the Rings Motion Picture Trilogy: The Exhibition opened at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa in Wellington. As of 2007, the exhibition has travelled to seven other cities around the world. A musical adaptation of the book was launched in Toronto, Canada, in 2006, but it closed after mostly poor reviews. A shortened version opened in London, United Kingdom, in the summer of 2007.

Legal disputesEdit

The legacy of The Lord of the Rings is also that of court cases over profits from the trilogy. Sixteen cast members (Noel Appleby, Jed Brophy, Mark Ferguson, Ray Henwood, Bruce Hopkins, William Johnson, Nathaniel Lees, Sarah McLeod, Ian Mune, Paul Norell, Craig Parker, Robert Pollock, Martyn Sanderson, Peter Tait, and Stephen Ure) sued over the lack of revenue from merchandise bearing their appearance. The case was resolved out of court in 2008. The settlement came too late for Appleby, who died of cancer in 2007.[138] Saul Zaentz also filed a lawsuit in 2004 claiming he had not been paid all of his royalties.

The next year, Jackson himself sued the studio over profits from the first film, slowing development of the Hobbit prequels until late 2007.[139] The Tolkien Trust filed a lawsuit in February 2008, for violating Tolkien's original deal over the rights that they would earn 7.5% of the gross from any films based on his works.[140] The Trust sought compensation of $150 million.[141] A judge denied them this option, but allowed them to win compensation from the act of the studio ignoring the contract itself.[142] On 8 September 2009, the dispute was settled.[143]

Video gamesEdit

Numerous video games were released to supplement the film series. They include: The Two Towers, The Return of the King, The Third Age, The Third Age (GBA), Tactics, The Battle for Middle-earth, The Battle for Middle-earth II, The Battle for Middle-earth II: The Rise of the Witch-king, The Lord of the Rings Online, Conquest, Aragorn's Quest, War in the North, Lego The Lord of the Rings, Guardians of Middle-earth, Middle-earth: Shadow of Mordor, Middle-earth: Shadow of War, and pinball.[144]

The Hobbit prequel trilogyEdit

The success of The Lord of the Rings trilogy led to Jackson directing a trilogy of prequels based on Tolkien's children's book The Hobbit. The films, which were released between 2012 and 2014, used much of the cast of The Lord of the Rings, including Ian McKellen, Andy Serkis, Hugo Weaving, Elijah Wood, Ian Holm, Christopher Lee, Cate Blanchett and Orlando Bloom who reprised their roles. Most of the crew returned, as well, with Jackson directing, him and Walsh producing and Boyens co-writing. Ngila Dickson, Grant Major, Jim Rygiel and Ethan Van der Ryn dropped out from costume design, production design, animation and sound editing respectively, but were succeeded by their Lord of the Rings colleagues, Richard Taylor, Dan Hennah, Joe Letteri and Brent Burge. The only complete changes in the staff involved the change of gaffer, after Brian Bansgrove died between the trilogies, and stunt coordinator Glen Boswall replaced George Marshall Ruge who worked on Rings.

Although the Hobbit trilogy was commercially successful, it received mixed reviews from critics. However, the films did manage to add another seven Academy Award nominations to the series' tally, to an overall 37, and another win for the Scientific and Engineering Award, resulting in the most nominations and wins for a six-part series.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Peter Jackson Rebukes Harvey Weinstein's Denial On Ashley Judd & Mira Sorvino". Archived from the original on 18 March 2020.
  2. ^ Nathan, Ian (2018). Anything You Can Imagine: Peter Jackson and the Making of Middle Earth. HarperCollins. p. 270.
  3. ^ a b "LORD OF THE RINGS/THE HOBBIT trilogies (Peter Jackson 1999–2011)". Archived from the original on 8 January 2020.
  4. ^ a b Anything You Can Imagine. pp. 303–309.
  5. ^ "Ian McKellen talks on Gandalf's last day". Archived from the original on 18 November 2019.
  6. ^ Robert W. Pohle Jr., Douglas C. Hart, Rita Pohle Baldwi (2017). The Christopher Lee Film Encyclopedia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-8108-9270-5.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Anything You Can Imagine. p. 1103.
  8. ^ a b c Anything You Can Imagine. pp. 296–302.
  9. ^ "Max von Sydow As Gandalf?". Archived from the original on 18 March 2020.
  10. ^ "Every Inch a King (and Buff, Too)". Archived from the original on 17 January 2018.
  11. ^ Anything You Can Imagine. pp. 328–345.
  12. ^ Anything You Can Imagine. pp. 314–328.
  13. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  14. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  15. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  16. ^ "Peter Jackson, as quoted at the Egyptian Theater in Hollywood, on February 6, 2004".
  17. ^ Sibley, Brian. Peter Jackson: A Film-Maker's Journey. p. 6.
  18. ^ a b "Peter Jackson Exeter interview, 2015".
  19. ^ "20 QUESTIONS WITH PETER JACKSON - PART 2". Archived from the original on 3 April 2013.
  20. ^ "Peter Jackson interview". Explorations. Barnes & Noble Science Fiction newsletter. October–November 2001.
  21. ^ a b c d "Peter Jackson interview with Charlie Rose, 2002". Charlie Rose. 22 February 2002. Archived from the original on 24 May 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  22. ^ a b Sibley. A Filmmaker's Journey. pp. 36–40.
  23. ^ a b Peter Jackson: A Film-Maker's Journey. pp. 39–40.
  24. ^ Russell, Gary (2003). The Art of the Two Towers. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-713564-5.
  25. ^ a b c d The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Appendices (DVD). New Line Cinema. 2002.
  26. ^ Brian Sibley (2006). "Quest for the Ring". Peter Jackson: A Film-maker's Journey. London: Harper Collins. pp. 329–87. ISBN 0-00-717558-2.
  27. ^ "Philippa Boyens interview in Comic-Con, 2014".
  28. ^ Anything You Can Imagine. pp. 200–203.
  29. ^ Braun, J.W. (2009). The Lord of the Films. ECW Press. ISBN 978-1-55022-890-8.
  30. ^ Falconer, Daniel. Middle Earth: From Script to Screen. p. 2.
  31. ^ a b "Peter Jackson interview on Charile Rose, 2002". Archived from the original on 28 February 2020.
  32. ^ "Media Watch: Cinelive Magazine". Archived from the original on 11 April 2012.
  33. ^ "Film Crew Embarks on Tolkien Adventures".
  34. ^ "HdR in der französischen Presse". Archived from the original on 3 April 2013.
  35. ^ a b c d "20 QUESTIONS WITH PETER JACKSON". Archived from the original on 18 March 2020.
  36. ^ a b Roberts, Sheila (14 December 2012). "Peter Jackson Talks THE HOBBIT: AN UNEXPECTED JOURNEY, Coming on When Guillermo del Toro Left, and Post-Converting LORD OF THE RINGS to 3D". Collider. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  37. ^ "ARRI Newsletter: Andrew Lesnie at the 2004 Berlinale". Archived from the original on 3 September 2011.
  38. ^ The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King "Appendices" (DVD). New Line Cinema. 2004.
  39. ^ a b c Sibley, Brian (2002). The Making of the Movie Trilogy. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-618-26022-5.
  40. ^ "RANDY COOK SPEAKS OUT ON "DIGITAL MAKEUP"".
  41. ^ "Michael Horton interview".
  42. ^ "Episode 119: Peter Jackson & Philippa Boyens On The Music Of Mortal Engines & Lord Of The Rings". Soundtracking with Edith Bowman. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020.
  43. ^ Davidson, Paul (15 August 2000). "Lord of the Rings Composer Confirmed". IGN. Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  44. ^ The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers "Appendices" (DVD). New Line Cinema. 2003.
  45. ^ a b The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King "Appendices" (DVD). New Line Cinema. 2004.
  46. ^ "Lord of the Rings voted 'best movie soundtrack'". BBC News. 7 November 2015. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  47. ^ "Lord of the Rings News | LoTR movie internet trailer preview". Xenite.org. Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  48. ^ Davidson, Paul (15 May 2001). "LOTR Footage Wows Journalists". IGN. Archived from the original on 15 February 2012. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  49. ^ Davidson, Paul (25 January 2002). "A Longer Fellowship Ending?". IGN. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  50. ^ "Movie Answer Man". rogerebert.com. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009.
  51. ^ "MovieWeb.com's News for 23 September 2003, last retrieved on 5 August 2006". Movieweb.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  52. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001)". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Archived from the original on 23 August 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  53. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring peak positions
  54. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002)". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Archived from the original on 23 August 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  55. ^ The Two Towers peak positions
  56. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003)". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Archived from the original on 23 August 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  57. ^ The Return of the King peak positions
  58. ^ Johnson, Ross (27 June 2005). "The Lawsuit of the Rings". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 May 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2019. The "Rings" film trilogy, produced for an aggregate $281 million, has made more than $4 billion in retail sales from worldwide film exhibition, home video, soundtracks, merchandise and television showings, and cleared more than $1 billion for New Line after payments to profit participants, according to one of Mr. Jackson's lawyers, Peter Nelson.
  59. ^ Griffiths, Katherine (28 June 2005). "Director of Lord of the Rings says he is still owed $100m". The Independent. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019. They were made for a total of $281m, with much of the filming taking place in Jackson's native New Zealand.
  60. ^ Sheperd, Jack (15 November 2017). "Lord of the Rings set to become the most expensive TV show of all time". The Independent. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 5 July 2019. With a price tag of $1 billion, that would also put the series way above the budget of the movies: all three of Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings films cost $281 million, before advertising.
  61. ^ Swaine, Jon (10 October 2010). "The Hobbit 'could be most expensive film ever made'". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 October 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2019. It would also mean The Hobbit's final price-tag would be approaching twice that of the entire Lord of the Rings trilogy, which cost $281 million (£177 million).
  62. ^ Acuna, Kirsten (19 October 2012). "Will The Multi-Million Dollar Budget Of 'The Hobbit' Pay Off?". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2019. Bear in mind, the total estimated budget for the original three films is set at $281 million.
  63. ^ Chitwood, Adam (22 October 2014). "THE HOBBIT Movies Cost $745 Million, But That's Okay Because They've Already Made Nearly $2 Billion". Collider. Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2019. The Lord of the Rings trilogy, for example, cost around $281 million not adjusting for inflation.
  64. ^ Nordine, Michael (19 March 2018). "Amazon Is Spending as Much as $500 Million on Its 'Lord of the Rings' Series — Report". IndieWire. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2019. The original film trilogy, released between 2001–03, came with a comparatively modest price tag of $281 million, whereas the more recent "Hobbit" trilogy cost a reported $623 million.
  65. ^ Kohn, Eric (25 April 2019). "Elijah Wood On Amazon's $1 Billion 'Lord of the Rings' Investment: 'That's Crazy to Me'". IndieWire. Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019. Jackson's combination of cutting-edge CGI and a flair for classical fantasy transformed J.R.R. Tolkien's novels into an epic trilogy that ultimately grossed $2.92 billion worldwide off a combined budget of roughly $281 million.
  66. ^ Sources that refer to The Lord of the Rings being praised as one of the greatest film trilogies ever made include:
  67. ^ Turan, Kenneth (16 December 2003). "'The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  68. ^ McCarthy, Todd (5 December 2003). "The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King". Variety. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  69. ^ Gilsdorf, Ethan (30 December 2012). "And the Winner Is... Reader's Choice for Top 10 Fantasy Movies". Wired. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016.
  70. ^ James Berardinelli. "Berardinelli's All-Time Top 100". Reelviews. Archived from the original on 20 April 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2007.
  71. ^ Susan Wloszczyna (2 July 2007). "Hollywood highlights: 25 movies with real impact". USA Today. Archived from the original on 7 July 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
  72. ^ Geier, Thom; Jensen, Jeff; Jordan, Tina; Lyons, Margaret; Markovitz, Adam; Nashawaty, Chris; Pastorek, Whitney; Rice, Lynette; Rottenberg, Josh; Schwartz, Missy; Slezak, Michael; Snierson, Dan; Stack, Tim; Stroup, Kate; Tucker, Ken; Vary, Adam B.; Vozick-Levinson, Simon; Ward, Kate (11 December 2009), "THE 100 Greatest MOVIES, TV SHOWS, ALBUMS, BOOKS, CHARACTERS, SCENES, EPISODES, SONGS, DRESSES, MUSIC VIDEOS, AND TRENDS THAT ENTERTAINED US OVER THE PAST 10 YEARS". Entertainment Weekly. (1079/1080):74-84
  73. ^ "The 50 Best Movies of the Decade (2000–2009)". Paste Magazine. 3 November 2009. Archived from the original on 8 December 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
  74. ^ Corliss, Richard (29 December 2009). "The Lord of the Rings trilogy (2001–03) – Best Movies, TV, Books and Theater of the Decade". TIME. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  75. ^ "The 100 Greatest Movie Characters". Empire Online. 29 June 2015. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  76. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Archived from the original on 17 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  77. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001)". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 17 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  78. ^ a b c "Cinemascore". CinemaScore. Archived from the original on 20 December 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  79. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Archived from the original on 17 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  80. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002)". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 17 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  81. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Archived from the original on 17 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  82. ^ "The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003)". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 17 May 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  83. ^ Natahn, Ian (2018). Anything You Can Imagine. p. 849.
  84. ^ Friedman, Roger (16 January 2003). "George Lucas 'All Set for Failure'". Fox News. Archived from the original on 24 May 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020. Lucas also told me that he and Lord of the Rings director Peter Jackson have become good friends
  85. ^ a b Nathan, Ian (2018). Anything You Can Imagine: Peter Jackson and the Making of Middle-earth. London: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 40.
  86. ^ Boorman, John. Adventures of a Suburban Boy. New York: Farmer, Straus and Giroux. p. 50.
  87. ^ Hughes, David (2012). Tales From Development Hell (New Updated Edition): The Greatest Movies Never Made?. Titan. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-85768-731-9.
  88. ^ "The Heinz Edelmann Interview". Archived from the original on 6 April 2016.
  89. ^ "A Brief Interview with Ralph Bakshi – What does Ralph think of Peter Jackson's LOTR?". Archived from the original on 3 September 2019.
  90. ^ "Interview: Ralph Bakshi".
  91. ^ a b c "An Interview with Ralph Bakshi". Archived from the original on 18 March 2020.
  92. ^ "Ralph Bakshi on the recent DVD release of "Wizards"". Archived from the original on 27 August 2012.
  93. ^ a b c Broadway, Cliff (20 April 2015). "The Bakshi Interview: Uncloaking a Legacy". TheOneRing.net. Archived from the original on 18 January 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  94. ^ Gilsdorf, Ethan (22 March 2014). "A 2006 INTERVIEW WITH RALPH BAKSHI". Ethan Gilsdorf. Archived from the original on 19 January 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  95. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring Appendices: From Book to Script.
  96. ^ a b The Lord of the rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), Director's Commentary.
  97. ^ "John Howe, Illustrator: The Black Rider". Archived from the original on 14 December 2019.
  98. ^ "Ralph Bakshi: "Cuando hice 'El Señor de los Anillos' no tenía nada en lo que fijarme, y Peter Jackson tenía todo lo que yo hice"". Archived from the original on 25 October 2019.
  99. ^ Rosenberg, Adam (14 January 2016). "'Star Wars' ties 'Lord of the Rings' with 30 Oscar nominations, the most for any series". Mashable. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  100. ^ "Most Oscars won by a film". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  101. ^ Thompson, Kristin (2007). The Frodo Franchise: The Lord of the Rings and Modern Hollywood. University of California Press. p. 52. ISBN 9780520247741.
  102. ^ "THE 76TH SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL AWARDS 2003 | 2004". Archived from the original on 2 March 2020.
  103. ^ "The 74th Academy Awards (2002) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 24 March 2002. Archived from the original on 29 September 2012.
  104. ^ "The 75th Academy Awards (2003) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 23 March 2003. Archived from the original on 29 September 2012.
  105. ^ "The 76th Academy Awards (2004) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 29 February 2004. Archived from the original on 29 September 2012.
  106. ^ "New York film critics honor 'Rings'". Today. 15 December 2003. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014.
  107. ^ a b Timmons, Daniel (2013) [2007]. "Jackson, Peter". In Drout, Michael D. C. (ed.). J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia. Routledge. pp. 303–310. ISBN 978-0-415-86511-1.
  108. ^ a b c Bogstad, Janice M.; Kaveny, Philip E. (2011). Introduction. Picturing Tolkien: Essays on Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings Film Trilogy. McFarland. pp. 5–23. ISBN 978-0-7864-8473-7.
  109. ^ Mitchell, Philip Irving. "A Beginner's Guide to Tolkien Criticism". Dallas Baptist University. Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  110. ^ Croft, Janet Brennan. "Anticipation and Flattening in Peter Jackson's The Fellowship of the Ring". faculty-staff.ou.edu. University of Oklahoma. Archived from the original on 31 October 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
  111. ^ Rérolle, Raphaëlle (5 July 2012). "Tolkien, l'anneau de la discorde". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  112. ^ "20 Questions with Peter Jackson. Last retrieved 16 September 2006". Members.tripod.com. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  113. ^ Rosebury, Brian (2003) [1992]. Tolkien: A Cultural Phenomenon. Palgrave. pp. 204–220. ISBN 978-1403-91263-3.
  114. ^ Shippey, Tom (2005) [1982]. Peter Jackson's Film Versions. The Road to Middle-Earth (Third ed.). HarperCollins. pp. 409–429. ISBN 978-0261102750.
  115. ^ Patrizio, Andy (8 December 2004). "The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (Special Extended Edition)". IGN. News Corporation. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  116. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring Appendices: Assembling an Epic.
  117. ^ The Return of the King, Director's Commentary.
  118. ^ "The Lord of the Rings Trilogy Hits Blu-ray April 6!". ComingSoon.net. Archived from the original on 16 December 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2009.
  119. ^ "'The Lord of the Rings' Extended Edition Heads To Blu-Ray". MTV. Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  120. ^ Dellamorte, Andre (20 June 2011). "The Lord of the Rings: The Motion Picture Trilogy: Extended Edition Blu-ray Review Archived 18 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine". Collider.com. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  121. ^ Fellowship of the Ring DVD box
  122. ^ Demosthenes (1 February 2014). "The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring coming soon in five-disc blu-ray steelbook format". theonering.net. Archived from the original on 26 October 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  123. ^ Palmer, Michael (29 August 2012). "The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring – Extended Edition". bluray.highdefdigest.com. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  124. ^ "THE LORD OF THE RINGS – THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  125. ^ "THE LORD OF THE RINGS – THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING [Extended version]". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  126. ^ "THE LORD OF THE RINGS – THE TWO TOWERS". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  127. ^ "THE LORD OF THE RINGS – THE TWO TOWERS [Extended version]". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  128. ^ "THE LORD OF THE RINGS – THE RETURN OF THE KING". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  129. ^ "THE LORD OF THE RINGS – THE RETURN OF THE KING [Extended version]". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  130. ^ Gilsdorf, Ethan (16 November 2003). "Lord of the Gold Ring". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 27 August 2006. Retrieved 16 June 2006.
  131. ^ "One Zoom to Rule Them All | Reunited Apart LORD OF THE RINGS Edition". YouTube. 31 May 2020. Archived from the original on 1 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  132. ^ O'Kane, Caitlin (1 June 2020). "Actor Josh Gad reunites stars of "Lord of the Rings" while raising money for kids in need". CBS News. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  133. ^ Axon, Samuel (1 June 2020). "One Zoom to rule them all: Lord of the Rings cast reunites to share memories". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  134. ^ Gad, Josh (2 June 2020). "I want to cry. During this darkest hour, you all came together and raised over $100,000 for ⁦@nokidhungry so that every child can get a hot meal right now. Bless you all!". Twitter. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  135. ^ "NZer of the year: Peter Jackson". The New Zealand Herald. 29 December 2001. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
  136. ^ "Movie Tourism in New Zealand". Archived from the original on 20 November 2005.
  137. ^ "New Zealand, Home of Middle-earth". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 10 August 2006.
  138. ^ Bruce Hopkins (8 October 2008). "New Zealand actors settle out of court with New Line". TheOneRing.net. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  139. ^ Svetkey, Benjamin (4 October 2007). "The Hobbit: Is Peter Jackson coming back?". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  140. ^ "J.R.R. Tolkien Trust Sues New Line Cinema for Portion of 'Lord of the Rings' Profits". findlaw.com. Archived from the original on 23 March 2008.
  141. ^ Alex Viega (12 February 2008). "Tolkien Estate Sues New Line Cinema". San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2008.
  142. ^ "No punitive damages in Rings case". BBC News. 26 September 2008. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
  143. ^ Alex Dobuzinskis (8 September 2009). "Legal settlement clears way for "Hobbit" movie". Reuters. Archived from the original on 11 September 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2009. The Hollywood studio behind a film based on 'The Hobbit' and trustees for author J.R.R. Tolkien's estate said on Tuesday they had settled a lawsuit that clears the way for what is expected to be a blockbuster movie based on the book.
  144. ^ "The Lord of the Rings". Stern Pinball. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.

External linksEdit