# The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis

"**The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis**" is an article written by the English mathematician Alan Turing in 1952 describing the way in which natural patterns such as stripes, spots and spirals may arise naturally out of a homogeneous, uniform state.^{[1]} The theory, which can be called a reaction–diffusion theory of morphogenesis, has served as a basic model in theoretical biology.^{[2]}

## Reaction–diffusion systemsEdit

Reaction–diffusion systems have attracted much interest as a prototype model for pattern formation. Patterns such as fronts, spirals, targets, hexagons, stripes and dissipative solitons are found in various types of reaction-diffusion systems in spite of large discrepancies e.g. in the local reaction terms. Such patterns have been dubbed "Turing patterns".^{[3]}

Reaction–diffusion processes form one class of explanation for the embryonic development of animal coats and skin pigmentation.^{[4]}^{[5]} Another reason for the interest in reaction-diffusion systems is that although they represent nonlinear partial differential equations, there are often possibilities for an analytical treatment.^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]}

## See alsoEdit

## ReferencesEdit

**^**Turing, A. M. (1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis" (PDF).*Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B*.**237**(641): 37–72. Bibcode:1952RSPTB.237...37T. doi:10.1098/rstb.1952.0012. JSTOR 92463.**^**L.G. Harrison, Kinetic Theory of Living Pattern, Cambridge University Press (1993).**^**Wooley, T. E., Baker, R. E. Maini, P. K., Chapter 34,*Turing's theory of morphogenesis*. In Copeland, B. Jack; Bowen, Jonathan P.; Wilson, Robin; Sprevak, Mark (2017).*The Turing Guide*. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198747826.**^**Meinhardt, H. (1982).*Models of Biological Pattern Formation*. Academic Press.**^**Murray, James D. (9 March 2013).*Mathematical Biology*. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 436–450. ISBN 978-3-662-08539-4.**^**Grindrod, P. Patterns and Waves: The Theory and Applications of Reaction-Diffusion Equations, Clarendon Press (1991)**^**Smoller, J. Shock Waves and Reaction Diffusion Equations, Springer (1994)**^**Kerner, B. S. and Osipov, V. V. Autosolitons. A New Approach to Problems of Self-Organization and Turbulence, Kluwer Academic Publishers (1994).

## External linksEdit

- Turing, Alan M. (14 August 1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis".
*Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B*.**237**(641). pp. 37–72. Bibcode:1952RSPTB.237...37T. doi:10.1098/rstb.1952.0012.