Terminals of Los Angeles International Airport
Los Angeles International Airport has nine passenger terminals with a total of 128 gates arranged in the shape of the letter U or a horseshoe. Passengers may move between terminals via a shuttle bus, or through various inter-terminal pedestrian connections.
In addition to these terminals, there are 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of cargo facilities at LAX, and a heliport operated by Bravo Aviation. Qantas has a maintenance facility at LAX, even though it is not a hub.
The Tom Bradley International Terminal and Terminals 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are all connected airside via an overground passage between Terminal 4 and the Tom Bradley International Terminal, an underground tunnel between Terminals 4, 5 and 6 and above-ground walkways between Terminals 6, 7, and 8. An additional airside shuttle bus operates between Terminals 4, 5, and the American Eagle remote terminal. There are no physical airside connections between any of the other terminals.
Inter-terminal connections between terminals 1, 2, and 3, and between them and the other terminals, require passengers to exit security, then walk or use a shuttle-bus to get to the other terminal, then re-clear security. Terminals 4-8, which comprise the south terminal complex, provide airside connections, which allow connecting passengers to access other terminals without having to re-clear security.
LAX Train (Future)
As part of the Landside Access Modernization Program (LAMP), Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA) is planning to construct LAX Train, an automated people mover which consists of approximately 2.25 miles (3.62 km) of elevated guideway and six stations. Headways are expected to be as low as 2 minutes between trains. Construction of LAX Train is scheduled to start in the third quarter of 2017, and is anticipated to be completed by 2023.
The three westernmost stations will be centrally located near the parking structures, and connect to their respective terminals via pedestrian bridges:
- West Station, serving Terminals 3, 4, and the Tom Bradley International Terminal
- Center Station, serving Terminals 2, 5, and 6
- East Station, serving Terminals 1, 7, and 8
East of East Station, LAX Train will continue on to:
- Intermodal Transportation Facility (ITF) West Station, allowing access to LAX Train for private vehicles, hotel and commercial shuttles, and bus transit.
- Metro/ITF East Station, connecting to the Los Angeles Metro Rail at the Aviation/96th Street station, scheduled to open in 2021.
- Consolidated Rent-A-Car (ConRAC) Station, the eastern terminus at a new consolidated rental car facility.
Terminal 1 has 13 gates: Gates 9, 10, 11A-11B, 12A-12B, 13-15, 16, 17A-17B, and 18A-18B, and houses Southwest Airlines. Terminal 1, with main tenant PSA (Pacific Southwest Airlines), was built in 1984. Terminal 1 completed an extensive renovation financed by Southwest Airlines. This renovation was completed in late 2018 and provides updates to the security screening area, curbside dropoff, terminal areas and baggage handling. Former tenants of the terminal include AirTran Airways, America West Airlines, and US Airways.
Terminal 2 has 12 gates: Gates 21–21B, 22–22A, 23-23A, 24–24A, and 25–28 and is primarily used by Delta Air Lines. It also hosts several foreign carriers, including Aer Lingus, Aeroméxico, Virgin Atlantic, and WestJet. Virgin Australia and Volaris also use Terminal 2 for check-in of passengers.
Terminal 2 was built in 1962, and was the original international terminal. It was completely torn down and rebuilt in stages between 1984 and 1988 at a cost of 94 million dollars. The rebuilt terminal was designed by Leo A Daly. Terminal 2 has CBP (Customs and Border Protection) facilities to process arriving international passengers but arriving WestJet and Aer Lingus passengers normally use the same arrival facilities as domestic passengers since they have already cleared CBP inspections at their departure airports.
Terminal 3 has 12 gates: Gates 30, 31A–31B, 32, 33A–33B, 34–36, 37A–37B, and 38 (gate 39 was removed to make room for Virgin Australia Boeing 777 operations at gate 38) and is currently used by Delta Air Lines. Terminal 3 opened in 1961 and was Trans World Airlines' terminal. The terminal was expanded in 1970 to accommodate widebody operations and between 1980 and 1987, which included a new passenger connector building and baggage system connected to the original satellite. It formerly housed some American Airlines flights after that airline acquired Reno Air and TWA in 1999 and 2001, respectively. Eventually, all American flights were moved to Terminal 4. As of May 2017, Copa Airlines, Avianca, and Interjet use Terminal 3 for check-in of passengers.
Terminal 4 has 16 gates: Gates 40–41, 42A–42B, 43-45, 46A–46C, 47A–47B, 48A–48B, and 49A-49B, and houses American Airlines flights. Terminal 4 was built in 1961, was expanded in 1983 by adding a connector from the ticketing areas to the original satellite, and was renovated in 2002 at a cost of $400 million in order to improve the appearance and functionality of the facility. The renovation was designed by Rivers & Christian. An international arrivals facility was also added as part of the renovations, but this has been closed due to staffing shortages. Currently, American Airlines international flights arrive Terminal 4 and TBIT, but passengers disembark via stairs onto buses that travel directly to Tom Bradley International Terminal arrivals. Some international departures operate at TBIT.
American Airlines and American Eagle have more gates than any other airline at LAX, with 28 (American Airlines operates from 32 gates in total, including 9 gates at the American Eagle satellite terminal, 4 dedicated gates at Terminal 5, as well as 4 rotating gates at Tom Bradley International Terminal).
Terminal 5 has 15 gates: Gates 50A–50B, 51A–51B, (Gates 52A-52J are located at the American Eagle Terminal), 53A–53B, 54A–54B, 55A, 56–57, 58, and 59, and is used by American Airlines, American Eagle, Allegiant Air, Frontier Airlines, Hawaiian Airlines, JetBlue, Spirit Airlines, and Sun Country Airlines. Western Airlines occupied this terminal at its opening in 1962, and continued to do so until Western was merged with Delta on April 1, 1987. Terminal 5 was redesigned by Gensler, expanded to include a connector building between the original satellite and the ticketing facilities and remodeled from 1986 through early 1988. It was unofficially named 'Delta's Oasis at LAX' with the slogan 'Take Five at LAX' when construction was completed in the summer of 1988. Northwest Airlines moved all operations to Terminal 5 and Terminal 6 alongside Delta on June 30, 2009, as part of its merger with the airline.
Delta, which had been based for decades in Terminal 5 (with additional gates in Terminal 6), moved to Terminals 2 and 3 between May 12-17, 2017 in order to relieve overcrowding and provide better transfers with its airline partners at Tom Bradley International Terminal.
American Eagle flights operate from a satellite terminal that is located just east of Terminal 8. This terminal has 9 gates that supplement American's mainline operation at Terminals 4 and 5.
Terminal 6 has 14 gates: Gates 60–63, 64A–64B, 65A-65B, 66, 67, 68A–68B, and 69A–69B. Parts of this terminal have changed little from its opening in 1961; in 1970, new gates were expanded from the main building, as is obvious from the rotunda at the end. Four of these gates have two jetways, which can accommodate large aircraft. An expansion of the terminal, including a connector of the original satellite to the ticketing areas, was completed in 1987.
Continental Airlines originally built the Connector Building (which links the Ticketing and rotunda buildings). Prior to October 2014, United Airlines used the connector gates, supplementing its base at Terminal 7. Delta also leased some space from the Airport in Terminal 6, in addition to its base at Terminal 5. Most of the rotunda gates can feed arriving passengers into a sterile corridor that shunts them to Terminal 7's customs and immigration facility.
In April 2011, Alaska Airlines agreed to a deal with Los Angeles World Airports to renovate Terminal 6 and build an Alaska Airlines Board Room Lounge. The airline moved its flights to Terminal 6 on March 20, 2012, and Spirit Airlines was relocated to Terminal 3.
Former tenants of the terminal include Continental Airlines until its merger with United Airlines in 2011, Eastern Air Lines which went bankrupt in 1991, and Great Lakes Airlines until its shut down in 2018. The terminal also originally housed Pacific Southwest Airlines and as well Virgin America until its merger with Alaska Airlines in 2018.
Terminal 7 has 15 gates: Gates 70A-70B, 71A-71B, 72A-72B, 73, 74A-74B, 75A-75B, 76A-76B, and 77A-77B. This terminal opened in 1962 and was expanded to accommodate widebody aircraft in 1970. The terminal was expanded in 1982 with the addition of a connector building, which today compromises of gates 70A-70B and 71A-71B. Four of these gates have two jetways, which accommodate large aircraft. Terminal 7 is used for United Airlines' domestic and international operations. The interior of the terminal was renovated between January 1998 and June 1999 at a cost of $250 million, was designed by HNTB, and was constructed by Hensel Phelps Construction. Added were new gate podiums, increased size of gate areas, relocated concessions, expanded restrooms, new flooring, and new signage. Also, the roof of the terminal was raised, and new, brighter light fixtures were added in order to provide more overall lighting. As of 2012, Terminal 7 is undergoing another facelift, with significant changes to concessions. The terminal also contains a United Club and an International First Class Lounge. The terminal has a customs area located on the arrivals floor, used by international flights served by United Airlines.
Terminal 8 has 7 gates: Gates 81, 83–88. This terminal was originally constructed in 1961 as Concourse 8 and was redeveloped in 1982 and renamed Terminal 8. The terminal formerly served Shuttle by United flights. At one point, only United Express flights arrived and departed from Terminal 8. Non-United Express flights arrived and departed from Terminals 6 and 7, Terminal 8 is now used once again for some mainline flights.
Tom Bradley International Terminal (Terminal B)Edit
- Not to be confused with Bradley International Airport, which serves Hartford, Connecticut.
The Tom Bradley International Terminal (TBIT), sometimes referred as Terminal B, has 28 gates: Gates 130-159. Each gate is equipped with a Safegate Advanced – Visual Docking Guidance System. Nine satellite gates for international flights are located remotely on the west side of the LAX airfield, where passengers are ferried to the gates by bus. The terminal hosts most of the major international airlines, with the exception of those housed in Terminal 2.
This terminal opened for the 1984 Summer Olympic Games and is named for Tom Bradley, the first African-American and longest-serving (20 years) mayor of Los Angeles, and champion of LAX. The terminal is located at the west end of the passenger terminal area between Terminals 3 (Delta Air Lines) and 4 (American Airlines). Tom Bradley International Terminal hosts 29 airlines and handles 10 million passengers per year.
In 2010, modernization efforts resulted in additional space for inline baggage screening, three large alliance-aligned lounges plus one unaffiliated lounge (to replace the multiple airline specific lounges) and cosmetic upgrades in the departures and arrivals areas.
On November 17, 2008, Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa unveiled design concepts for LAX's Bradley West and Midfield Concourse projects. Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA), along with city officials, selected Fentress Architects in association with HNTB to develop a design concept for the modernization of LAX. The emphasis of the modernization is to improve the passenger experience and to keep Los Angeles competitive with other global cities.
On February 22, 2010, construction began on the Bradley West project, part of the multi-year $4.11 billion LAX improvement and redevelopment projects. The project added over 1,250,000 square feet (116,000 m2) of shops, restaurants, and passenger lounges, as well as new security screening, customs, immigration, and baggage claim facilities. The terminal's existing two concourses were demolished and replaced with a larger pair with 18 gates, nine of which are able to accommodate the Airbus A380. The terminal opened in phases beginning on September 2012, and was completed in 2014. The final cost of the terminal was approximately $2 billion, which ended up being much higher than the original estimate of $1.4 billion in late 2009.
On September 18, 2013, the new Tom Bradley International Terminal at LAX officially opened. Airlines started to use the new, smarter gates that can handle larger aircraft, with multiple gates configured for the Airbus A380. Inside, Southern California scenes and eccentric videos are played on seven huge multimedia screens. It is the largest immersive system in an airport and the most advanced multimedia environment in a North American airport. This system was created by Moment Factory. Lounge-like seating for relaxation, and the 25,000-square-foot duty-free shopping area are located in the Great Hall. Many restaurants and high-end shops are located there, such as Chloé, Burberry, Fred Segal, and Porsche amongst others. Franchises of popular LA restaurants including Umami Burger, 800 Degrees, Larder, Ink.Sack and Lucky Fish are among the restaurant selections available. Midfield Satellite Concourse Opening scheduled August 3, 2019
Accommodating the Airbus A380Edit
On March 25, 2007, Runway 7R/25L reopened after being shifted 55 feet (17 m) south to prevent runway incursions and prepare the runway for the Airbus A380. Additional storm drains and enhanced runway lighting were added. Runway 25L is now 800 feet (240 m) south of the parallel runway centerline to centerline, allowing a parallel taxiway between the runways; the taxiway was completed in 2008.
On September 18, 2006, Los Angeles World Airports started a $503 million facelift of the Tom Bradley International Terminal. Improvements included new paging, air conditioning and electrical systems, along with new elevators, escalators, baggage carousels, and a digital sign that automatically update flight information. With federal funding, explosives-detection technology was incorporated into the terminal's underground baggage system.
According to the Los Angeles Times, in February 2007, many Pacific Rim carriers began reducing flights to LAX in favor of more modern airports, such as San Francisco International Airport and Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, due to the aging Tom Bradley International Terminal.
On August 15, 2007, the Los Angeles City Council approved a $1.2 billion project to construct a new 10-gate terminal to handle international flights using the Airbus A380. Adding the first new gates built since the early 1980s, the new structure was to be built directly west of the Tom Bradley International Terminal on a site that was occupied mostly by aircraft hangars.
On March 19, 2007, the Airbus A380 made its debut at LAX, landing on runway 24L. Though LAX was originally to be the first U.S. city to see the A380, Airbus later decided to forgo LAX in favor of John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City. After city officials fought for the super-jumbo jet to land at LAX, Airbus had to get two A380s, which landed simultaneously in New York and Los Angeles.
On March 31, 2008, the Los Angeles Times reported that foreign carriers were once again flocking to LAX's Tom Bradley International Terminal. The weaker dollar caused a surge in demand for U.S. travel, resulting in airlines either adding new destinations or increasing frequencies to existing routes. New airlines that introduced flights to LAX included Virgin Australia, Emirates, Turkish Airlines, Iberia, Korean Air, Qantas, Air China, and Air France. The influx of new flights comes amidst the renovation of the airport and consolidates LAX's status as the premier international gateway to the Western United States.
Qantas launched service with the Airbus A380 on October 20, 2008, using the west side remote gates. Though initially deployed between LAX and Sydney, Qantas's A380 service was extended to the LAX-Melbourne route. This was followed shortly by Korean Air, which initiated nonstop A380 flights to Seoul-Incheon in October 2011. Air France has launched A380 flights between Paris–Charles de Gaulle and Los Angeles in May 2012. In addition, China Southern Airlines launched A380 service to Guangzhou in October 2012, representing an increase in capacity of 78% on the route. With the addition of these services, LAX boasted six daily A380 services. On October 15, 2013, British Airways' nonstop service from London–Heathrow to LAX also became an A380 route.
Asiana Airlines launched an Airbus A380 service to LAX on Wednesday, August 20, 2014. This new A380 route makes Asiana the eighth A380 operator at LAX and the eleventh airline to operate an A380. Previously, Asiana deployed regional Asian A380 routes to Osaka, Hong Kong, and Bangkok from Seoul.
LAX has more A380 services than any other North American city, with up to thirteen daily flights spread among nine operators (as of November 2018): Emirates (Dubai International Airport), China Southern Airlines (Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport), British Airways (Heathrow Airport), Qantas (Sydney Airport and Melbourne Airport), Korean Air and Asiana Airlines (Incheon International Airport), Air France (Charles de Gaulle Airport), and Lufthansa (Munich Airport (Summer)/Frankfurt Airport (Winter)).
The terminal is located on the south side of the airport, east of terminal 8 and across Sepulveda Boulevard. As it is physically separated from the other terminal buildings, passengers access the Regional Terminal using a system of shuttle buses. Buses operate between the Regional Terminal and Terminal 4 and Terminal 5, which house American Airline’s other gates.
The Regional Terminal’s gate numbers (52A–52J) are meant to encourage passengers originating their travel from LAX to enter the airport through the less congested Terminal 5 and board the bus at a stop located at Gate 52. But as the majority of American Airline’s mainline fights at LAX operate out of Terminal 4, a separate bus service is additionally operated to that terminal to minimize connection times.
- "Mayor Villaraigosa Announces New Qantas Maintenance Facility at LAX". Business Wire. February 1, 2006. Retrieved April 3, 2008.
- "The Solution". Connecting LAX. City of Los Angeles. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Anticipated Process and Schedule". Connecting LAX. City of Los Angeles. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Airport Metro Connector 96th Street Transit Station". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Los Angeles International Airport Terminal 1 Renovation" (PDF). T1. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
- Malnic, Eric (June 1, 1988). "'Final Major Link' in LAX Expansion Opens". Los Angeles Times.
- "LAX Terminal 2 to Be Revamped : Carriers Expect $94-Million Project to Start Next Month". Los Angeles Times. August 17, 1986.
- "LAX Specific Plan Amendment Study Draft EIR" (PDF). Los Angeles World Airports. July 2012. pp. 4–349. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- Oldham, Jennifer (August 1, 2002). "Remodeled Terminal at LAX Debuts". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
- "Changes for LAX international arrivals / bus to TBIT for formalities (consolidated) – Page 5 – FlyerTalk Forums". FlyerTalk. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
- Whiteson, Leon (August 21, 1988). "Architectural Firm Practices One-Stop Design : Gensler & Associates Specializes in Planning Project's Inside as Well as Outside". Los Angeles Times.
- "LAX begins massive relocation of 15 airlines in the central terminal area". Los Angeles Times. May 12, 2017. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
- "United Airlines Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) Terminal 7 Improvement Project Initial Study – Proposed Negative Declaration" (PDF). Los Angeles World Airports. March 28, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- "The All-New Alaska Airlines Terminal 6 at LAX". Alaska Airlines. Retrieved March 20, 2012.
- "United Begins $200 Million Terminal Expansion at LAX". Flight Global. Archived from the original on May 22, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 12, 2001. Retrieved May 12, 2001.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Airline Terminal Location Map". Los Angeles World Airports. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- "LAX Development Program". Los Angeles World Airports. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
- "City audit uncovers big cost increases for new LAX Bradley terminal". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
- from Moment Factory Plus 4 months ago not yet rated (June 20, 2013). "Moment Factory making-of: LAX new terminal, the largest immersive system in an airport on Vimeo". Vimeo.com. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- Hallock, Betty. "Travelers could be eating very well, very soon at modernized Tom Bradley terminal at LAX". LA Times. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
- Oldham, Jennifer (February 23, 2007). "LAX watches world go by; Cramped facilities push Pacific Rim carriers to newer airports". Los Angeles Times. p. A1.
- Steve Hymon, Council OKs 10 new gates at LAX, Los Angeles Times, August 16, 2007
- Salvo, Christina (March 19, 2007). "abc7.com: World's Largest Airliner Lands at LAX 3/19/07". Abclocal.go.com. Archived from the original on March 22, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
- Pae, Peter (March 31, 2008). "Foreign airlines flock to LAX". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 26, 2010.
- "British Airways' Red Carpet Scheduled Debut for the A380". March 5, 2013. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "WHERE IS THE A380 FLYING?". March 2014. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
- Nguyen, John (May 18, 2016). "American Quietly Updates, Enhances Operations at LAX - AirlineReporter". Airline Reporter. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- "Changes To The American Eagle Terminal LAX". One Mile at a Time. May 19, 2016. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
- "American Airlines at LAX to Relocated Four Aircraft Gates". Aviation Pros. January 30, 2017. Retrieved May 8, 2018.