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Teochew (Chinese: 潮州話; pinyin: Cháozhōuhuà, Chaozhou dialect: Diê⁵ziu¹ uê⁷, Shantou dialect: Dio⁵ziu¹ uê⁷) is a dialect of Chaoshan Min, a Southern Min language, that is spoken by the Teochew people in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong and by their diaspora around the world. It is sometimes referred to as Chiuchow, its Cantonese rendering, due to the English romanisation by colonial officials and explorers. It is closely related to some dialects of Hokkien, as it shares some cognates and phonology with Hokkien, although the two are not largely mutually intelligible.
|Native to||China, Overseas Chinese communities|
|Region||Eastern Guangdong (Chaoshan), Southern Fujian (Zhao'an)|
|Ethnicity||Han Chinese (Teochew people)|
Teochew preserves many Old Chinese pronunciations and vocabulary that have been lost in some of the other modern varieties of Chinese. As such, many linguists[who?] consider Teochew one of the most conservative Chinese languages.
Languages in contactEdit
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This refers to Chaozhou, the variant of Southern Min (Min Nan) spoken in China.
Chaozhou children are introduced to Standard Chinese as early as in kindergarten; however, Chaozhou remains the primary medium of instruction. In the early years of primary education, Mandarin becomes the sole language of instruction, but students typically continue to speak to one another in Chaozhou. Mandarin is widely understood, however minimally, by most younger Chaozhou speakers, but the elderly usually do not speak Mandarin since teaching used to be done in the local vernacular.
Chaozhou accent in MandarinEdit
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Native Chaozhou-speakers find the neutral tone in Mandarin the most difficult tone to master. Chaozhou has lost the alveolar nasal ending [-n] and so Chaozhou-speakers often replace it with the velar nasal [-ŋ] when they speak Mandarin. The southern Min dialects all have no front rounded vowel and so a typical Chaozhou accent supplants the unrounded counterpart [i] for [y]. Chaozhou, like its ancient ancestor, lacks labio-dentals and so its speakers use [h] or [hu] instead of [f] when they speak Mandarin. Chaozhou has no retroflex consonants in its northern dialects and so [ts], [tsʰ], [s], and [z] replace [tʂ], [tʂʰ], [ʂ] and [ʐ] in the Chaozhou accent in Mandarin.[original research?]
Since Chao'an, Raoping, and Jieyang border the Hakka-speaking region in the north, some people there speak Hakka but they can usually speak Chaozhou as well. Chaozhou people have historically had a great deal of contact with the Hakka people, but Hakka has had little, if any, influence on Chaozhou. Similarly, in Dabu and Fengshun, where the Chaozhou- and the Hakka-speaking regions meet, Chaozhou is also spoken, but Hakka remains the primary form of Chinese spoken there.
Because of the strong influence of Hong Kong soap operas, Guangdong provincial television programs and Cantonese pop songs, many young Chaoshan peoples can understand quite a lot of Cantonese even if they cannot speak it with much fluency.
In the mountainous area of Fenghuang (鳳凰山), the She language, an endangered Hmong–Mien language, is spoken by the She people, who are an officially recognised non-Han ethnic minority. They predominantly speak Hakka and Teochew; only about 1,000 She still speak their eponymous language.
Phonetics and phonologyEdit
Teochew, like other Southern Min varieties, is one of the few modern Sinitic languages which have voiced obstruents (stops, fricatives and affricates); however, unlike Wu and Xiang Chinese, the Teochew voiced stops and fricatives did not evolve from Middle Chinese voiced obstruents, but from nasals. The voiced stops [b] and [ɡ] and also [l] are voicelessly prenasalised [ᵐ̥b], [ᵑ̊ɡ], [ⁿ̥ɺ], respectively. They are in complementary distribution with the tenuis stops [p t k], occurring before nasal vowels and nasal codas, whereas the tenuis stops occur before oral vowels and stop codas. The voiced affricate dz, initial in such words as 字 (dzi˩), 二 (dzi˧˥), 然 (dziaŋ˥), 若 (dziak˦) loses its affricate property with some younger speakers abroad, and is relaxed to [z].
Southern Min dialects and varieties are typified by a lack of labiodentals, as illustrated below:
|Nasal||m 毛||n 年||ŋ 雅|
|Stop||aspirated||pʰ 皮||tʰ 台||kʰ 可|
|voiceless||p 比||t 都||k 歌||ʔ|
|voiced||b 米||g 鵝/牙|
h̃ 園/遠 [h̃ŋ]
Syllables in Teochew contain an onset consonant, a medial glide, a nucleus, usually in the form of a vowel, but can also be occupied by a syllabic consonant like [ŋ], and a final consonant. All the elements of the syllable except for the nucleus are optional, which means a vowel or a syllabic consonant alone can stand as a fully-fledged syllable.
All the consonants except for the glottal stop ʔ shown in the consonants chart above can act as the onset of a syllable; however, the onset position is not obligatorily occupied.
Teochew finals consist maximally of a medial, nucleus and coda. The medial can be i or u, the nucleus can be a monophthong or diphthong, and the coda can be a nasal or a stop. A syllable must consist minimally of a vowel nucleus or syllabic nasal.
Teochew tones Tone
Tone name Pitch
Description Sandhi 1 yin level (陰平) ˧ (3) mid 1 2 yin rising (陰上) ˥˨ (52) falling 6 3 yin departing (陰去) ˨˩˧ (213) low rising 2 or 5 4 yin entering (陰入) ˨̚ (2) low checked 8 5 yang level (陽平) ˥ (5) high 7 6 yang rising (陽上) ˧˥ (35) high rising 7 7 yang departing (陽去) ˩ (1) low 7 8 yang entering (陽入) ˦̚ (4) high checked 4
As with sandhi in other Min Nan dialects, the checked tones interchange. The yang tones all become low. Sandhi is not accounted for in the description below.
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The grammar of Teochew is similar to other Min languages, as well as some southern varieties of Chinese, especially with Hakka, Yue and Wu. The sequence 'subject–verb–object' is typical, like Standard Mandarin, although the 'subject–object–verb' form is also possible using particles.
The personal pronouns in Teochew, like in other Chinese varieties, do not show case marking, therefore 我 [ua] means both I and me and 伊人 [iŋ] means they and them. The southern Min dialects, like some northern dialects, have a distinction between an inclusive and exclusive we, meaning that when the addressee is being included, the inclusive pronoun 俺 [naŋ] would be used, otherwise 阮 [ŋ]. No other southern Chinese variety has this distinction.
|1st person||我 ua˥˨||I / me||Inclusive||俺 naŋ˥˨||we / us|
|Exclusive||阮 uaŋ˥˨ (uŋ˥˨ / ŋ˥˨)||we / us|
|2nd person||汝 lɨ˥˨||you||恁 niŋ˥˨||you (plural)|
|3rd person||伊 i˧||he/she/it/him/her||伊人 iŋ˧ (i˧ naŋ˥)||they/them|
Teochew does not distinguish the possessive pronouns from the possessive adjectives. As a general rule, the possessive pronouns or adjectives are formed by adding the genitive or possessive marker 個 [kai5] to their respective personal pronouns, as summarised below:
|1st person||我個 ua˥˨ kai˥||my / mine||Inclusive||俺個 naŋ˥˨ kai˥||our / ours|
|Exclusive||阮個 uaŋ˥˨ (uŋ˥˨ / ŋ˥˨) kai˥||ours / ours|
|2nd person||汝個 lɨ˥˨ kai˥||your / yours||恁個 niŋ˥˨ kai˥||your / yours (plural)|
|3rd person||伊個 i˧ kai˥||his / his; her / hers; its / its||伊人個 iŋ˧ (i˧ naŋ˥) kai˥||their / theirs|
- [puŋ˥˨ tsɨ˧ si˧˥ ua˥˨ kai˥]
- The book is mine.
- [ua˥˨ tiou˥ kuŋ˥]
- my skirt
Teochew has the typical two-way distinction between the demonstratives, namely the proximals and the distals, as summarised in the following chart:
|General||Singular||之個 [tsi˥˨ kai˥]||this||許個 [hɨ˥˨ kai˥]||that|
|Plural||之撮 [tsi˥˨ tsʰoʔ˦]||these||許撮 [hɨ˥˨ tsʰoʔ˦]||those|
|Spatial||之塊 [tsi˥˨ ko˨˩˧]||here||許塊 [hɨ˥˨ ko˨˩˧]||there|
|之內 [tsi˥˨ lai˧˥]||inside||許內 [hɨ˥˨ lai˧˥]||inside|
|之口 [tsi˥˨ kʰau˩]||outside||許口 [hɨ˥˨ kʰau˩]||outside|
|Temporal||之陣 / 當 [tsi˥˨ tsuŋ˥ / təŋ˨˩˧]||now; recently||許陣 / 當 [hɨ˥˨ tsuŋ˥ / təŋ˨˩˧]||then|
|Adverbial||這生 [tse˥˨ sẽ˧]||like this||向生 [hia˥˨ sẽ˧]||like that|
|Degree||之樣 [tsĩõ˨˩˧]||this||向樣 [hĩõ˨˩˧]||that|
|Type||者個 [tsia˥˨ kai˥]||this kind||向個 [hia˥˨ kai˥]||that kind|
|who / whom||(底)珍 [ti tiaŋ]|
|底人 [ti naŋ]|
|what||乜個 [miʔ kai]|
|what (kind of) + noun||乜 + N [miʔ]|
|which||底 + NUM + CL + (N) [ti]|
|底個 [ti kai]|
|where||底塊 [ti ko]|
|when||珍時 [tiaŋ si]|
|how||manner||做呢 [tso ni]|
|state||在些(樣) [tsai sẽ ĩõ]|
|乜些樣 [miʔ sẽ ĩõ]|
|什乜樣 [si miʔ ĩõ]|
|how many||幾 + CL + N [kui]|
|若多 + (CL) + (N) [dzieʔ tsoi]|
|how much||若多 [dzieʔ tsoi]|
|why||做呢 [tso ni]|
|liŋ5||零||〇||0||〇 is an informal way to represent zero, but 零 is more commonly used, especially in schools. |
also 空 [kang3]
|tsek8||壹||一||1||also 蜀 [tsek8] (original character) |
also 弌 (obsolete)
also [ik4] as the last digit of a 2-or-more-digit number e.g. 二十一 [dzi6 tsap8 ik4]
or days of a month e.g. 一號 [ik4 ho7]
or as an ordinal number e.g. 第一 [tõĩ6 ik4]
also 么(T) or 幺(S) [iou1] when used in phone numbers etc.
|no6||兩(T)||二||2||also 弍 (obsolete) |
also [dzi6] as the last digit of a 2-or-more-digit number e.g. 三十二 [sã1 tsap8 dzi6]
or days of a month e.g. 二號 [dzi6 ho7]
or as an ordinal number e.g. 第二 [tõĩ6 dzi6].
|sã1||叄(T)||三||3||also 弎 (obsolete)|
also 參 [sã1].
|tsap8||拾||十||10||Although some people use 什, It is not acceptable because it can be written over into 伍.|
Note: (T): Traditional characters; (S): Simplified characters.
Ordinal numbers are formed by adding 第 [tõĩ˧˥] in front of a cardinal number.
In Teochew passive construction, the agent phrase by somebody always has to be present, and is introduced by either 乞 [kʰoiʔ˦] (some speakers use [kʰəʔ] or [kʰiəʔ] instead) or 分 [puŋ˧], even though it is in fact a zero or indefinite agent as in:
- [i˧ puŋ˧ naŋ˥ tʰai˥ tiou˩]
- S/he was killed (by someone).
While in Mandarin one can have the agent introducer 被; bèi or 給; gěi alone without the agent itself, it is not grammatical to say
- * 個杯分敲掉。
- [kai˥ pue˧ puŋ˧ kʰa˧ tiou˩]
- The cup was broken.
- cf. Mandarin 杯子給打破了; bēizi gěi dǎ pòle)
Instead, we have to say:
- [kai˥ pue˧ puŋ˧ naŋ˥ kʰa˧ tiou˩]
- The cup was broken.
Even though this 人 [naŋ˥] is unknown.
The agent phrase 分人 [puŋ˧ naŋ˥] always comes immediately after the subject, not at the end of the sentence or between the auxiliary and the past participle like in some European languages (e.g. German, Dutch)
Comparative construction with two or more nounsEdit
- [i˧ ŋia˥˨ kue˨˩˧ lɨ˥˨]
- She is more beautiful than you.
Cantonese uses the same construction:
- Keoi5 leng3 gwo3 nei5.
- She is more beautiful than you.
However, due to modern influences from Mandarin, the Mandarin structure "X 比 Y ADJ" has also gained popularity over the years. Therefore, the same sentence can be re-structured and becomes:
- [i˩ pi˥˨ lɨ˥˨ ŋia˥˨]
- She is more beautiful than you.
- cf. Mandarin 她比你漂亮; tā bǐ nǐ piàoliang
Comparative construction with only one nounEdit
The 過- or 比-construction must involve two or more nouns to be compared; an ill-formed sentence will be yielded when only one is being mentioned:
- * 伊雅過 (?)
Teochew is different from English, where the second noun being compared can be left out ("Tatyana is more beautiful (than Lisa)". In cases like this, the 夭-construction must be used instead:
- [i1 iou6 ŋia2]
- She is more beautiful.
The same holds true for Mandarin and Cantonese in that another structure needs to be used when only one of the nouns being compared is mentioned. Teochew and Mandarin both use a pre-modifier (before the adjective) while Cantonese uses a post-modifier (after the adjective).
- tā bǐjiào piàoliang
- keoi5 leng3 di1
There are two words which are intrinsically comparative in meaning, i.e. 贏 [ĩã5] "better" and 輸 [su1] "worse". They can be used alone or in conjunction with the 過-structure:
- [tsi2 nĩã2 kuŋ5 su1 kue3 hɨ2 nĩã2]
- This skirt is not as good as that one.
- [ua2 lai6 kai7 tiaŋ6 nau2 ĩã5 i1 kai7 hoʔ2 tsoi7]
- My computer (at home) is far better than his.
Note the use of the adverbial 好多 [hoʔ2 tsoi7] at the end of the sentence to express a higher degree.
In Teochew, the idea of equality is expressed with the word 平 [pẽ5] or 平樣 [pẽ5 ĩõ7]:
- [tsi2 puŋ2 tsɨ1 kaʔ4 hɨ2 puŋ2 pẽ5 taŋ6]
- This book is as heavy as that one.
- [i1 no6 naŋ5 pẽ5 pẽ5 ĩõ7]
- They are the same. (They look the same./They're as good as each other./They're as bad as each other.)
- Lit. The two people are the same same way.
To express the superlative, Teochew uses the adverb 上 [siaŋ5] or 上頂 [siaŋ5 teŋ2]. 上頂 is usually used with a complimentary connotation.
- [tsi2 kõĩ1 mueʔ8 siaŋ5 teŋ2 ho2 tsiaʔ8]
- This (restaurant) is (absolutely) the most delicious.
- [i1 naŋ5 tui3 ua2 siaŋ5 ho2]
- They treat me best.
- Lit. The people treat me very well.
The vocabulary of Teochew shares a lot of similarities with Cantonese because of their continuous contact with each other.[ambiguous] Like Cantonese, Teochew has a great deal of monosyllabic words. However, ever since the standardisation of Modern Standard Chinese, Teochew has absorbed a lot of Putonghua vocabulary, which is predominantly polysyllabic. Also, Teochew varieties in Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia have also borrowed extensively from Malay.
Teochew and other Southern Min varieties, such as Hokkien, preserve a good deal of Old Chinese vocabulary, such as 目 [mak] eye (Chinese: 眼睛; pinyin: yǎnjīng, Hokkien: 目 ba̍k), 灱 [ta] dry (Chinese: 乾; pinyin: gān, Hokkien: 焦 ta), and 囥 [kʰəŋ] hide (cf. Chinese: 藏; pinyin: cáng; Hokkien: 囥 khǹg).
Teochew was romanised by the Provincial Education Department of Guangdong in 1960 to aid linguistic studies and the publication of dictionaries, although Pe̍h-ōe-jī can also be used because Christian missionaries invented it for the transcription of varieties of Southern Min.
Initial consonants of Teochew, are represented in the Guangdong Romanization system as: B, BH, C, D, G, GH, H, K, L, M, N, NG, P, R, S, T, and Z.
- B [p] - bag (北 north)
- Bh [b]- bhê (馬 horse)
- C [tsʰ] - cên (青 green), cǔi (嘴 mouth), ciên (槍 gun)
- D [t] - diê (潮 tide)
- G [k] - giê (橋 bridge)
- GH [g] - gho (鵝 goose)
- H [h] - hung (雲 cloud)
- K [kʰ] - ke (去 to go)
- L [l] - lag (六 six)
- M [m] - mêng (明 bright)
- N [n] - nang (人 person)
- NG [ŋ] - ngou (五 five)
- P [pʰ] - peng (平 peace)
- R [(d)z] - riêg/ruah (熱 hot)
- S [s] - sên (生 to be born)
- T [tʰ] - tin (天 sky)
- Z [ts] - ziu (州 region/state)
Vowels and vowel combinations in the Teochew dialect include: A, E, Ê, I, O, U, AI, AO, IA, IAO, IO, IU, OI, OU, UA, UAI, UE, and UI.
- A - ma (媽 mother)
- E - de (箸 chopsticks)
- Ê - sên (生 to be born)
- I - bhi (味 smell/taste)
- O - to (桃 peach)
- U - ghu (牛 cow)
Many words in Teochew are nasalized. This is represented by the letter "n" in the Guangdong Pengim system.
- suan (山 mountain)
- cên (青 green)
- M - iam (鹽 salt)
- NG - bhuang (萬 ten thousand)
- B - zab (十 ten)
- G - hog (福 happiness)
- H - tih (鐵 iron)
- Southern Min
- Languages of China
- List of Chinese dialects
- Thai Chinese
- Chinese in Singapore
- Malaysian Chinese
- Indonesian Chinese
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chaozhou". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Nominalization in Asian Languages: Diachronic and typological perspectives, p. 11, Yap, FoongHa; Grunow-Hårsta, Karen; Wrona, Janick (ed.) John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011
- Beijing da xue Zhongguo yu yan wen xue xi yu yan xue jiao yan shi. (2003). Han yu fang yin zi hui. (Chinese dialectal vocabulary) Beijing: Yu wen chu ban she (北京大學中國語言文學系語言學教研室, 2003. 漢語方音字彙. 北京: 語文出版社) ISBN 7-80184-034-8
- Cai Junming. (1991). Putonghua dui zhao Chaozhou fang yan ci hui. (Chaozhou dialectal vocabulary, contrasted with Mandarin) Hong Kong: T. T. Ng Chinese Language Research Centre (蔡俊明, 1991. 普通話對照潮州方言詞彙. 香港: 香港中文大學吳多泰中國語文研究中心) ISBN 962-7330-02-7
- Chappell, Hilary (ed.) (2001). Sinitic grammar : synchronic and diachronic perspectives. Oxford; New York: OUP ISBN 0-19-829977-X
- Chen, Matthew Y. (2000). Tone Sandhi: patterns across Chinese dialects. Cambridge, England: CUP ISBN 0-521-65272-3
- DeFrancis, John. (1984). The Chinese language: fact and fantasy. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press ISBN 0-8248-1068-6
- Li, Xin Kui. (1994). Guangdong di fang yan. (Dialects of Guangdong) Guangzhou, China: Guangdong ren min chu ban she (李新魁, 1994. 廣東的方言. 廣州: 廣東 人民出版社) ISBN 7-218-00960-3
- Li, Yongming. (1959). Chaozhou fang yan. (Chaozhou dialect) Beijing: Zhonghua. (李永明, 1959. 潮州方言. 北京: 中華)
- Lin, Lun Lun. (1997). Xin bian Chaozhou yin zi dian. (New Chaozhou pronunciation dictionary) Shantou, China: Shantou da xue chu ban she. (林倫倫, 1997. 新編潮州音字典. 汕頭: 汕頭大學出版社) ISBN 7-81036-189-9
- Norman, Jerry.  (2002). Chinese. Cambridge, England: CUP ISBN 0-521-29653-6
- Ramsey, S. Robert (1986). Languages of China. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press ISBN 0-691-06694-9
- Xu, Huiling (2007). Aspects of Chaoshan grammar: A synchronic description of the Jieyang dialect. Monograph Series Journal of Chinese Linguistics 22
- Yap, FoongHa; Grunow-Hårsta, Karen; Wrona, Janick (ed.) (2011). "Nominalization in Asian Languages: Diachronic and typological perspectives". Hong Kong Polytechnic University /Oxford University : John Benjamins Publishing Company ISBN 978-9027206770
Works on the Teochew dialectEdit
- Josiah Goddard (1883). A Chinese and English vocabulary: in the Tie-chiu dialect (2 ed.). Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press. pp. 237. Retrieved 10 February 2012. (the New York Public Library) (digitized April 2, 2008)
Bibles in the Teochew dialectEdit
- Kū-ieh sàn-bú-zṳ́ ē-kńg tshûan-tsṳ e̍k-tsò tiê-chiu pe̍h-ūe. Swatow: printed for the British and Foreign Bible Society at the English Presbyterian Mission Press. 1898. Retrieved 10 February 2012. (11 Samuel. (Tie-chiu dialect.)) (Harvard University) (digitized December 17, 2007)
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Teochew phrasebook.|
- 1883 American Presbyterian mission press – "A pronouncing and defining dictionary of the Swatow dialect, arranged according to syllables and tones" – by Fielde, Adele Marion (in English)Link to download(3,022 × 4,010 pixels, file size: 42.21 MB, MIME type: image/vnd.djvu, 648 pages)
- Database of Pronunciations of Chinese Dialects (in English, Chinese and Japanese)
- Teochew People - Teochew dialect (in Chinese)
- Diojiu Bhung Gak
- Glossika - Chinese Languages and Dialects
- Mogher (in Chinese, English and French)
- Shantou University Chaozhou Studies Resources (in Chinese)
- Teochew Web (in Chinese and English)
- Tonal harmony and register contour in Chaozhou
- Teochew Federation Singapore