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Teleportation is the hypothetical transfer of matter or energy from one point to another without traversing the physical space between them. Teleportation, or the ability to transport a person or object instantly from one place to another, is a technology that would change the course of civilization and alter the destiny of nations. It is a common subject in science fiction literature, film, video games, and television. In some situations teleporting is time traveling across space.
As of 2019, teleportation has not been implemented in the real world.
The use of the term teleport to describe the hypothetical movement of material objects between one place and another without physically traversing the distance between them has been documented as early as 1878.
American writer Charles Fort is credited with having coined the word teleportation in 1931 to describe the strange disappearances and appearances of anomalies, which he suggested may be connected. As in the earlier usage, he joined the Greek prefix tele- (meaning "distant") to the root of the Latin verb portare (meaning "to carry"). Fort's first formal use of the word occurred in the second chapter of his 1931 book Lo!:
Mostly in this book I shall specialize upon indications that there exists a transportory force that I shall call Teleportation. I shall be accused of having assembled lies, yarns, hoaxes, and superstitions. To some degree I think so, myself. To some degree, I do not. I offer the data.
Teleportation is a common subject in science fiction literature, film, video games, and television. The use of matter transmitters in science fiction originated at least as early as the 19th century. An early example of scientific teleportation (as opposed to magical or spiritual teleportation) is found in the 1897 novel To Venus in Five Seconds by Fred T. Jane. Jane's protagonist is transported from a strange-machinery-containing gazebo on Earth to planet Venus – hence the title.
An actual teleportation of matter has never been realized. It is questionable if it can ever be achieved, because any transfer of matter from one point to another without traversing the physical space between them violates Newton's laws, a cornerstone of physics.
Quantum teleportation is distinct from regular teleportation, as it does not transfer particles from one place to another, but rather transmits the information necessary to prepare a target system in the same quantum state as the source system. In many cases, such as normal matter at room temperature, the exact quantum state of a system is irrelevant for any practical purpose (because it fluctuates rapidly anyway, it “decoheres”), and the necessary information to recreate the system is classical. In those cases, quantum teleportation may be replaced by the simple transmission of classical information, such as radio communication.
In 1993, Bennett et al proposed that a quantum state of a particle could be teleported to another distant particle, but the two particles do not move at all. This is called state teleportation. There are a lot of following theoretical and experimental papers published. Researchers believe that quantum teleportation is the foundation of quantum calculation and quantum communication.
In 2008, M. Hotta proposed that it may be possible to teleport energy by exploiting quantum energy fluctuations of an entangled vacuum state of a quantum field. There are some papers published but no experimental verification.
In 2014, researcher Ronald Hanson and colleagues from the Technical University Delft in the Netherlands, demonstrated the teleportation of information between two entangled quantumbits three metres apart.
In 2016, Y. Wei showed that in a generalization of quantum mechanics, particles themselves could teleport from one place to another. This is called particle teleportation. With this concept, superconductivity can be viewed as the teleportation of some electrons in the superconductor and superfluidity as the teleportation of some of the atoms in the cellular tube. This effect is not predicted to occur in standard quantum mechanics.
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- Ren, Ji-Gang; Xu, Ping; Yong, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Liang; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Yin, Juan; Liu, Wei-Yue; Cai, Wen-Qi; Yang, Meng (2017). "Ground-to-satellite quantum teleportation". Nature. 549 (7670): 70–73. arXiv:1707.00934. Bibcode:2017Natur.549...70R. doi:10.1038/nature23675. PMID 28825708.
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- David Darling (2005). Teleportation: The Impossible Leap. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-71545-0.
- Lawrence M. Krauss (1995), The Physics of Star Trek, Basic Books, ISBN 978-0465002047
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- Will Human Teleportation Ever Be Possible?
- Human teleportation is far more impractical than we thought
- Y. Wei (2016), How to teleport a particle rather than a state Phys Rev E 93. 066103