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However, Arabic was not spoken in Palmyra, so it is unclear why her name is given in Arabic, or why there is any reference to Arabic at all, considering that the languages used in the city were Greek and Palmyrene, an Aramaic dialect. --184.108.40.206 01:47, 26 July 2007 (UTC)
- I agree. These Arabic references should be removed. They appear to have been added for reasons of Arab propaganda of the "Jesus was an Arab" school. Zenobia did not speak Arabic but a dialect of Aramaic and was known to be sympathetic to Jews.220.127.116.11 (talk) 22:04, 25 May 2008 (UTC)
The Arabic references should be kept as she is routinely referred to in the classical Arabic histories (9th-10th century) which give us a great deal of information about her and her activities. Her conflict and alliances with Arabic speaking nomadic tribes (and the settled Arabic speaking dynasties of the Lakhmids and Ghassanids - clients of the Persian and Roman empires respectively) are strong evidence for keeping the references to Arabic. Let's keep the Arab-Israeli conflict out of this.
BTW - I corrected the transliteration of the Arabic version of her name as it is given in this article but I can't verify it from the sources. From my experience, she's usually called al-Zabba' (in the medieval sources).
In 260, her forces were responsible for an unprecedented victory against Rome: not only were Roman forces defeated, but the emperor Valerian was captured and taken back to Zenobia's court. This was the only such occurrance in Rome's history and it demanded a reply.
I took the above out, because she wasn't yet reigning in 260. Also, the source I have says that it was King Sapor of Persia (not Zenobia's husband Odenathus of Palmyra) who defeated and captured Valerian in 260. -- Marj Tiefert
Argh -- you're right -- Zenobia and Odenathus defeated Sapor...but Valerian was still made into a footstool...! JHK
Are we sure about the birth name? It would make more sense if "Septimia" derived from her husband's being "Septimius Odanathus," and I can't find "Bathzabbi" anywhere. -- isis 24 Aug 2002
Okay, I'm reading Gibbon's "Decline and Fall . . ." (which I HIGHLY recomend, BTW), and he has the following description of Zenobia (starting in year 272, ch. XI, Vol 1)
She claimed her descent from the Macedonian kings of Egypt, equalled in beauty her ancestor Cleopatra, and far surpassed that princess in chastity and valour. Zenobia was esteemed the most lovely as well as the most heroic of her sex. She was of a dark complexion (for in speaking of a lady these trifles become important). Her teeth were of a pearly whiteness, and her large black eyes sparkled with uncommon fire, tempered by the most attractive sweetness. Her voice was strong and harmonious. Her manly understanding was strengthened and adorned by study. She was not ignorant of the Latin tongue, but possessed in equal perfection the Greek, Syriac and the Egyptian languges.
About the removal of the Category:Ancient Roman women: I see a conflict of that with the Cat:Ancient Roman enemies and allies. But if somebody is terribly keen of having both cats in, that ok with me. muriel@pt 09:41, 26 Nov 2004 (U
The references to Zenobia being Arab are blatant pan-Arabist/Arab nationalist revisionism. They even go so far as to refer to al-Tabari's fictionalized "history", in which the Romans, their legions, and their empire simply did not exist. Are Baathists now being given free reign on Wikipedia? — Preceding unsigned comment added by 18.104.22.168 (talk) 22:36, 5 January 2012 (UTC)
- Indeed the only sources mentioning her Arab origin are from Arab nationalists. The about.com info regarding her "Arab ancestry" lacks reliability since it is authored by a web moderator with a BA in management. As far as I know she was a native speaker of Aramaic as her native name (בת זבי Bat Zabbai) suggests. Ball describes the medieval Arabic sources that cite her Arab ancestry as apocryphal.--Rafy talk 16:51, 29 January 2012 (UTC)
- ball described the traditions that relates her to the Seleucid as apocryphal and describe the tradition of connecting her to the queen of sheeba as apocryphal, but he didnt mention that al-tabari is apocryphal ---- what we know is next : she spoke Aramaic, she wasn't christian, her ancestry is much debated, Palmyra had Arabs and she could be either an Aramean or an aramized Arab like the royal family of Edessa, lets offer all the views and let the readers to decide what to believe, this book Ancient Syria is by Trevor R. Bryce, published by Oxford University Press, in it the writer concludes that she could be at least of partial arab ancestry and the likelihood of her being a descendant of an arab sheikh, so lets keep it to the readers to decide without implying anything. --Attar-Aram syria (talk) 23:14, 3 August 2014 (UTC)
The second paragraph...Edit
The second paragraph is very hard to understand: who proclaimed herself Queen of Egypt, Zenobia or the other Egyptian person? The pronouns really need clear antecedents; I truly am confused which 'she' everybody's discussing. If somebody could just clear this up for me, I'd be glad to just clean up that section of the article. Mayukhers112 01:01, 19 April 2006 (UTC)
There are stories of her poisoning herself to escape from being brought to Rome as a slave. Can anybody check that please? (Unsigned).
Actually, there are multiple versions of her death. Here is what Warwick Ball writes in his book "Rome in the East" (Routledge, 2000):
"He [Emperor Aurelian] took the two captives [Zenobia and her son] back to Europe, but opinion differs as to Zenobia's fate. She probably died soon afterwards, either from an unstated illness or - emulating Julia Domna to the last - by fasting to death. According to other versions, however, she was first displayed in Antioch and Rome as Queen of the barbarian Saracens, then beheaded, although other sources refer to her being married off and living in retirement outside Rome, where her descendants were still supposedly pointed out a century later."
- Are there not gravestones in Southern Italy of people claiming descent from her? And isn't the only source claiming her beheading notoriously unreliable? And the use of the word "Saracen" is well out of period. This article used to have quotes about her life in Naples; where did those go? — Preceding unsigned comment added by 2404:440C:1410:B800:107A:CE90:71FC:8A40 (talk) 11:08, 29 July 2018 (UTC)
- *Sigh* the victim card comes out once again. Don't you ever tire of silly racism accusations? •CHILLDOUBT• 14:15, 1 January 2008 (UTC)
- ahh, 'victim card', the standard right wing talk radio putdown of any complaint or criticism by anyone not white, male, north European, or judaeo-Christian. A _very_ revealing comment indeed! Aliibn (talk) 14:18, 1 January 2008 (UTC)
- Hehehehe. Thanks for the laugh regarding what you believe my politics to be - Being wrong seems to be a bit of a speciality for you ;-) ...Lets try and keep our discussions to wikipedia issues shall we...? •CHILLDOUBT• 14:24, 1 January 2008 (UTC)
Try this oneEdit
Why not use this image instead, contemporary (3rd centry) bust of Zenobia from the Vatican museum) http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=40172&rendTypeId=4 Aliibn (talk) 14:17, 1 January 2008 (UTC)
- Looks good to me. The only question I might have is the licensing for the image. Ill upload this image to the article now, and add the rationale. If there are any problems, Ill give you an alert so we can come up with another source or another way round it. Cheers •CHILLDOUBT• 14:32, 1 January 2008 (UTC)
Family, ancestry, etc.Edit
I disagree with the statement (unsupported by references) that the gens of Zenobia and her father was Aurelius. This was indeed a gens but also became a popular cognomen during the Empire (see Aurelius page). Additionally, the assumption that that Aurelius was their gentilicium implies that Zenobius' praenomen was Julius -- but Julius was a gentilicium, not a praenomen. Lastly, Zenobia's own name begins with "Julia", which also implies the family's gentilicium was Julius. JagoWoodbine (talk) 14:34, 28 July 2010 (UTC)JagoWoodbine
Removed line about the treatise on the SublimeEdit
I removed the following line about Cassius Longinus from the page:
Longinus composed his celebrated Treatise on the Sublime for her which incorporates fragments of poetry since lost, such as the love poems of Sappho of Lesbos, originally penned in the 6th century BCE. [ref: Wilden, 1987, p. 230.]
As far as I know, few now think that the treatise On the Sublime was written by Cassius Longinus, since it's apparently a 1st-century text. Even if one was to ignore modern scholarship and assume it was a 3rd-century text by Longinus, it is surely speculation that it was written for Zenobia. Singinglemon (talk) 23:44, 20 December 2010 (UTC)
Vaballathus from Arabic?Edit
What proof is there that the name of Zenobia's son, Vaballathus, is from Arabic? I think that the name is most likely descended from the language of the Aramaeans. There are no referrences in regards to that so I think it needs to be removed.
Marcellus Petrus NutenusEdit
A source for this person would be useful. I do not find him in Smith's dictionary of Graeco-Roman biography or anyplace else. 19:18, 2 April 2012 (UTC)~ — Preceding unsigned comment added by Al-Nofi (talk • contribs)
Vaballathus : gift of the "goddess" ?Edit
i can see why some people refuse to relate anything Arabic to this article, their purpose is very clear
Queen of EgyptEdit
Zenobia did not assume this title, and we have no prove for it in the archaeology. Trevor Bryce is a very respected scholar but his book is the center of criticism for not following the newest results in the field and counting on ancient fabricated literature. I quote this peer review of Bryce' book: Regrettably, the scholarly impact of the book will be limited. The author has occasionally overlooked the most recent scientific contributions to specific matters he wanted to focus on and sometimes offers traditional interpretations to old problems by ignoring fundamental academic updates.
Bryce claim that Zenobia went to Egypt herself but there is no evidence for this and neither for her use of the title: Queen of Egypt.
The article is a featured one and all the info must be precise or it will lose that status. Hence, the info about the title Queen of Egypt should be removed.--Attar-Aram syria (talk) 19:22, 1 June 2017 (UTC)
- If no other modern sources mention this, it can be removed based on WP:fringe. FunkMonk (talk) 19:52, 1 June 2017 (UTC)
- Yes, its just planted in anceint concepts but not supported by any evidence. However, we can wait for the editor who introduced the info to participate in the discussion.--Attar-Aram syria (talk) 20:49, 1 June 2017 (UTC)
- Hey, yes, I in fact used Bryce's book to source this info, it states in the book (precisely p. 304) that Zenobia crowned herself Queen of Egypt. Now I don't have a stance regarding the book nor its writer's credibility, but if you are uncertain or doubt the reference's credibility and/or accuracy, feel free to remove the title from the infobox. And sorry for any troubles. Jadd Haidar (talk) 14:40, 5 June 2017 (UTC)
- Yes, its just planted in anceint concepts but not supported by any evidence. However, we can wait for the editor who introduced the info to participate in the discussion.--Attar-Aram syria (talk) 20:49, 1 June 2017 (UTC)
Two sources were added to support the notion that she was an Arab. The first is a historical fiction book (secret papers) by french novalist fr:Bernard Simiot (not archaeologist, not historian, not linguist, and for sure had no access to any documents from Palmyra and Rome that can be called diaries of Zenobia) and the second was by Ahmad Dawood who is a Syrian so called historian supported by the Arab nationalist Baath party. Dawood is known for his fringe theories; he thinks the anceint Greeks were Arabs, the bible events took place in Yemen....etc
What we know of Zenobia is:
- Her name was Aramaic
- No contemporary source described as an Arab
- She spoke Palmyrene, an Aramaic dialect
It is known, based on the names of the inhabitants, that the Palmyrenes were a mixed people with Arab, Aramean and Amorite bloods among others. The Early life section makes it clear that the queen, as a Palmyrene, would have had both Arab and Aramean origins. There will be many sources found (mainly from the Arabic speaking world or sources written by non specialists orientalists) stating that she was an Arab with no proof given. But the Academic consensus is far from uniform regarding her origin and her being an Arab does not have academic consensus. It is therefore fruitless to add the word "Arab" in the lede and also against the style of writing to include citations in the lede. If Arab will be written then someone else with other sources will come and write "Aramean" and the article will turn into an edit-war field.
The article was reviewed during the FA process and the Wiki consensus is for the origin to be mentioned neutrally in its own section where a neutral view (the queen is Arab and Aramean) is stated.--Attar-Aram syria (talk) 00:43, 13 February 2018 (UTC)
Arab Zenobia #2Edit
1. French Bernard Simiot "Secret Papers" stated Zenobia as an Arab from her own Diaries. For those saying it is "fictional", Bernard Simiot himself didn't state that his Published Book were in any way fictional. The only place it says fictional is from an Arabic translated version of the book were the translator stated from his own mind that it is "fictional" providing no evidence.
- "Her own diaries".... who said so? who is Bernard Simiot to state this? It doesnt matter if he didnt describe his work as fictional, it is still fictional. I can write a book about Cleopatra and pretend its from her diaries but this wont make my book academic and contain real info.
- Well, other than Bernard Simiot, many mentions of Zenobia being an Arab rather than Aramaean. While other mentions suggest that she is Arab & Aramean.
- and many more.
Any references of her being fully Aramean that you can provide since the wiki page doesn't have one, i'm searching for one too.
- And does any of those others have an evidence ? You can bring hundreds of books mentioning her as Arab that you find through entering keywords on google books search, but you can not bring any source by a specialist that would say she is an Arab because specialists know better than to ascribe a woman from a mixed city to one ethnicity. I dont need to bring a source for her being just Aramean because no source can provide evidence for this, and no source can provide evidence for her being Arab. Evidence mean an iscription by Zenobia calling herself an Arab, or a contemporary source from an ancient historian calling her an Arab. Do you know of any such a source?
2. The "Secret Papers" were heavily detailed and described every encounters and historical events that Zenobia faced very precisely and accurately , Hence it is impossible for the "French" Bernard Simiot to be the one writing the diaries!
- "very precisely and accurately"... how did you know ? Were these encounters recorded in contemporary sources?? how do you know they actually happened? It is actually impossible that Simiot wrote anything but fiction because you have no contemporary solid source for any of the imagined events written by Simiot. You seem to be arguing from this facebook page
3. Zenobia's son name Vaballathus is a clear giveaway ; The name وَهْبُ اللَّات (Vaballathus in Greek) meaning: Gift of Al-Lat. Al-Lat(اللات) is an Arabian Goddess originated in Central Arabia and is worshiped by Arabs solely.
- It is not a give away, Allat was not worshipped just by the Arabs. Allatu was worshipped by the Phoenicians in Carthage, Allat was also a godess of the Chaldeans, and Elat was the name of El's wife. Not to say that Allat is not a goddess of Arabs but she obviously did not originate in Arabia. It is known that Palmyra worshipped over 60 deities and some of them were Arab gods while others were Canaanite or even Mesopotamian. This means that a Palmyrene would have no problem naming his son as the gift of Allat, or the gift of Nabu or whatever. Its a religious name in this context just like you will find pakistanis named Abdullah. The Arabs existed in Palmyra but they integrated with other populations in it and there is no way you can ascribe one ethnic origin to any Palmyrene. They were just Palmyrene and had Aramaic and Arab and Amorite blood in them. Note, it is mentioned clearly and neutrally in the origin section of the article that Zenobia had Arab blood in her ancestry
- "Wahab" "al-Lat" is purely Arabic, I know Al-Lat is worshipped in many regions BUT not in its Arabic version (al-Lat) which is the female equivalent of الإله worshipped by Arabs only.
- From your name i presume you speak Arabic. Any idea why many Palmyrene officials(or high class, ruling family etc) names are Arabic, Odaenathus(أذينة), Hairan(حيران), Worod(ورود), Ogeilo(عجيلة), Vaballathus(وهب اللات)?
- It is not purely, unless a specialized linguist would say that. And the Akkadian version have exactly the same pronounciation. Im just making a point that you need to stop nit picking in order to get what you want. For every Arabic name you give, I can give 10 Aramaic and some Canaanites. Anyway, it can be purely Arabic, so what ? his mother's name is Aramean, and if you take a tour in Palmyar in the year 260 you will find within one family people with Arabic and Aramean name which goes in hand with what we know about Palmyra as a mixed city where no modern nationalist can claim that his ethnicity is the only inheritor of Palmyra's legacy. BTW, Hairan is Aramaic and Worod is an indo-iranian name. As for why we see Arabic names, again, because Palmyra had Arabs, because the city was mixed, and because the only NPOV approach is not to ascribe any Palmyrene to any single ethnicity; those people where Palmyrenes, and they didnt care about what some modern nationalists feel.
Lastly, isn't the name Zainab more likely to be Zenobia since it contains all the letters and make perfect sense rather than Bat-Zabbai (which isn't even a name)MWahaiibii (talk) 16:24, 13 February 2018 (UTC)
- It is not up to us to decide what is logical. The name Zainab did not occur in Palmyra when mentioning the queen. Only the name Bat-Zabbai. If she was named Zainab then her own inscriptions would have mentioned that
- Bat-Zabbai is not a name,Daughter of Zabbai
- According to you maybe, but specialists say otherwise.
- Lastly, about those "diaries". We need to ask the following questions:
- 1-Where were they discovered and by whom ? since they belong to Zenobia then they date to 260 AD.. So who is the archaeologist who found them
- 2-Where are they kept?? in a museum?? which ?
- 3-Who read them ? a linguist no doubt, and Simiot was no linguist. So who read them???
- 4-How did Simiot, a novalist, had access to such precious documents not recorded in any academic source???.--Attar-Aram syria (talk) 17:09, 13 February 2018 (UTC)
User:Slapnut1207. Can you please present reliable sources regarding the titles of Zenobia? This isnt up to the judgment of Wikipedia's editors.. its not even up to the opinions of scholars... Only a solid evidence mentioned in a reliable academic source can decide the title and what Geographic limits it had. Please present a reliable source for your edits. The rules of Wikipedia are clear regarding this. Please read this Wikipedia:Verifiability#Reliable sources.--Attar-Aram syria (talk) 01:03, 11 April 2018 (UTC)
User:Attar-Aram syria I did this just like what editors did for the Gallic Roman Empire since the Emperors there had the title of Emperor of the Gallic Empire. The Gallic Empire is just a conventional name and I simply just did that except for Empress instead of Emperor and Palmyrene Empire instead of Gallic Empire. The book The Roman Emperor Aurelian Restorer of the World New Revised Edition states that she declared herself Augusta since if she did not. The Roman Legions of the East would probably be more likely to support Aurelian then Zenobia. If you declare yourself Augusta, you imply that you are the legitimate Roman Empress. It doesn't make sense for her to be called Augusta if she didn't give herself the title for being a claimant to the Imperial Purple. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Slapnut1207 (talk • contribs) 01:58, 11 April 2018 (UTC)
- Those editors are wrong in their edits. I gave you a link to Wikipedia verfication policy. The Gallic empire article is not of high quality. This is a featured article that needs verfication to everything contreversial and what Zenobia meant with her imperial title is certainly contreversial. Your argument regarding the The Roman Emperor Aurelian Restorer of the World New Revised Edition is SYNTH. You cant give her a title she did not claim. It is easier to give her the title queen of Palmyra since thats what she ruled, but harder to know if she meant Rome or the East (like her husband did with his king of kings title) with her Augusta title. As for the talk page, you need to first get a consensus then implement your edits, not the other way around. Hence I will revert you again until you present a reliable source containing evidence that she meant Rome, or Palmyra with her title Augusta. Our opinions dont matter... thats why there is no need to make a long discussion about them. Note, Maeonius is a fictional character, and have zero evidence that he ever lived.. I have no idea how you gave him a title......... but I dont care for its low quality article as it need to be re-weitten anyway.--Attar-Aram syria (talk) 02:13, 11 April 2018 (UTC)
Note: In this section of the Palmyrene empire Palmyrene_Empire#Evaluation_and_legacy, you can read why we cant know what she meant with her titles. Since it is a debated issue between scholars, and since we have no actual evidence from the days of Zenobia, then calling her with any title, that can cast a shadow of authority on Rome, which she did not specify, is not possible.--Attar-Aram syria (talk) 02:32, 11 April 2018 (UTC)
The opinion of the Gallic Empire being not high quality is just opinion. It makes no sense for you or Wikipedia to censor my opinion on Empress of the Palmyrene Empire. She was the Empress of her Palmyrene Empire. So why did she declare herself Empress, was it for a sign of independence? No in my opinion. It was so that she could get the support of more Romans in the East since if she did not declare herself Augusta, the Romans would have though her as a foreign enemy much more. Why can't this article state the opinions of mine and your scholars. Even if he was a fictional character, he still had the title of Emperor (self declared). The naming conventions are just like the Byzantine empire and Eastern Roman Empire name debate. The title of Emperor/Empress of the Palmyrene Empire has logic since she was a Empress. Because the title of just Empress is so vague. We can at least add the she was a Empress of the Palmyrene Empire since she had the title of Augusta and ruled it in name of her son. The Palmyrene Empire had people that spoke Latin. Roman Officials, Roman Migrants and Roman soldiers lived there or were stationed there in the East. Zenobia mostly likely had Roman soldiers in her command. (Either wise her army would be smaller or filled with inexperienced conscripts) The controversy on titles is just a debate about bias on one side and the bias on others. At least state my opinion on that page. Since this article is full of biased opinions that aren't mine. The title of Empress makes it look like she was a Empress of nothing. i did not give him a title. The story says he possibly declared himself Emperor, so I added the titles of Roman Emperor. Because the only state that had the position of Emperor in that area was the Imperium Romanum. it doesn't make sense for her and him to declare herself and her son Augusta and Augustus if she was not claiming the Roman Purple (Position of Empress and Emperor of the Roman Empire) At least give them the titles of Usurper of the Roman Empire since they were proven Usurpers (also neutral on this debate since they were usurpers) at least. Because if they wanted to rebel against the fury of Rome, they would have to take over the entire Empire. Ether wise the mostly Latin speaking Legions would have still destroyed the so called Palmyrene Empire as well. This talk is too full of scholar opinion, so I will just leave it to the bias scholars since scholars usually have a hint of bias in them. Because I want actual scholars to debate this and decide in their opinion whether or not they should be given the title of Emperor/Empress of the Palmyrene Empire. Which they should be since they had the title of Augustus, Augusta and they ruled the Palmyrene Empire. Also The title of Usurper of the Roman Empire would be correct since they had Roman citizenship. I would be okay and happy with the position of Usurper of the Roman Empire.I will not talk on this anymore and I hope that wikipedia doesn't punish for just for adding reasonable titles that have logic since scholars use logic as well besides just the historical sources made in antiquity. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Slapnut1207 (talk • contribs) 03:25, 11 April 2018 (UTC)
this time he added a source that does not support his edits as he wants to call Zenobia either Empress of Rome or Empress of Palmyra and his source did not contain an evidence for both!. Actually I changed the titles from Roman Empress to Empress of the Palmyrene Empire just to be more accurate and friendly to the modern conventional name of the Palmyrene Empire. That's the only reason why. Is the book Roman Emperor Aurelian Restorer of the World NRV not accurate of a source for this period? Chapter six of the book explains some of the reasoning on why she declared herself Augusta and also the war between the two Roman factions.. They had 11 or possibly 10 legions under the command of the Palmyrenes but those legions (Most of them at least) apparently weren't in the civil war. The Palmyrenes possibly ordered them to guard the Empire in possibly remote locations. Vaballathus also had Roman Victory titles and the Palmyrenes also had a custom of aligning their administrative titles with Roman ones as well. Oh well, just read the book if you haven't. I just added this to justify some if not all of my actions. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Slapnut1207 (talk • contribs) 03:50, 11 April 2018 (UTC)
- @Slapnut1207: as far as Wikipedia is concerned, Roman Emperor Aurelian Restorer of the World NRV is not a reliable source. Its author seems to be an amateur and generalist, with no specialist background or qualifications (such as a doctorate in Ancient History) relevant to the subject. His work may be entertainingly written, well-informed, and based on respected sources (I've not checked whether that's the case). It might even be "correct". Fortunately, that's not for us to decide. We rely on scholarly opinion of the work. Unless it has been published by a recognised scholarly publishing house and reviewed by academic peers (neither case applies, as far as I can tell) we shouldn't use it. Sources that fail to meet strict academic criteria are scattered throughout Wikipedia, usually by well-meaning editors not fully informed of Wikipedia's policies. That doesn't mean it's OK to use them in any article, certainly not in a Featured Article. By the way, please don't forget to sign your posts on talk pages. Haploidavey (talk) 10:45, 11 April 2018 (UTC)
- And a quick PS: your rather long, speculative post in this section seems to embrace several different-but-related topics. It's all speculative; you seem to be making inferences and drawing your own conclusions. You seem to have blended source synthesis and original research. Discussion of problems and possible improvements should be based on the accurate representation of what's said by reliable sources (QED). Haploidavey (talk) 11:13, 11 April 2018 (UTC)
@Attar-Aram syria: Apparently, the word "Bat" is also spelled "Bath"?
- "Zenobia (Septimia) or in Aramaic Bath Zabbai, one of the great women of classical antiquity (PLRE 1. 990 f.). The second wife of Septimius Odaenathus of Palmyra, on his death in ad 267, in suspicious circumstances, she secured power for herself in the name of her young son, Septimius Vaballathus. As long as Zenobia kept the east secure, Gallienus and Claudius (II) Gothicus were prepared to accept her regime, including its bestowal upon Vaballathus of his father's Roman titles, and hence of the claim to be more than just king of Palmyra. However, in 270 Zenobia exploited the political instability that followed the death of Claudius to expand beyond Syria by taking over Egypt and much of Asia Minor, and further to enhance Vaballathus' Roman titles, while continuing to recognize Aurelian as emperor. When Aurelian finally moved against her in 272, her forces failed to stop him at Antioch (1) and Emesa, and—now calling her son Augustus and herself Augusta—she was cornered in Palmyra. She was captured while attempting to escape, shortly before the fall of the city. She was spared. Many tales were told of her subsequent life; little is certain, though it is likely that she was paraded in Aurelian's triumph." -- John Frederic Dobson (2012) "Zenobia". in The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.) '. Oxford University Press.
- "Zenobia (Palmyrene Bath Zabbai) (240/1–272 or after 274), Queen of Palmyra (regent 266/7–272). Born in Palmyra (Syria), thought to be daughter of Julius Aurelius Zenobios, a city strategos at about the time of her birth. Of Aramaic or Arabic stock, her family were Roman citizens and Zenobia nurtured a taste for Graeco-Roman culture, summoning from Athens during her reign the rhetorician Longinus to improve her Greek. Gibbon extolled her learning: ‘her manly understanding was strengthened and adorned by study’. Her political career sprang from her marriage to Septimius Odaenathus, an aristocrat who pursued a successful relationship with Rome, becoming its most powerful citizen in the East and the self-styled King of Palmyra. On his death in 266/7 in a dynastic struggle whose circumstances are unknown, Zenobia became regent for their eldest son, Vaballathus, and was the force behind the subsequent emergence of the Empire of Palmyra. When the Romans had reversed her remarkable territorial gains and were at the gates of the city in 272 she fled with her entourage but was captured near the Euphrates and sent to Rome. Tradition divides on her fate: one story is that she died en route to the city (Zosimus, I, 59), another that she was paraded there in Aurelian’s triumph and thereafter lived out her days on an estate in Italy (HA Triginta Tyranni, 30, 27). The rapidity of Zenobia’s rise, her reputed bravery and beauty, and her status as a female ruler who challenged an imperial power ensured an enduring fame. A leader of distinct learning, ability, and ambition, she marked the history of the Empire like few other women." -- Shane Brennan (2018). "Zenobia". in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity . Oxford University Press.
- Hey LouisAragon, sorry for the late reply. Many historians are using the rendering "Bath", but I havent seen linguists who use it. The name consists of two words: Zabbai, and Bat. The latter is written in Palmyrene using two letters (as vowels are not normally written in Semitic languages): B (Palmyrene Unicode 10861, "BETH") and T (Palmyrene Unicode 10876 "TAW"). The latter is pronounced when appearing in a word as the English T. If the end of the "Bat" part of her name was going to be pronounced "Bath", then the second Palmyrene letter should be Ṯāʾ, which is a sound that (as far as I know and Im not expert at all) does not exist in Palmyrene. Since Im no linguist, then all what I wrote is just my own "or", but Im tempted to wait for an argument by a Palmyrene specialist in a reliable source for the usage of the sound "th" instead of "t" before appearing in the article. (You can download and read the Palmyrene unicode from this link.--Attar-Aram syria (talk) 22:43, 4 September 2019 (UTC)