Talk:The Quran and science/Temp

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Creating this page to hold sections of the article still in need of sources. - Valarauka(T/C) 21:07, 10 October 2006 (UTC)

AstronomyEdit

Big BangEdit

Qur'an:

 
According to the Big Bang theory, the universe emerged from an extremely dense and hot state (bottom). Since then, space itself has expanded with the passage of time, carrying the galaxies with it.

Science: Here Quran indicate towards the Big Bang theory. In physical cosmology, the Big Bang is the scientific theory of how the universe emerged from a tremendously dense and hot state about 13.7 billion years ago. The theory is based on the observations indicating the expansion of space. [ copied from Big Bang

Creating of GalaxiesEdit

 
NGC 4414, a typical spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices, is about 56,000 light years in diameter and approximately 60 million light years distant.

Qur'an:

Science: Scientists say that before the galaxies in the Universe were formed, celestial matter was initially in the form of huge gaseous matter or clouds.

Commentary by Maurice Bucaille:[1]

Motion of Sun and MoonEdit

Quran:

File:SOHO solar flare sun large 20031026 0119 eit 304.png
It is He Who created the Night and the Day, and the sun and the moon: all (the celestial bodies) swim along, each in its rounded course.[Quran 21:33]

Science: According to science, planets (including Earth) rotate around the sun in elliptical orbits. Furthermore, the Sun also orbits the center of the Milky Way galaxy at a distance of about 25,000 to 28,000 light-years from the galactic center, completing one revolution in about 225–250 million years.[2] Still, science currently does not support creationism.

Shape of EarthEdit

 
Oblate spheroid (shape of earth)

Quran:

Explanation: The Arabic word used for earth is "dahhaahaa" is derived from ``Dahhyah which means egg. However it also means "in an expand or spread".[3][4]

Science: The Earth's shape is very close to an oblate spheroid, although the precise shape (the geoid) varies from this by up to 100 meters (330 ft).[ text copied from Earth]

Formation of day and nightEdit

Quran:

Water cycleEdit

 
The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle.

Quran:

These verses can be explained as follows:[3]

Also there are many other verses indicating towards water-cycle, e.g. [Quran 39:21], [Quran 30:24], [Quran 15:52], [Quran 23:18], [Quran 7:17], [Quran 25:14], and [Quran 25:41].

BiologyEdit

 
The Alder is monoecious. Shown here: maturing male flower catkins on right, last year's female catkins on left
 
.. And Allah has created every animal from water... [[Quran 24:45]

]

Sex of plantsEdit

Quran:

Science: Plants display a wide range of sexual characteristics. While many species do indeed "come in pairs", having both male and female members, there are many species whose members are either bisexual or asexual.

Life with WaterEdit

Quran:

Science: From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allows replication. All known forms of life depend on water. [ copied from Water_effect_on_life] On the origin of life in water, Renaissance scientists including Harvey and Redi, and in the 1850's, Louis Pasteur's research on bacteriology proposed that life emerged from a long, increasingly complex chain of chemical reactions. These reactions are believed to have begun in the depths of the oceans because the atmosphere was not sufficiently developed to protect living organisms from ultraviolet radiation. [3]

GeologyEdit

Quran:

According to modern earth science and orology, it is proven that mountains have deep roots expanded 10 to 15 times their surface size more within the earth. The word "peg" fits perfectly, since much of a peg is hidden under the surface of the ground. The expansion within the earth keeps it together while it revolves with high speeds around itself, thusly preventing it from loosing balance and shaking while it revolves. Likewise, the modern theory of plate tectonics discovered in the late 1960's proves that mountains work as stabilizers for the earth. Instead of increasing the pressure that results in earthquakes, molten rock may sometimes prevent quakes by filling spaces in the earth’s stretching crusts that otherwise would form faults.[5] If mountains and hills were not present, the earth's rapid rotational speed along its axis would be very unstable.

MedicineEdit

Honey as medicineEdit

Quran:

OceanologyEdit

Barrier between Sweet and Salt WatersEdit

Darkness in the depth of OceanEdit

PhysiologyEdit

ZoologyEdit

The BeeEdit

Quran:

Communication between AntsEdit

File:DirkvdM ants on a leaf.jpg
An Ant near the Panamá Canal

Quran:

Caryl Parker Haskins in "The Ant and Her World" writes:[4]

On pollution and the wasting of natural resourcesEdit

Quran:

The importance of understanding the ecological consequences of our actions as individuals or as a society was not fully appreciated until this century. We now understand that we cannot alter the face of the earth indiscriminately without paying some penalty, which may be disastrous. We also understand that caution ought to be applied globally, not just locally but truly "on land and sea". Ecological awareness does not imply asceticism however. According to the Qur'an, we are not forbidden to take pleasure in this life, however we are forbidden from wasting resources needlessly.[3]

Fossils of ancient humansEdit

There are three basic verses in Qur'an which are related to human creation:[5]

According to the first two verses, Adam and Eve were directly created by God from clay. They did not descend from any other species as proposed by Darwin. The rest of mankind is the progeny of Adam and Eve. The third verse implies that there were three stages in their creation, and can be interpreted in two ways:[5]

  • First possibility:
    • Adam and Eve were created from clay
    • They subsequently developed the ability to reproduce at a later age
    • Finally, after some more time elapsed, they entered the third phase in which they were perfected both physically and spiritually, and received the divine spirit from God.
  • Second possibility: All these three phases did not pass on the first humans created, rather each of the phases lasted for many years during which many life forms were created from clay having the characteristic of their respective periods together with that of the previous one.
    • Human forms were initially directly created from clay because they did not have the ability to reproduce. This first stage may have lasted for millions of years, and in it, the humans forms' physical forms after passing through various stages culminated in the homo sapiens of today. Millions of species may have been created from clay like this. Among them, many went extinct and the others lived to enter the second phase, the first of which were Adam and Eve.
    • The human forms now had the ability to reproduce and direct creation was no longer required. Adam and Eve were the first directly created pair from clay which had this ability to reproduce. In the second phase, except Adam and Eve all other pairs who had the ability to reproduce pairs were not perfected and later died away.
    • It was this very pair which entered the third phase and was perfected physically so that it could receive the divine spirit from the God and be blessed with the faculties of sense and reason as is specified by the last part of the verse.

Under the second interpretation, the fossils which we find today belong to the millions of people created from clay in the first and second phases.

Evolution of UniverseEdit

Kamel Bin Salim has suggested an alternative model for the evolution of the Universe based on his interpretation of the Qur'an. He finds many concepts similar in both theories, e.g. Big bang,[6] Big crunch,[7] expansion of the Universe,[8] cyclic nature of the Universe,[9] orbital movement of heavenly bodies,[10] possibility of more Universes,[11] and ratio of earth's age to Universe' age.[12] However, some details of this model contradict known scientific knowledge, such as stabilization of Universe after 4.6 billion years and beginning of Big crunch.

Proposed Timeline of the Universe
Periods in Qur'an 0 2 4 6 8
Actual Years (x109) 0 4.6 9.2 13.8 18.4
Cosmological event Big Bang Stabilization of Universe Earth formation Present state Beginning of Big Crunch
Relevant Quranic verse(s) [Quran 51:47] [Quran 41:12] [Quran 41:9] [Quran 32:4] [Quran 41:10] [Quran 39:67]

[12](p.55)

The basis of the numbers of actual years shown above is that the age of the universe as we know it today is divided by the age of the universe as shown in the Qur'an. The age of the universe using scientific methods has evolved to be within a range of values but the most commonly used value by astronomers is (13.7 ± 0.2) × 109 years derived from the NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) project. The Qur'an follows on from prior texts, specifically the Book of Genesis in the Torah in that the age of the universe is stated in days. This is stated as 6 days though this is deemed allegorical by many and referred to as periods. The Quranic studies use a close example of one of the most common scientifically used age of the universe values as the basis for the duration of these periods by dividing the age of the universe from scientific studies by the number of days used for the age of the universe as stated in the Qur'an i.e. 13.8 × 109 years / 6. This yeilds a period of 2.3 × 109 years. Similar allegorical interpretation of Genesis are possible and Christians throughout the centuries have been divided over whether to interpret the days of creation in Genesis as literal days, or to understand them allegorically.

Reflection of light by heavenly bodiesEdit

Qur'an differentiates between light coming from moon (a reflection) and light coming from the sun (because of burning).[12](p.40) As in Qur'an:

Similarly, in a Qur'anic parable, reflection from glass of luminary because of lamp is compared to reflection of light from planets.[12]

  1. ^ Maurice Bucaille.The Qur'an and Modern Science
  2. ^ Kerr, F. J. (1986). "Review of galactic constants" (PDF). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 221: 1023–1038. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  3. ^ a b c USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Text
  4. ^ Caryl Parker Haskins "The Ant and Her World"
  5. ^ a b Saleem, Shehzad (2000). "The Qur'anic View on Creation". Renaissance. 10 (5). ISSN 1606-9382. Retrieved 2006-10-11. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b c d Salem, Kamel Ben (2005). "Evolution of the Universe: A new vision" (pdf). Pacific journal of science and technology [electronic resource] : an interdisciplinary journal of research, theories, and observations. 6 (1): 37–55. ISSN 1551-7624. Retrieved 2006-10-15. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
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