Supreme Soviet

The Supreme Soviet (Russian: Верховный Совет, Verkhovny Sovet, English: literally "Supreme Council") was the common name for the legislative bodies (parliaments) of the Soviet socialist republics (SSR) in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). These soviets were modeled after the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, established in 1938, and were nearly identical.[1] State-approved delegates to the Supreme Soviets were periodically elected unopposed in show elections.[2] The first free or semi-free elections took place during perestroika in late 1980s, in which Supreme Soviets themselves were no longer directly elected. Instead, Supreme Soviets were appointed by directly-elected Congresses of People's Deputies based somewhat on the Congresses of Soviets that preceded the Supreme Soviets. The soviets until then were largely rubber-stamp institutions, approving decisions handed to them by the Communist Party of the USSR or of each SSR.[2] The soviets met infrequently (often only twice a year for only several days) and elected the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, a permanent body, to act on their behalf while the soviet was not in session.[3] Under the 1936 and 1977 Soviet Constitutions the Presidium of a Supreme Soviet served as the collective head of state of its republic.[4] The Supreme Soviets also elected Councils of Ministers (Councils of People's Commissars before 1946), an executive body. After the dissolution of the USSR in late December 1991, most of these soviets remained the legislatures of independent countries until Armenia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan abandoned the system in 1995.

Supreme Soviets of the Soviet RepublicsEdit

  Soviet Republics dissolved before the dissolution of the Soviet Union

Soviet Republic Supreme Soviet Established Disbanded Succeeded by
    Armenia Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR

Հայկական ՍՍՀ Գերագույն Խորհուրդ

1938 1995   National Assembly
    Azerbaijan Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR

Азәрбаjҹан ССР Али Совети

1938 1995   National Assembly
    Byelorussia Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian SSR

Вярхоўны Савет Беларускай ССР

1938 1991    Supreme Soviet
    Estonia Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR

Eesti NSV Ülemnõukogu

1940 1992   Riigikogu
    Georgia Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR

საქართველოს სსრ უმაღლესი საბჭო

1938 1992    Parliament
    Karelo-Finnish SSR Supreme Soviet of the Karelo-Finnish SSR

Верховный Совет Карело-Финской ССР

1940 1956   Legislative Assembly
    Kazakhstan Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR

Қазақ КСР-нiң Жоғарғы Кеңесi

1937 1995   Parliament
    Kirghizia Supreme Soviet of the Kirghiz SSR

Кыргыз ССР Жогорку Совети

1938 1993   Supreme Council
    Latvia Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR

Latvijas PSR Augstākā Padome

1940 1990   Saeima
    Lithuania Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR

Lietuvos TSR Aukščiausioji Taryba

1940 1990   Seimas
    Moldavia Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR

Совиетул Супрем ал РСС Молдовеняскэ

1941 1991   Parliament
    Russian SFSR Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR

Верховный Совет РСФСР

1938 1993    Federal Assembly
    Tajikistan Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR

Совети Олӣ РСС Тоҷикистон

1937 1994   Supreme Assembly
    Turkmenistan Supreme Soviet of the Turkmen SSR

Түркменистан ССР Ёкары Советы

1938 1992   Assembly
    Ukraine Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR

Верховна Рада Української РСР

1937 1991   Verkhovna Rada
    Uzbekistan Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek SSR

Ўзбекистон ССР Олий Совети

1938 1991   Supreme Assembly

Supreme Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet RepublicsEdit

Soviet Republic Supreme Soviet Established Disbanded
  Bashkir ASSR Supreme Soviet of the Bashkir ASSR

БАССР Юғары Советы

1938 1993
  Tatar ASSR Supreme Soviet of the Tatar ASSR

ТАССР Югары Советы

1938 1990
  Tuvan ASSR Supreme Soviet of the Tuvan ASSR

Тыва АССР-ниң Дээди Соведи

1961 1993


  1. ^ Where nation-states come from: institutional change in the age of nationalism by Philip G. Roeder, p. 70
  2. ^ a b Perestroika-era politics: the new Soviet legislature and Gorbachev's political reforms by Robert T. Huber and Donald R. Kelley, p. 52
  3. ^ Russian law: the end of the Soviet system and the role of law by Ferdinand Joseph Maria Feldbrugge, p. 192
  4. ^ Armstrong, John Alexander (January 1, 1978). Ideology, Politics, and Government in the Soviet Union: An Introduction– Google Knihy. ISBN 9780819154057. Retrieved 2016-11-26.