The Sukhoi Su-24 (NATO reporting name: Fencer) is a supersonic, all-weather attack aircraft developed in the Soviet Union. The aircraft has a variable-sweep wing, twin-engines and a side-by-side seating arrangement for its crew of two. It was the first of the USSR's aircraft to carry an integrated digital navigation/attack system. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force, Syrian Air Force, Ukrainian Air Force, Azerbaijan Air Force and various air forces to which it was exported.
|Su-24M of the Russian Air Force, May 2009|
|Role||All-weather attack aircraft/interdictor|
|National origin||Soviet Union / Russia|
|First flight||T-6: 2 July 1967 |
T-6-2I: 17 January 1970
|Primary users||Russian Air Force|
Ukrainian Air Force
Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force
Algerian Air Force
|Number built||Approximately 1,400|
One of the conditions for accepting the Sukhoi Su-7B into service in 1961 was the requirement for Sukhoi to develop an all-weather variant capable of precision air strikes. Preliminary investigations with S-28 and S-32 aircraft revealed that the basic Su-7 design was too small to contain all the avionics required for the mission. OKB-794 (later known as Leninets) was tasked with developing an advanced nav/attack system, codenamed Puma, which would be at the core of the new aircraft. That same year, the United States proposal for their new all-weather strike fighter would be the TFX. The resulting F-111 would introduce a variable-geometry wing for greatly increased payload, range, and low-level penetration capabilities.
In 1962–1963, Sukhoi initially set out to build an aircraft without the complexity of moving wings like the F-111. It designed and built a mockup of S-6, a delta wing aircraft powered by two Tumansky R-21 turbojet engines and with a crew of two in a tandem arrangement. The mockup was inspected but no further work was ordered due to lack of progress on the Puma hardware.
In 1964, Sukhoi started work on S-58M. The aircraft was supposed to represent a modification of the Sukhoi Su-15 interceptor (factory designation S-58). In the meantime, revised Soviet Air Force requirements called for a low-altitude strike aircraft with STOL capability. A key feature was the ability to cruise at supersonic speeds at low altitude for extended periods of time in order to traverse enemy air defenses. To achieve this, the design included two Tumansky R-27 afterburning turbojets for cruise and four Rybinsk RD-36-35 turbojets for STOL performance. Side-by-side seating for the crew was implemented since the large Orion radar antennas required a large frontal cross-section. To test the six-engine scheme, the first Su-15 prototype was converted into S-58VD flying laboratory which operated in 1966–1969.
The aircraft was officially sanctioned on 24 August 1965 under the internal codename T-6. The first prototype, T-6-1, was completed in May 1967 and flew on 2 July with Vladimir Ilyushin at the controls. The initial flights were performed without the four lift jets, which were installed in October 1967. At the same time, R-27s were replaced with Lyulka AL-21Fs. STOL tests confirmed the data from S-58VD that short-field performance was achieved at the cost of significant loss of flight distance as the lift engines occupied space normally reserved for fuel, loss of under-fuselage hardpoints, and instability during transition from STOL to conventional flight. So the six-engine approach was abandoned.
By 1967, the F-111 had entered service and demonstrated the practical advantages and solutions to the technical problems of a swing-wing design. On 7 August 1968, the OKB was officially tasked with investigating a variable geometry wing for the T-6. The resulting T-6-2I first flew on 17 January 1970 with Ilyushin at the controls. The subsequent government trials lasted until 1974, dictated by the complexity of the on-board systems. The day or night and all-weather capability was achieved – for the first time in Soviet tactical attack aircraft – thanks to the Puma nav/attack system consisting of two Orion-A superimposed radar scanners for nav/attack, a dedicated Relyef terrain clearance radar to provide automatic control of flights at low and extremely low altitudes, and an Orbita-10-58 onboard computer. The crew was equipped with Zvezda K-36D ejection seats, allowing them to bail out at any altitude and flight speed, including during takeoff and landing. The resulting design with a range of 3,000 kilometers (1,900 mi) and payload of 8,000 kilograms (18,000 lb) was slightly smaller and shorter ranged than the F-111.
The first production aircraft flew on 31 December 1971 with V.T. Vylomov at the controls, and on 4 February 1975, T-6 was formally accepted into service as the Su-24. About 1,400 Su-24s were produced.
Surviving Su-24M models have gone through a life-extension and updating program, with GLONASS, upgraded cockpit with multi-function displays (MFDs), HUD, digital moving-map generator, Shchel helmet-mounted sights, and provision for the latest guided weapons, including R-73 (AA-11 'Archer') air-to-air missiles. The upgraded aircraft are designated Su-24M2.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Su-24 has a shoulder-mounted variable geometry wing outboard of a relatively small fixed wing glove, swept at 69°. The wing has four sweep settings: 16° for take-off and landing, 35° and 45° for cruise at different altitudes, and 69° for minimum aspect ratio and wing area in low-level dashes. The variable geometry wing provides excellent STOL performance, allowing a landing speed of 230 kilometers per hour (140 mph), even lower than the Sukhoi Su-17 despite substantially greater take-off weight. Its high wing loading provides a stable low-level ride and minimal gust response.
The Su-24 has two Saturn/Lyulka AL-21F-3A after-burning turbojet engines with 109.8 kN (24,700 lbf) thrust each, fed with air from two rectangular side-mounted intakes with splitter plates/boundary-layer diverters.
In early Su-24 ("Fencer A" according to NATO) aircraft these intakes had variable ramps, allowing a maximum speed of 2,320 kilometers per hour (1,440 mph), Mach 2.18, at altitude and a ceiling of 17,500 meters (57,400 ft). Because the Su-24 is used almost exclusively for low-level missions, the actuators for the variable intakes were deleted to reduce weight and maintenance. This has no effect on low-level performance, but absolute maximum speed and altitude are cut to Mach 1.35 and 11,000 meters (36,000 ft). The earliest Su-24 had a box-like rear fuselage, which was soon changed in production to a rear exhaust shroud more closely shaped around the engines in order to reduce drag. The revised aircraft also gained three side-by-side antenna fairings in the nose, a repositioned braking chute, and a new ram-air inlet at the base of the tail fin. The revised aircraft were dubbed "Fencer-B" by NATO, but did not merit a new Soviet designation.
The Su-24's fixed armament is a single fast-firing GSh-6-23 cannon with 500 rounds of ammunition, mounted in the fuselage underside. The gun is covered with an eyelid shutter when not in use. The armament includes various nuclear weapons. Two or four R-60 (NATO AA-8 'Aphid') infrared missiles are usually carried for self-defence by the Su-24M/24MK.
Initial Su-24s had basic electronic countermeasures (ECM) equipment, with many Su-24s limited to the old Sirena radar-warning receiver with no integral jamming system. Later-production Su-24s had more comprehensive radar warning, missile-launch warning, and active ECM equipment, with triangular antennas on the sides of the intakes and the tip of the vertical fin. This earned the NATO designation "Fencer-C", although again it did not have a separate Soviet designation. Some "Fencer-C" and later Su-24M (NATO "Fencer-D") have large wing fence/pylons on the wing glove portion with integral chaff/flare dispensers; others have such launchers scabbed onto either side of the tail fin.
Substantial numbers of ex-Soviet Su-24s remain in service with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine. In 2008, roughly 415 were in service with Russian forces, split 321 with the Russian Air Force and 94 with the Russian Navy.
Lebanese Civil WarEdit
Operation Desert StormEdit
During Operation Desert Storm, the Iraqi Air Force evacuated 24 of its 30 Su-24MKs to Iran. Another five were destroyed on the ground, while the sole survivor remained in service after the war.
Tajik and Afghan civil warsEdit
Fencers were used by the Uzbek Air Force (UzAF) against United Tajik Opposition operating from Afghanistan (which also had a civil war of its own going on), as part of a wider air campaign in support of the embattled government of Tajikistan during the 1992–97 civil war. An Su-24M was shot down on 3 May 1993 with an FIM-92 Stinger MANPADS fired by fundamentalists. Both Russian crew members were rescued.
In August 1999 Tajikistan protested over an alleged strike involving four UzAF Su-24s against Islamist militants in areas close to two mountain villages in the Jirgatol District that, despite not producing human casualties, killed some 100 head of livestock and set ablaze several crop fields. Tashkent denied the accusations.
In the final stages of the 1996-2001 phase of the Afghan civil war, Uzbekistan launched airstrikes against Taliban positions in support of the Northern Alliance. During a mission to attack a Taliban armoured infantry unit near Heiratan, an UzAF Su-24 was shot down on 6 June 2001, killing both crew members.
First Chechen WarEdit
On 3 February 1995, during operations over Chechenya, a Russian Su-24M hit the ground in bad weather killing both crew members.
Second Chechen WarEdit
Su-24s were used in combat during the Second Chechen War performing bombing and reconnaissance missions. Up to four were lost, one due to hostile fire: on 4 October 1999, a Su-24 was shot down by a SAM while searching for the crash site of a downed Su-25. The pilot was killed while the navigator was taken prisoner.
2008 Russo-Georgian WarEdit
In August 2008, a low intensity conflict in the breakaway Georgian regions of Samachablo and Abkhazia, escalated to open war between Russia and Georgia. Russian Su-24s were heavily involved in bombing strikes and reconnaissance flights over Georgia.
Russia admitted that three of its Su-25 strike aircraft and one Tu-22M3 long-range bomber were lost, Moscow Defence Brief provided a higher estimate, saying that Russian Air Force total losses during the war were one Tu-22M3 long-range bomber, one Su-24M Fencer fighter-bomber, one Su-24MR Fencer E reconnaissance plane and four Su-25 attack planes. Anton Lavrov listed one Su-25SM, two Su-25BM, two Su-24M and one Tu-22M3 lost.
Libyan Air ForceEdit
Libya received five Su-24MK and one Su-24MR from the Soviet Union in 1989. This was one of the last deliveries by the USSR to Libya before the end of the Cold War. One Su-24MK and one Su-24MR may have been transferred to the Syrian Arab Air Force.
At the beginning of 2011, the Libyan Air Force was ordered to attack rebel positions and opposition rallies. Available assets for the Libyan Air Force were limited to a composite force of some MiG-23 (due to be retired, according to previous plans) and Su-22 and few units of flyable MiG-21, Su-24 and Mirage F1ED fighter-bombers, supported by Soko G-2 Galeb and Aero L-39 Albatros armed trainers. The largest part of the former fleet was in disrepair or stored in not flyable condition. On 5 March 2011, at the beginning of the 2011 Libyan civil war, rebels shot down a Libyan Air Force Su-24MK during fighting around Ra's Lanuf with a ZU-23-2 antiaircraft gun. Both crew members died. A BBC reporter was on the scene soon after the event and filmed an aircraft part at the crash site showing the emblem of the 1124th squadron, flying the Su-24MK.
Syrian Civil WarEdit
Starting in November 2012, 18 months after the beginning of the Syrian Civil War and four months after the beginning of air raids by fixed-wing SAF aircraft, Su-24 bombers were filmed attacking rebel positions. The SAF suffered its first Su-24 loss, an upgraded MK2 version, to an Igla surface-to-air missile on 28 November 2012 near the town of Darat Izza in the Aleppo Governorate. One of the crew members, Col. Ziad Daud Ali, was injured and filmed being taken to a rebel field hospital.
Syrian Su-24s have reportedly also been involved in near-encounters with NATO warplanes. The first of such incidents occurred in early September 2013, when Syrian Su-24s of the 819th Squadron (launched from Tiyas Military Airbase) flew low over the Mediterranean and approached the 14-mile air exclusion zone surrounding the British airbase in Akrotiri, Cyprus. The jets turned back before reaching the area due to two RAF Eurofighter Typhoons being scrambled to intercept them. Turkey also sent two F-16s. The Fencers were possibly testing the air defenses of the base (and their reaction time) in preparation for a possible military strike by the U.S, the United Kingdom and France in the aftermath of the chemical weapons attack in Ghouta, Damascus allegedly committed by the Syrian government.
On 23 September 2014, a Syrian Su-24 was shot down by an Israeli Air Defense Command MIM-104D Patriot missile near Quneitra, after it had flown 800 meters (2,600 ft) into Israeli controlled airspace over the occupied Golan Heights. The missile hit the aircraft when it already re-entered into the Syrian air space. Both crew members ejected safely and landed in Syrian territory.
On 18 March 2018, a SAAF Su-24 was shot down by rebels in East Qalamoun, East of Damascus province; it fell into territory controlled by Syrian government forces.
2015 Russian military operation in SyriaEdit
The long-range striking power of the Russian aerospace forces in the region comes from the twelve Su-24M2 bombers that Russia sent to its base in Latakia, Syria. On 24 November 2015, a Russian Su-24M was shot down by a flight of two Turkish F-16s near the Turkey–Syrian border. The two crew ejected before the plane crashed in Syrian territory. Russia claimed that the jet had not left Syrian airspace while Turkey claimed that the jet entered their airspace and was warned 10–12 times before being shot down.
A deputy commander in a Syrian Turkmen brigade claimed that his personnel shot and killed the crew while they were descending in their parachutes, while some Turkish officials subsequently stated that the crew was still alive. The weapon systems officer was rescued by Russian forces but the pilot was killed by rebels, along with a Russian marine involved in a helicopter rescue attempt. Russian president Vladimir Putin warned Turkey of serious consequences. In an effort to increase safety during aerial operations in the region, Russian fighter jets would escort bomber missions, S-400 SAM systems were deployed in Syria and a Russian cruiser was stationed off the coast of Syria to protect Russian aircraft. Following the incident, Russia announced that Su-24s in Syria had been armed with air-to-air missiles on operational sorties.
2014 Ukrainian conflictEdit
On 2 July 2014, one Ukrainian Air Force Su-24 was damaged by a MANPADS fired by pro-Russian forces. One of the engines was damaged, but the crew managed to return to base and land. During landing a new fire started but it was extinguished by the ground crew.
Initially identified as a Su-25, on 20 August 2014 a Ukrainian Su-24M was shot down by pro-Russian forces in the Lugansk region and confirmed by Ukrainian authorities who reported that the crew members ejected safely and were recovered. On 21 August 2014, the downed plane was identified as a Su-24M.
Russian encounters with American forcesEdit
In April 2016, several Russian Su-24s flew within 30 metres of another American ship, the destroyer Donald Cook in the Baltic Sea. The incidents occurred over two days, with the planes making passes by the Donald Cook while it was in international waters. In November 2018, two armed Russian Su-24s flew low over the Belgian frigate Godetia. At the time of the incident, the Godetia was in use as the command ship of NATO’s northern mine sweeping fleet.
- An early project in the gestation of the Su-24, like a meld of the Su-7 and Su-15.
T6-2I / T6-3I / T6-4I
- Prototypes for the variable geometry Su-24 production aircraft.
- The first production version, the armaments include Kh-23 and Kh-28 type air-to-ground guided missiles, together with R-55 type air-to-air guided missiles. Manufactured 1971–1983.
- Work on upgrading the Su-24 was started in 1971, and included the addition of inflight refueling and expansion of attack capabilities with even more payload options. T-6M-8 prototype first flew on 29 June 1977, and the first production Su-24M flew on 20 June 1979. The aircraft was accepted into service in 1983. Su-24M has a 0.76 m (30 in) longer fuselage section forward of the cockpit, adding a retractable refueling probe, and a reshaped, shorter radome for the attack radar. It can be identified by the single nose probe in place of the three-part probe of earlier aircraft. A new PNS-24M inertial navigation system and digital computer were also added. A Kaira-24 laser designator/TV-optical quantum system (similar to the American Pave Tack) was fitted in a bulge in the port side of the lower fuselage, as well as Tekon track and search system (in pod), for compatibility with guided weapons, including 500 and 1,500kg laser-guided bombs and TV-guided bombs, and laser/TV-guided missiles Kh-25 and Kh-29L/T, anti-radar missiles Kh-58 and Kh-14 (AS-12 'Kegler') and Kh-59 (AS-13 'Kingbolt')/Kh-59M TV-target seeker guided missiles. The new systems led to a reduction in internal fuel amounting to 85 l (22.4 US gal). Su-24M was manufactured in 1981–1993.
- Next modernization of Su-24M introduced in 2000 with the "Sukhoi" program and in 1999 with the "Gefest" program. The modernized planes are equipped with new equipment and systems. As a result, they get new capabilities and improved combat efficiency, including new navigation system (SVP-24), new weapons control system, new HUD (ILS-31, like in Su-27SM or KAI-24) and expanding list of usable munitions (Kh-31A/P, Kh-59MK, KAB-500S). The last batch of the Sukhoi was delivered to the Russian VVS in 2009. Modernization continues with the program "Gefest". All frontline bombers Su-24 in the Central Military District received new sighting and navigation systems SVP-24 in 2013.
- Export version of the Su-24M with downgraded avionics and weapons capabilities. First flight 30 May 1987 as T-6MK, 17 May 1988 as Su-24MK. Manufactured 1988–1992, sold to Algeria, Iraq, Libya, and Syria. Many Iraqi examples were evacuated to Iran.
- Su-24MR ('Fencer-E')
- Dedicated tactical reconnaissance variant. First flight 25 July 1980 as T-6MR-26, 13 April 1983 as Su-24MR. Entered service in 1983. Su-24MR retains much of the Su-24M's navigation suite, including the terrain-following radar, but deletes the Orion-A attack radar, the laser/TV system, and the cannon in favor of two panoramic camera installations, 'Aist-M' ('Stork') TV camera, RDS-BO 'Shtik' ('Bayonet') side-looking airborne radar (SLAR), and 'Zima' ('Winter') infrared reconnaissance system. Other sensors are carried in pod form. Manufactured 1983–1993. It is also being modernized.
- Dedicated electronic signals intelligence (ELINT) variant, intended to replace the Yak-28PP 'Brewer-E'. First flight 14 March 1980 as T-6MP-25, 7 April 1983 as Su-24MP. The Su-24MP has additional antennas for intelligence-gathering sensors and radar jamming, omitting the laser/TV fairing, but retaining the cannon and provision for up to four R-60 (AA-8) missiles for self-defense. Only 10 were built.
- Algerian Air Force – 33 Su-24M/MKs, some upgraded to the M2 standard. 4 Su-24MRs.
- Azerbaijani Air and Air Defence Force - 2 in service.
- Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force – 30 Su-24MKs were in service as of January 2013. 24 Iraqi examples were evacuated to Iran during the 1991 Gulf War and were put in service with the IRIAF. Iran possibly purchased other Su-24s from Russia or other former Soviet States. Iran tested domestically produced, anti-radar smart missiles carried by Su-24 aircraft in September 2011, the IRIAF's Deputy Commander, General Mohammad Alavi said, according to IRINN TV.
- Libyan Air Force - Six Su-24MKs were received in 1989. All were withdrawn after the Libyan Civil War, but forces loyal to Khalifa Haftar claim to have refurbished a number of the Su-24s.
- Russian Air Force – 80 Su-24M2s and 79 Su-24MRs were in service in 2017.
- Russian Naval Aviation – 18 were in service in 2012.
- Syrian Arab Air Force – 22 received. 20 Su-24MKs from the Soviet Union, 1 Su-24MK and 1 Su-24MR from Libya. 20 were in service in January 2013. All the Su-24MKs have been upgraded to Su-24M2 standard, between 2009 and 2013. The contract for that was signed in 2009 and the upgrade started in 2010.
Notable accidents and incidentsEdit
- On 19 December 2008, a Russian Air Force Su-24M crashed near the southwest Russian city of Voronezh. The crew members ejected. Preliminary information indicates the crash was caused by a malfunction in the aircraft's flight control system.
- On 10 April 2011 an Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force Su-24MK crashed close to Khavaran village near the city of Sarvestan, about 80 km east of Shiraz in the southern province of Fars.
- On 13 February 2012, a Russian Air Force Su-24 crashed in Kurgan region. Both crew members ejected safely. Engine failure was stated as the probable cause of the crash.
- On 30 October 2012, a Russian Air Force Su-24M crashed in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia. During the flight the nose cone fractured. After attempting an emergency landing, the crew of two flew to open territory and safely ejected. A regional government website stated that emergency was the result of aircraft control system failure. Flights of Su-24 were suspended at the Shagol base.
- On 21 March 2014, a Ukrainian Air Force Su-24M belonging to the 7th Brigade crashed during approach for landing near Starokonstantinov in the Khmelnitsky region, Ukraine. Both crew members ejected safely.
- On 13 October 2014, an Algerian Air Force Su-24 crashed during a training flight killing both crew members
- On 6 July 2015, a Russian Air Force Su-24 crashed outside of Khabarovsk in Russia's Far East killing one out of two crew members.
- On 24 November 2015, a Russian Air Force Su-24 was shot down by a Turkish F-16 near the Turkey-Syria border. Both crew ejected, but the pilot was killed by Turkmen rebels as he parachuted to the ground, while the navigator was rescued.
- On 10 October 2017, a Russian Air Force Su-24 crashed during takeoff at Khmeimim Air Base, Latakia province, Syria. Both crew members died in the crash.
- Crew: 2 (pilot and weapons systems operator)
- Length: 22.53 m (73 ft 11 in)
- Wingspan: 17.64 m (57 ft 10 in) wings spread
- 10.37 m (34 ft) wings swept
- Height: 6.19 m (20 ft 4 in)
- Wing area: 55.2 m2 (594 sq ft)
- Airfoil: TsAGI SR14S-5.376 ; TsAGI SR16M-10
- Empty weight: 22,300 kg (49,163 lb)
- Gross weight: 38,040 kg (83,864 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 43,755 kg (96,463 lb)
- Fuel capacity: 11,100 kg (24,471 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Lyulka AL-21F-3A turbojet engines, 75 kN (17,000 lbf) thrust each dry, 109.8 kN (24,700 lbf) with afterburner
- Maximum speed: 1,654 km/h (1,028 mph, 893 kn) / M1.6 at high altitude
- 1,315 km/h (817 mph; 710 kn) / M1.06 at sea level
- Combat range: 615 km (382 mi, 332 nmi) lo-lo-lo attack mission with 3,000 kg (6,614 lb) of ordnance and external tanks
- Ferry range: 2,775 km (1,724 mi, 1,498 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 11,000 m (36,000 ft)
- g limits: +6
- Rate of climb: 150 m/s (30,000 ft/min)
- Wing loading: 651 kg/m2 (133 lb/sq ft)
- Thrust/weight: 0.6
- Guns: 1 × internal 23 mm Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-23M rotary cannon with 500 rounds
- Hardpoints: 9 hardpoints with a capacity of up to 8,000 kg (17,635 lb),with provisions to carry combinations of:
- Anti-ship missiles:
- Anti-radiation missiles:
- KAB-500KR TV-guided bomb
- KAB-500L laser-guided bomb
- KAB-500OD guided bomb
- KAB-500S-E satellite-guided bomb
- KAB-1500KR TV-guided bomb
- KAB-1500L laser-guided bomb
- ODAB-500PM bomb
- RBK-250 cluster bomb
- RBK-500 cluster bomb
- 2 × BETAB-500 bomb
- SVP-24 targeting system
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era
- Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-27
- General Dynamics F-111
- Panavia Tornado IDS
- Xian JH-7
- F-14 Tomcat
- F-15E Strike Eagle
- "Airplanes - Military Aircraft - Su-24 - Historical background". Sukhoi Company (JSC). Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Sukhoi Su-24 history". sukhoi.org. 15 April 2007. Archived from the original on 25 December 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- "Sukhoi Company (JSC) - Airplanes - Military Aircraft - Su-24МК - Historical background". Archived from the original on 2014-12-19.
- "Sukhoi Su-24 (Fencer) - Long Range Strike / Attack Aircraft - Page 2 of 2". Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Wings of Russia documentary, episode "Attack Aircraft - The Jet Strike"; Wings TV, 2008.
- "Su-24M Fencer Front-Line Bomber, Russia". airforce-technology.com. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.[unreliable source?]
- "Airplanes - Military Aircraft - Su-24". Sukhoi Company (JSC). Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Directory: World Air Forces". Flight International. 11–17 November 2008. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
- "SU-34 Fullback". Defense Update. 27 October 2006. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- "The Sukhoi Su-24 "Fencer"". Airvectors.net. Archived from the original on 2019-05-05. Retrieved 2019-02-02.
- "October 13, 1990 at 7:00 am". liberty05.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- John Pike. "Uzbekistan- Air Force". Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Denber, Rachel (1993). Human Rights in Tajikistan. ISBN 9781564321190. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "World: Asia-Pacific - Explosions anger Tajikistan". BBC News. 17 August 1999. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Cooper, Tom; Troung; Koelich, Marc (10 February 2008). "Afghanistan, 1979–2001; Part 2". ACIG. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- Lewis, Paul (2 October 2001). "Russia opens way for US attack". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- "Chechenya - Air force in local wars - www.skywar.ru". skywar.ru. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "Russia trains its missiles on Tbilisi". theaustralian.com.au. 18 August 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "Russian Forces Capture Military Base in Georgia". The New York Times. 12 August 2008. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Barabanov, M.S.; Lavrov, A.V.; Tseluiko, V.A. (2010). "Russian Air Losses in the Five Day War Against Georgia". In Pukhov, R.N. (ed.). The Tanks of August (PDF). Moscow: Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies. ISBN 978-5-9902320-1-3. Retrieved 2019-08-13.
- "Trade Registers". sipri.org. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "Gunfire rings out in Libyan capital". CNN. Archived from the original on 30 November 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- "Libya Live Blog – March 6". Al Jazeera. 6 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- Simpson, John (5 March 2011). "Libya: Gaddafi fighter bomber is shot down in Ras Lanuf". BBC News. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- Cenciotti, David (16 November 2012). "Assad deploys Syrian Air Force Sukhoi Su-24 Fencer attack planes to hit rebels hard". The Aviationist. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- "3/6 Syrian MIG Pilot Carried from Wreck 11.28.2012". YouTube. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Nelson, Nigel (8 September 2013). "Syrian warplanes flee after testing defences at British air base in Cyprus". Mirror. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Raved, Ahiya (23 September 2014). "IDF: Syrian fighter jet shot down over Golan". ynet. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Lappin, Yaakov (24 September 2014). "Israel shoots down Syrian Su-24". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Los Angeles Times (23 September 2014). "Israel says downed Syrian jet entered its airspace, acted threatening". latimes.com. Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "The Turkish Air Force shot down two Syrian Su-24 Fencers today. A Turkish Anka-S drone drone was also downed". The Aviationist. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- Shaheen, Kareem; Walker, Shaun; Borger, Julian (24 November 2015). "Russia says jet shot down in Turkish border near Syria". The Guardian. Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Downed jet was warned 10 times in 5 min, says Turkish military". Daily Sabah. Reuters. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Turkey downs Russian jet". live.aljazeera.com. 24 November 2015. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Turkey's downing of Russian warplane - what we know". bbc.com. 25 November 2015. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- "Turkey Takes Action Against Russia's Syrian Air War". Aviation International News. 26 November 2015. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- "ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 167738". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 1 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Separatists shoot down Ukrainian SU-25 fighter plane - military". Reuters. 20 August 2014. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 168931". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 1 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Three refugees killed as they flee Ukrainian conflict - military". Reuters. 21 August 2014. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Shinkman, Paul D. (1 June 2015). "More 'Top Gun': Russian Jets Buzz U.S. Navy Destroyer in Black Sea". US News & World Report. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Dan Lamothe (13 April 2016). "What it looks like when Russian attack jets fly 'dangerously close' to a Navy ship". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- "Armed Russian jets flew over Belgian Navy ship". vrt NWS. 22 November 2018. Archived from the original on 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- Antonov et al. 1996.
- "Upgraded Su-24M2 Bombers to Russian Air Force". defencetalk.com. 17 December 2009. Archived from the original on 28 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Su-24 bombers are equipped with "Gefest" system". engineeringrussia. 28 May 2013. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "ЦАМТО / Новости / Авиаполк на Южном Урале получил на вооружение самолет-разведчик Су-24МР". Armstrade.org. Archived from the original on 2018-06-27. Retrieved 2019-02-02.
- "Su-24 Fencer - REDSTARS". red-stars.org (in French). Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- John Pike. "Algeria - Air Force - Equipment". Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Alex, Dan. "Sukhoi Su-24 (Fencer) - Long Range Strike / Attack Aircraft - History, Specs and Pictures - Military Aircraft". militaryfactory.com. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Niels Hillebrand. "Sukhoi Su-24 Fencer". Milavia. Archived from the original on 3 December 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- . World Military Aircraft Inventory. "2013 Aerospace". Aviation Week and Space Technology. January 2013.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Su-24 front-line bomber". airforceworld.com. September 2011. Archived from the original on 14 October 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
- Cordesman, Anthony H.; Nerguizian, Aram (2009), "The North African Military Balance: Force Developments in the Maghreb", Significant issues series, Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 31 (2), p. 68, ISBN 9780892065523
- "Libya Dawn apparently refurbishing MiG-25s". defenceWeb. ITWeb. 2015-04-15. Archived from the original on 2016-09-07.
- "Наука и техника: ВВС России ускорят модернизацию бомбардировщиков Су-24" [Science and technology: the Russian air force will accelerate the modernization of Su-24 bombers]. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 21 October 2011. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- The Military Balance 2012, p. 200.
- Cenciotti, David (19 August 2013). "Sudan gets second hand Belarusian Su-24 Fencer attack planes. And here are some photos". The Aviationist. Archived from the original on 19 August 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Су-24" [The Su-24]. mil.in.ua (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Обломки Су-24 обнаружены в 3 км от деревни на Урале" [The wreckage of the Su-24 found in 3 km from the village in the Urals]. Новости Mail.Ru (in Russian). 30 October 2012. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Ukrainian Air Force bomber Su-24 crashes during approach for landing". The Voice of Russia. 22 March 2014. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Algerian military plane crashes during exercise, killing 2". Fox News. 13 October 2014. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Russia Grounds 2nd Fighter Jet Fleet Amid String of Catastrophes - Business". The Moscow Times. 6 July 2015. Archived from the original on 28 October 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- Wilson 2000, p. 130.
- "Su-24". Deagel.com. Archived from the original on 2019-02-02. Retrieved 2019-02-02.
- "Su-24M Fencer Bomber". Airforce Technology. 2018-01-24. Archived from the original on 2019-02-06. Retrieved 2019-02-02.
- Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- Antonov, Vladimir, et al. Okb Sukhoi: A History of the Design Bureau and Its Aircraft. Leicester, UK: Midland, 1996. ISBN 1-85780-012-5.
- Eden, Paul (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
- Gordon, Yefim. Sukhoi Su-24. New York: IP Media, Inc., 2005. ISBN 1-932525-01-7.
- Wilson, Stewart. Combat Aircraft since 1945. Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-875671-50-1.
- Air Forces Monthly, September 2015 (Iranian Su-24 force)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sukhoi Su-24.|