Strzyga - artistic vision of Slavic demon by Filip Gutowski (source: The Sarmatian Bestiarium by Janek Sielicki)

Strzyga (Polish pronunciation: [ˈstʂɨɡa], pl. strzygi) (rarely also in masculine form as strzyg or strzygoń), Stryha (Belarusian: Стрыга) is a usually female demon from Slavic mythology somewhat similar to vampire.[1]

OriginEdit

According to Aleksander Brückner, the word is derived from Strix, Latin for owl and probably the origin of the term Strigoi, a troubled soul of the dead rising from the grave in Romanian mythology. It is unclear how the word strzyga was adapted by the Polish people, though it might have been through the Balkan peoples. The term strzyga could also sometimes mean a vampire or upiór.[2][3][4] After the 18th century, there was a distinction between strzyga and upiór; the first one was more connected to witchcraft, while the latter was more of a flying, vampiric creature.[5][1]

BeliefsEdit

 
Scrambles amongst the Alps, an illustration by Edward Whymper depicting a strzyga.

A strzyga is a usually female demon somewhat similar to vampire in Slavic (and especially Polish) folklore. People who were born with two hearts and two souls, and two sets of teeth (the second one barely visible) were believed to be strzygi.[5][1] Somnambulics or people without armpit hair could also be seen as ones.[6] Furthermore, a newborn child with already developed teeth was also believed to be one.[4] When a person was identified as a strzyga they were chased away from human dwelling places. During epidemies, people were getting buried alive, and those who managed to get out of their graves, often weak, ill and with mutilated hands, were said to be strzygi by others.[7] It is said that strzygi usually died at a young age, but, according to belief, only one of their two souls would pass to the afterlife; the other soul was believed to cause the deceased strzyga to come back to life and prey upon other living beings.[8] These undead creatures were believed to fly at night in a form of an owl and attack night-time travelers and people who had wandered off into the woods at night, sucking out their blood and eating their insides.[9] Strzyga were also believed to be satisfied with animal blood, for a short period of time.[1] According to the other sources, strzygi were believed not to harm people but to herald someone's imminent death.[8] In this they resemble Banshees.

Methods of protectionEdit

When a person believed to be a strzyga died, decapitating the corpse and burying the head separate from the rest of the body was believed to prevent the strzyga from rising from the dead;[10] burying the body face down with a sickle around its head was believed to work as well.[5] Other methods of protection from the strzyga (some similar to those from vampires) included:

  • Burning the body
  • Hammering nails, stakes etc. into various parts of the strzyga's body
  • Putting a flint into its mouth after exhumation[5]
  • Pealing the church bells (the strzyga then turns into tar)[1]
  • Slapping it across the face with one's left hand[1]
  • Burying it again, outside of the village, and pinning it down with a big rock[8]
  • Scattering poppy seeds in the shape of the cross in every corner of the house[1]
  • Exhumation in the presence of a priest and burying the body again, after additional rituals (such as putting a piece of paper with the word "Jesus" written on it under the strzyga's tongue)[11]
  • Putting small objects in the strzyga's grave to make it count them[6].

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Strzygoń/strzyga - Polska bajka ludowa. Słownik - red. Violetta Wróblewska". bajka.umk.pl. Retrieved 2019-01-12.
  2. ^ Jerzy., Strzelczyk (2007). Mity, podania i wierzania dawnych Słowian (Wyd. 2., popr. i uzup ed.). Poznań: Rebis. ISBN 9788373019737. OCLC 228025091.
  3. ^ Kolczyński, Jarosław (2003). "Jeszcze raz o upiorze (wampirze) i strzygoni (strzydze)". Etnografia Polska.
  4. ^ a b Kozłowski, Kornel (1863). Pieśni, podania, baśnie, zwyczaje i przesądy ludu z Mazowsza czerskiego.
  5. ^ a b c d Folklor Górnego Śląska. Simonides, Dorota. (Wyd. 1 ed.). Katowice: Wydawn. "Śląsk". 1989. ISBN 8321606040. OCLC 20935625.CS1 maint: others (link)
  6. ^ a b Grochowski, Piotr. "Od strzygoni do wampirów energetycznych. Folklor jako system praktyk interpretacyjnych". Przegląd Kulturoznawczy.
  7. ^ 1956-, Buczyński, Jerzy (2005). Skarbnik, zmory, utopce i upiory : opowiadania ludowe z ziemi rybnickiej i wodzisławskiej. Racibórz: Wydawn. i Agencja Informacyjna "WAW" Grzegorz Wawoczny. ISBN 8389802066. OCLC 153770629.
  8. ^ a b c Dekowski, Jan Piotr (1987). Strzygi i topieluchy: opowiadania sieradzkie.
  9. ^ J. Bohdanowicz (1994). "Demonologia ludowa. Relikty wierzeń w strzygonie i zmory". Literatura ludowa.
  10. ^ Kolberg, Oskar (1874). The People. Their Customs, Way of Life, Language... 7 (published 1962).
  11. ^ Ulanowska, Stefania (1887). "Wśród ludu krakowskiego". Wisła: miesięcznik geograficzno-etnograficzny.