The Strait of Magellan (Spanish: Estrecho de Magallanes), also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south. The strait is the most important natural passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It has been traversed by explorers and others throughout modern history.

Strait of Magellan
South America southern tip pol.png
Strait of Magellan, in South America's southern tip
Coordinates53°28′S 70°47′W / 53.467°S 70.783°W / -53.467; -70.783Coordinates: 53°28′S 70°47′W / 53.467°S 70.783°W / -53.467; -70.783
Typestrait
Basin countriesChile, Argentina
Max. length570 km (350 mi)
Min. width2 km (1.2 mi)

The route is difficult to navigate due to frequent narrows and unpredictable winds and currents. Maritime piloting is now compulsory. The strait is shorter and more sheltered than the Drake Passage – prey to frequent gale winds and icebergs[1] – or the often stormy open sea route around Cape Horn. Along with the narrow and sometimes treacherous Beagle Channel and the seasonal and historically treacherous North West Passage, these were the only sea routes between the Atlantic and Pacific until the construction of the Panama Canal.

HistoryEdit

Indigenous peoplesEdit

The Strait of Magellan has been inhabited by indigenous Americans for thousands of years. On the western part of its northern coast lived the Alacalufe, also known as the Kawésqar. To the east of the Kawésqar lived the Tehuelche, whose territory extended to the north in Patagonia. South of the Tehuelche, across the Strait of Magellan, lived the Selk'nam, who inhabited the majority of the eastern portion of Tierra del Fuego. To the west of the Selk'nam were the Yaghan, who inhabited the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego.

All tribes in the Strait of Magellan area were nomadic hunter-gatherers. The only non-maritime culture in the area were the Tehuelche, who fished and gathered shellfish along the coast during the winter and moved into the southern Andes in the summer to hunt. In the other three maritime-based tribes, each family had a canoe, around 7 to 9 feet long, that held the entire family and a dog. The canoe often contained a fire the family would use for warmth. Their sustenance came almost entirely from the sea: the men typically hunted seals and fished, while the women dove into the frigid waters to gather shellfish. They wore little to no clothing, and made extensive use of fires to keep warm in the bitterly-cold climate.

The tribes of the region faced little European interference until the late 19th century. Then, European diseases wiped out large portions of the indigenous population, and extermination campaigns sponsored by the governments of Chile and Argentina, like the Selk'nam genocide, eliminated the rest. Some were taken in by missionaries, but today, almost no full-blooded descendants of these peoples remain, and almost all of their culture is lost. Only two languages formerly spoken along the Strait of Magellan are extant, and both are spoken by less than ten people, although today there are hundreds of people who self-identify as descendants of indigenous peoples from the Strait of Magellan.

Discovery by EuropeansEdit

Accounts before MagellanEdit

It was reported by António Galvão in 1563 that the position of the Strait of Magellan was previously mentioned in old charts as Dragon's Tail (Draco Cola):[A]

He [Pedro] brought a map which had all the circuit of the world described. The Strait of Magellan was called the Dragon's Tail; and there were also the Cape of Good Hope and the coast of Africa. ... Francisco de Sousa Tavares told me that in the year 1528, the Infant D. Fernando showed him a map which had been found in the Cartorio of Alcobaça, which had been made more than 120 years before, the which contained all the navigation of India with the Cape of Good Hope.[4]

This, however, would suggest that the strait was mentioned in maps before the Americas were reportedly first "discovered" by Europeans, and consequently the claim has to be considered dubious.[B]

MagellanEdit

 
A replica of Victoria, one of Magellan's ships, in the Museo Nao Victoria, Punta Arenas. Chile

Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer and navigator in the service of Charles I of Spain, became the first European to navigate the strait in 1520 during his global circumnavigation voyage.[5][6]

On March 22, 1518, the expedition was organized in Valladolid, naming Magellan captain general of the fleet and governor of all the lands discovered, and establishing the privileges of Magellan and his business associate Rui Faleiro. The fleet would become known as the "Armada de las Molucas" or "Fleet of the Moluccas". The expeditionary fleet of five ships set sail from Sanlúcar de Barrameda on September 20, 1519.[7]

The five ships included La Trinidad (110 tons, crew 55), under the command of Magellan; La San Antonio (120 tons, crew 60) under the command of Juan de Cartagena; La Concepción (90 tons, crew 45) under the command of Gaspar de Quezada (Juan Sebastián Elcano served as boatswain); La Victoria (85 tons, crew 42) under the command of Luis de Mendoza; and La Santiago (75 tons, crew 32), under command of Juan Rodríguez Serrano (João Rodrigues Serrão). Before the passage of the strait (and after the mutiny in Puerto San Julián), Álvaro de Mesquita became captain of the San Antonio, and Duarte Barbosa of Victoria. Later, Serrão became captain of Concepcion (his Santiago, sent on a mission to find the passage, was caught in a storm and wrecked). San Antonio, charged to explore Magdalen Sound, failed to return to the fleet, instead sailing back to Spain under Estêvão Gomes who imprisoned the captain Mesquita.

Magellan's ships entered the strait on November 1, 1520, All Saints' Day, and it was initially called Estrecho de Todos los Santos (Strait of All Saints). Magellan's chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta, called it the Patagonian Strait, and others Victoria Strait, commemorating the first ship entering it.[7][8][9] Within seven years it was being called Estrecho de Magallanes in honor of Magellan.[7][8] The Spanish Empire and the Captaincy General of Chile used it as the southern boundary of their territory.[citation needed]

On All Saints Day, Magellan planted a flag and claimed the land on behalf of the King of Spain.[10]

Other explorersEdit

The first Spanish colony was established in 1584 by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, who founded Nombre de Jesús and Rey Don Felipe on the northern shore of the strait. These towns suffered severe food shortages, and when the English navigator Sir Thomas Cavendish landed at the site of Rey Don Felipe in 1587, he found only ruins of the settlement. He renamed the place Port Famine.

García Jofré de Loaiza was the second captain to navigate the strait, and was the first to discover that Tierra del Fuego was an island. Thereafter, Governor Pedro de Valdivia dispatched Francisco de Ulloa to survey and explore the strait, thereby facilitating navigation from Spain to Chile. In October, 1553, Ulloa sailed from Valdivia, being the first expedition to enter the Strait of Magellan from the west. After reaching Woods Bay, Ullos recognizing the steep coastline and lack of provisions. Fear of entrapment in the strait during the winter, Ulloa turned around, and returned to Chilean ports in February 1554.[10]

In October of 1557, García Hurtado de Mendoza, governor of Chile, sent out another exploratory squad of seventy men under the command of ]]Juan Ladrillero]]. They were charged with mapping the coastline, and surveying the region's flora, fauna and ethnography. On Tuesday, August 16, 1558, Ladrillero arrived in the Atlantic Ocean, becoming the first navigator who to cross the Strait of Magellan in both directions.[10]

Twenty years later, English navigator Francis Drake crossed the strait, creating fear by Pacific coast inhabitants that an attack was imminent. attacks. In order to close the passage to the enemies of Spain, the viceroy of Peru, Francisco de Toledo, sent a squadron with two ships to the Strait of Magellan, under Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa. They scrupulously explore the strait, trying to ferret out English invaders, while survey where to build fortifications.[10] This data was concealed. Despite that, new explorations to these lands were still organized.[10]

In 1616, Dutch travelers including Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire, discovered Cape Horn and recognized the southern end of Tierra del Fuego. Years later, a Spanish expedition, commanded by the brothers Bartolomé and Gonzalo Nodal, verified this new discovery.[10] Further explorations were done by English explorers John Byron and James Cook. The French sent Louis Antoine de Bougainville and JSC Dumont D'Urville.[10]

Other early explorers included Francis Drake (1578). In February 1696 the first French expedition, under the command of M. de Gennes reached the Strait of Magellan. The expedition is described by the young French explorer, engineer and hydrographer François Froger in his A Relation of a Voyage (1699). The first map of the Pacific Ocean, Descriptio Maris Pacifici from 1589, depicts the strait as the only route between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The much wider Drake Passage was discovered in 1616.

The strait was explored and thoroughly charted by Phillip Parker King, who commanded the British survey vessel HMS Adventure, and in consort with HMS Beagle spent five years surveying the complex coasts around the strait (1826–1830). A report on the survey was presented at two meetings of the Geographical Society of London in 1831.[9][11]

Richard Charles Mayne commanded HMS Nassau on the survey expedition to the Straits of Magellan, 1866–9.[12] The naturalist on the voyage was Robert Oliver Cunningham.[13] Charles Darwin requested the Lords of the Admiralty to ask Capt. Mayne to collect several boatloads of fossil bones of extinct species of quadrupeds. Admiral Sulivan had previously discovered an astonishingly rich accumulation of fossil bones not far from the Straits. These remains apparently belonged to a more ancient period, than the collection by Mr Darwin on HMS Beagle and by other naturalists and therefore of great interest to science. Many of these were collected with the aid of Hydrographer Capt. Richards R.N. and deposited in the British Museum.[14] The Admiralty compiled advice to mariners of the Strait in 1871.[15]

Incorporation into ChileEdit

Chile took possession of the Strait of Magellan on May 23, 1843. President Bulnes of Chile ordered this expedition after consulting the Chilean libertador Bernardo O'Higgins (1778–1842), who feared an occupation by Great Britain or France. The first Chilean settlement was Fuerte Bulnes, situated in a forested zone on the north side of the strait. Fuerte Bulnes was later abandoned, and in 1848 the city of Punta Arenas was founded farther north where the Magellanic forests meet the Patagonian plains. In Tierra del Fuego, across the strait from Punta Arenas, the village of Porvenir emerged during the Tierra del Fuego gold rush in the late 19th century. Until the opening of the Panama Canal, the town was an important supply stop for mariners.[1] It has been claimed that the impetus for Chile's annexation was fear that Great Birtain or France would occupy it.[9][16]

Argentina effectively recognized Chilean sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina. Argentina had previously claimed all of the strait, or at least the eastern third of it.

In 1840 the Pacific Steam Navigation Company was the first to use steamships for commercial traffic in the strait. That company was the first to use steam ships for commercial traffic on the Pacific.[9]

Until the Panama Canal opened in 1914, the Strait of Magellan was the main route for steamships traveling from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific. It was often considered the only safe way to move between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as the Drake Passage separating Cape Horn (the southern tip of South America) from Antarctica is notorious for turbulent and unpredictable weather, and is frequented by icebergs and sea ice. Ships in the strait, protected by Tierra del Fuego to the south and the coast of continental South America to the north, crossed with relative ease, and Punta Arenas became a primary refueling port providing coal for steam ships in transit. Sailing ships, partly because of variable winds and currents in the strait, generally preferred the Drake Passage, as they had more room to maneuver there.

FeaturesEdit

 
Map showing the extent of the Patagonian Ice Sheet in the Strait of Magellan area during the last glacial period. Selected modern settlements are shown with yellow dots.

The strait is approximately 570 kilometres (310 nmi; 350 mi) long and about 2 kilometres (1.1 nmi; 1.2 mi) wide at its narrowest point (Carlos III Island, west of Cape Froward).[17] The northwestern portion of the strait is connected with other sheltered waterways via the Smyth Channel. This area is similar to the Inside Passage of Alaska. South of Cape Froward, the principal shipping route follows the Magdalena Channel. The climate is fog laden and cold, and the course is convoluted with several narrow passages. It saves several hundred miles over the Drake Passage, but sailing ships, particularly clipper ships, prefer the latter. Its major port is Punta Arenas, situated on the Brunswick Peninsula, and a transshipment point for Chilean mutton.[18]

Exemplifying the difficulty of the passage, it took Magellan 38 days to complete the crossing.[9]

The eastern opening is a wide bay on the border of Chile and Argentina between Punta Dúngeness on the mainland and Cabo del Espíritu Santo (Cape of the Holy Spirit) on Tierra del Fuego, the border as defined in the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina. Immediately west are Primera Angostura and Segunda Angostura, narrows formed by two terminal moraines of different ages.[19] The Primera Angostura is the closest approach of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego to the mainland of South America. Farther west lies Magdalena Island, part of Los Pingüinos Natural Monument. The strait's southern boundary in the east follows first the shoreline of the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, then the northern end of the Canal Whiteside and the shoreline of Dawson Island.

The western part of the strait leads northwest from the northern end of the Magdalena Channel to the strait's Pacific entrance. This portion of the strait is flanked on the south by Capitán Aracena Island, Clarence Island, Santa Inés Island, Desolación Island (Cabo Pilar) and other smaller islands, and on the north by Brunswick Peninsula, Riesco Island, Muñoz Gamero Peninsula, Manuel Rodriguez Island and other minor islands of the Queen Adelaide Archipelago. Two narrow channels connect the strait with Seno Otway and Seno Skyring. A broader channel, Smyth Channel, leads north from the strait between Muñoz Gamero Peninsula and Manuel Rodriguez Island. Francisco Coloane Coastal and Marine Protected Area, a sanctuary for humpback whales, is located in this area. This part of the strait lies on the elongated Magallanes-Fagnano Fault, which marks a plate boundary between the South American Plate and the Scotia Plate. This fault continues southward under Almirantazgo Fjord and then below Fagnano Lake.[20] Possibly, new tourism industries could be established in the eastern part of the strait for watching southern right whales,[21] as the number of observations in the area has increased in recent years.[22][23]

On the Atlantic side, the strait is characterized by semidiurnal macrotides with mean and spring tide ranges of 7.1 and 9.0 m, respectively. On the Pacific side, tides are mixed, mainly semidiurnal, with mean and spring tide ranges of 1.1 and 1.2 m, respectively.[24]

There is enormous tidal energy potential in the strait.[25]

The Strait is prone to Williwaws, "a sudden violent, cold, katabatic gust of wind descending from a mountainous coast of high latitudes to the sea."[26][C]

Place namesEdit

The place names of the area around the strait come from a variety of languages. Many are from Spanish and English. Several are from the Ona language, adapted to Spanish phonology and spelling,[27] like Timaukel (a hamlet at the east side of Tierra del Fuego), Carukinka (the end of the Almirantazgo Fjord), Anika (a channel located at 54° 7' S and 70° 30' W), and Arska (the north side of the Dawson Island).

Magellan named the strait Todos los Santos,[10] as he began his voyage through the strait in 1520 on 1 November: the day of "All Saints" ("Todos los Santos" in Spanish). Emperor Charles V renamed it Estrecho de Magallanes.[citation needed] Magellan named the island on the south side of the strait Tierra del Fuego, which the Yaghan people called Onaisín in the Yaghan language. Magellan also gave the name Patagones to the mainland Indians, and their land was subsequently known as Patagonia.

Bahía Cordes is named for the Dutch pirate Baltazar de Cordes.[28]

The Strait of Magellan Park, 52 km (32 miles) south of Punta Arenas, is a 250 hectare protected area.[29]

Lighthouses in the straitEdit

 
The County of Peebles and Cavenga are used as a breakwater for the harbour at Punta Arenas.

The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency lists 41 lighthouses in the waterway. Some of them are more than a century old, and some are declared Monumento Nacional. Among the most impressive lighthouses are: County of Peebles hulk, the world's first four-masted, iron-hulled "full-rig ship",[30] used now as a breakwater for the harbour at Punta Arenas; the San Isidro lighthouse, restored in 2004 and which is now a museum and lodge;[31] and the Evangelistas Lighthouse, located at the western mouth of the strait and built by George Slight, who wrote on his arrival in 1934:

I never imagined seeing something so wild and desolate as those emerging dark rocks in the middle of the raging waves. To see these stormy craggy rocks was frightening. With a dim light on the horizon we could see large waves crashing heavily in the western part of the islands: a vision that hardly anyone can imagine ...[32]

This strait is one of the region's most popular tourist destinations. Several cruise companies ply its waters, and the lighthouses, including Magdalena Island Light are popular attractions.[9]

EnvironmentEdit

Located around the strait are protected systems (S.P.=Sistema Protegido & B.N.P=Bienes Nacionales Protegidos) listed below:[33]

  • B.N.P. Isla Carlos III
  • B.N.P. Islote Rupert
  • S.P. Cabo Espíritu Santo
  • S.P. Cabo Froward
  • S.P. Cabo Posesión
  • S.P. Estepa Húmeda Kampenaiken Tres Chorrillos
  • S.P. Isla Dawson
  • S.P. Península Muñoz Gamero
  • S.P. Reservas Biológicas de Río Cóndor
  • S.P. San Gregorio
  • S.P. San Juan
  • S.P. Timaukel

TrafficEdit

As the strait provides a well-protected inland waterway for safe navigation, sheltered from rough weather and high seas, ships sail through the strait

571 Chilean ships and 1,681 non-Chilean ships sailed through the strait in 2008.[34] Piloting is compulsory for sailing the strait. As one authority notes: "The Pilotage Regulations of the Chilean Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service ('the Regulations') provide that pilotage through the Magellan Strait is compulsory," with limited exceptions for local traffic. Who pays the fees for the pilot is subject to interpretation, however.[35][36]

Navigation statusEdit

Article 35 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea states that "Nothing in this Part affects: ... (c) the legal regime in straits in which passage is regulated in whole or in part by long-standing international conventions in force specifically relating to such straits". Article V of the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina established a legal regime for the Strait of Magellan, and in a diplomatic letter to major shipping nations in 1873 Chile promised freedom of navigation through and neutrality within the strait.[37][38]

Notable eventsEdit

The first person who is documented to have single-handedly sailed the straits was Joshua Slocum. He experienced a 40 day hiatus in the straits, due to storms and adverse weather,[D] while piloting the gaff rigged sloop oyster boat named Spray in the first solo global circumnavigation. He wrote about the experience in his classic Sailing Alone Around the World.[40]

The first person to swim across the Strait of Magellan was Lynn Cox, an American open-water swimmer, who made the transit in 1976. Almost 40 years later, on 17 January 2014, the feat was duplicated by the youngest person, Hunter Wright, age 17.[9]

USS Ronald Reagan was the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to navigate through the strait.[9]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "For some decades a group of scholars in Latin America has been claiming that this so‐called ‘Dragon's Tail’ peninsula is really a pre‐Columbian map of South America. In this paper, the cartographical and place‐name evidence is examined, showing that the identification has not been proved, and that perceived similarities between the river and coastal outlines on this ‘Dragon's Tail’ peninsula and those of South America are fortuitous."[2][3]
  2. ^ [2] But see Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories, Exploration of North America. Waldseemüller map, Madoc, and Norse colonization of North America.
  3. ^ The Aleutian Islands exhibit the same phenomenon.[26]
  4. ^ In Port Angosto, Strait of Magellan, the Spray was re-rigged as a yawl by adding a jigger.[39]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b "Straight Of Magellan – Map & Description". worldatlas.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2019. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
  2. ^ a b Richardson, William A.R. (2003). "South America on Maps before Columbus? Martellus's 'Dragon's Tail' Peninsula". Imago Mundi. 55: 25–37. doi:10.1080/0308569032000097477.
  3. ^ de Zurara, Prestage & Beazley 2010, p. cxiv.
  4. ^ Galvaão & Hakluyt 2004.
  5. ^ "Ferdinand Magellan, Discovery of the Strait of Magellan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  6. ^ Ponce et al. 2016.
  7. ^ a b c Murphy & Coye 2013.
  8. ^ a b Bergreen 2003, p. 194.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Little-known Facts About the Hazardous Strait of Magellan". Vacayholics. Archived from the original on October 18, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "Navegantes europeos en el estrecho de Magallanes [Discovery and recognition of the territory: European navigators in the Strait of Magellan]". Memoria Chilena (in Spanish). Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  11. ^ King, P. P. (1839), FitzRoy, Robert (ed.), Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of the southern shores of South America, and the Beagle's circumnavigation of the globe. Proceedings of the first expedition, 1826–30, under the command of Captain P. Parker King, R.N., F.R.S., I, London: Henry Colburn, archived from the original on May 5, 2011, retrieved August 15, 2016. – p. 563 Archived September 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine: Some Observations relating to the Southern Extremity of South America, Tierra del Fuego, and the Strait of Magalhaens; made during the Survey of those Coasts in his Majesty's ships Adventure and Beagle, between the years 1826 and 1830. By Captain Phillip Parker King, F.R.S., Commander of the Expedition; "read before the Geographical Society of London on the 25th of April and 9th of May 1831; and ... printed in the Journal of that Society for the same year."
  12. ^ Dictionary of national biography. Edited by Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee. 63 vols. and 2 supplements (6 vols.). London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885--1912
  13. ^ Cunningham 2012.
  14. ^ Letter from B.J. Sulivan, 27 June 1866 and nn. 6 and 7 in the Darwin Letters. See:[1], [2]
  15. ^ Mayne 1871, pp. 37-84.
  16. ^ Talbott, Robert D. (November 1967). "The Chilean Boundary in the Strait of Magellan". The Hispanic American Historical Review. Duke University Press. 47 (4): 519–531. doi:10.2307/2510673. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  17. ^ "The Straits of Magellan and Oceanographical Setting Chile". Archived from the original on March 6, 2008.
  18. ^ Wallenfeldt, Jeff. "Strait of Magellan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on July 11, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  19. ^ USGS. "P 1386-I Chile and Argentina – Wet Andes: Past Glaciation". Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
  20. ^ Lodolo, Emanuele; Menichetti, Marco; Bartole, Roberto; Ben‐Avraham, Zvi; Tassone, Alejandro; Lippai, Horacio (2003). "Magallanes-Fagnano continental transform fault (Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America)". Tectonics. 22 (6): 1076. Bibcode:2003Tecto..22.1076L. doi:10.1029/2003TC001500.
  21. ^ El Mercurio (July 13, 2009). "Ballena franca retorna a Estrecho de Magallanes y abre nueva opción de avistamientos turísticos" (in Spanish). WordPress. Archived from the original on December 9, 2015. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  22. ^ The Patagon Journal. 2009. Southern Right Whale Spotted in Chilean Waters Archived May 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on October 16, 2014
  23. ^ Belgrano, Jimena; Iñíguez, Miguel; Gibbons, Jorge; García, Cristian; Olavarría, Carlos (2008). "South-West Atlantic Right Whales Eubalaena Australis (Desmoulins, 1822) Distribution Nearby the Magellan Strait". Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia. 36 (2): 69–74. doi:10.4067/S0718-686X2008000200007 – via SciELO.[permanent dead link]
  24. ^ Medeiros, Carmen; Kjerfve, Bjorn (1988). "Tidal characteristics of the Strait of Magellan" (PDF). Continental Shelf Research. Great Britain: Pergamon Press plc. pp. 947–960. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 4, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  25. ^ Wynne-Hughes, Antonia (August 17, 2009). "Chile ponders tidal energy potential in Magellan Strait — MercoPress". En.mercopress.com. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2013.
  26. ^ a b "Williwaw". Weather on line. Archived from the original on May 14, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  27. ^ Latorre, Guillermo (1998). "Sustrato y superestrato multilingües en la toponimia del extremo sur de Chile [Multilingual substratum and superstratum in the toponymy of the south of Chile]". Philological Studies (in Spanish). pp. 55–67. doi:10.4067/S0071-17131998003300004. Archived from the original on April 21, 2014. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  28. ^ Martinic 1977.
  29. ^ "Strait of Magellan Park". Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  30. ^ Cumming 2009.
  31. ^ "Hostería Faro san Isidro". hosteriafarosanisidro.cl. Archived from the original on September 16, 2013.
  32. ^ Quoted at "Bell Rock Bicentennial : Biographies". 200.bellrock.org.uk. June 26, 1934. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2013.
  33. ^ Mapas ambientales de Ministerio de Obras Públicas Archived May 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, retrieved on 26 August 2013
  34. ^ "Estrecho De Magallanes". Web.directemar.cl. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2013.
  35. ^ "Web alert: Magellan Strait Pilotage - is it compulsory and who should pay the fees?". The Standard Club. Charles Taylor, P.L.C. February 23, 2015. Archived from the original on October 18, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  36. ^ Chilean Navy, "General piloting regulations and information", Strait of Magellan, Chilean Channels and Fiords; Regulations and information for Piloting. Routes (in Spanish), Chilean Navy, archived from the original on October 8, 2012, retrieved April 16, 2013, Pilotage is compulsory for navigating inner waters, between Canal de Chacao and Cabo de Hornos.
  37. ^ Morris 1989, pp. 68, 104.
  38. ^ See also Chilean note to the "UN Law of Sea, Declaración formulada al momento de la ratificación" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  39. ^ Slocum, Joshua (1919) [1900]. "Chapter X". Sailing Alone Around the World. New York: The Century Company. p. 127. "I also mended the sloop's sails and rigging, and fitted a jigger, which changed the rig to a yawl [...]"
  40. ^ Slocum 1900, pp. 89-90.

BibliographyEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit