The splanchnocranium (or visceral skeleton) is the portion of the cranium that is derived from pharyngeal arches. The splanchnocranium consists of cartilage and endochondral bone. In mammals, the splanchnocranium comprises the three ear ossicles (i.e., incus, malleus, and stapes), as well as the alisphenoid, the styloid process, the hyoid apparatus, and the thyroid cartilage.
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