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The Edwardian Room, previously known as the Men's Grill or Fifth Avenue Cafe, is at the northeast corner of the ground floor,<ref name="NYCL p. 21" /> measuring {{Convert|50|x|65|ft|abbr=}}. It was originally designed by William Baumgarten & Company and McNulty Brothers, but has been redecorated multiple times.<ref name="NYCL p. 25">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=25}}</ref> It contains dark Flemish-oak paneling, {{Convert|12|ft||abbr=}} high, with finishes and doorway surrounds made of Caen stone.<ref>{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|p=2}} {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|pp=25–26}}; {{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=5}}</ref> The floor is inlaid with mosaic tiles.<ref name="NYCL p. 26">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=26}}</ref> The beamed ceiling is inlaid with mirrors, giving the impression of highly decorated trusses,<ref>{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|p=2}}; {{harvnb|Frohne|1907|p=364}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|p=25|ps=.}}</ref> and the room is lit by large windows and eight large bronze chandeliers. The room's original color scheme was a relatively toned-down palette of green, dark brown, and gray hues.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 2" /><ref name="NYCL p. 25" /> When built, there was a musicians' balcony overhanging the room.<ref name="NYCL p. 25" /> The room also had an entrance at Grand Army Plaza, which was closed with the creation of the Fifth Avenue lobby.<ref name="NYCL pp. 25-26">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=25–26}}</ref> The space housed the Green Tulip and Plaza Suite restaurants in the late 20th century;<ref name="NYCL p. 25" /> by the 2000s, it was known as One CPS.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Confessore|first=Nicholas|date=December 30, 2004|title=Oak Room at the Plaza Is Going the Way of the Pince-Nez|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2004/12/30/nyregion/oak-room-at-the-plaza-is-going-the-way-of-the-pincenez.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
The Palm Court, previously known as the [[Teahouse|tea room]], is in the center of the ground floor.<ref name="NYCL p. 21" /> It contains a design inspired by the Winter Garden at the [[Carlton Hotel, London|Carlton Hotel in London]].<ref name="Harris p. 34">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=34}}</ref><ref name="NYCL p. 57">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=57 (PDF p.&nbsp;58)}}</ref> It is outfitted with walls made of Caen stone.<ref>{{harvnb|Architecture|1907|p=179}}; {{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|p=4}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|p=57 (PDF p.&nbsp;58)}}; {{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=5}}</ref> As in the main corridor, the Palm Court contains mosaic floors, as well as marble pilasters and columns, topped by bronze capitals.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 4">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=4}}</ref><ref name="NYCL p. 57" /> The Palm Court initially had a [[stained glass]] ceiling, which was removed in a 1940s renovation;<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="nyt19820927" /><ref name="NYCL p. 57" /> it was restored in the mid-2000s.<ref name="nyt20051212">{{Cite news|last=Barron|first=James|date=2005-12-December 12, 2005|title=A New Ceiling for the Plaza, but It Has Plenty of History|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/12/nyregion/a-new-ceiling-for-the-plaza-but-it-has-plenty-of-history.html|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="latimes20080303">{{cite web|last=Associated Press|date=March 3, 2008|title=NYC's famed Plaza Hotel reopens|url=https://www.latimes.com/travel/la-trw-plazahotelopens-story.html|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=Los Angeles Times}}</ref> There were also mirrors on the western wall.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="NYCL p. 57" /> The western wall contains four [[caryatid]]s carved by [[Pottier & Stymus]], which represent the seasons and framed the wall mirrors.<ref>{{harvnb|Gura|2015|p=92}}; {{harvnb|Harris|1981|p=38}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=57 (PDF p.&nbsp;58)}}</ref> East of the Palm Court, separated from it by the main corridor, was the Plaza Restaurant, and Champagne Porch.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="NYCL pp. 9-10">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=9–10}}</ref> The Palm Court and Plaza Restaurant originally formed a "vast dining hall",<ref name="rer19070914" /><ref name="NYCL p. 10" /> which were designed nearly identically.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 4" /> Removable glass panes along the main corridor abutted both spaces.<ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179" /><ref name="NYCL p. 57" />
 
The Terrace Room, west of the Palm Court,<ref name="NYCL pp. 21-22">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=21–22 (PDF pp.&nbsp;22–23)}}</ref> is part of Warren and Wetmore's 1921 design. The room was so named because it contains three terraces.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /><ref name="NYCL p. 13">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=13}}</ref> The terraces split the room in thirds, increasing in height from east to west; they are separated by balustrades and connected by small staircases.<ref name="NYCL p. 62">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=62 (PDF p.&nbsp;63)}}</ref> The space contains Renaissance style motifs on the pilasters, ceilings, and wall arches, as well as three chandeliers and rusticated-marble walls.<ref name="NYCL pp. 62-63">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=62–63 (PDF pp.&nbsp;63–64)}}</ref> [[John B. Smeraldi]] was commissioned to paint the Terrace Room's ornamentation.<ref name="Gura p. 92">{{harvnb|Gura|2015|ps=.|p=92}}</ref><ref name="NYCL pp. 62-63" /> The Terrace Room is surrounded by a balcony, with a painted coffer ceiling possibly commissioned by Smeraldi, as well as marble pilasters and floors.<ref name="NYCL p. 13" /> A balcony runs slightly above the Terrace Room on its southern wall.<ref name="NYCL p. 63">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=63 (PDF p.&nbsp;64)}}</ref> Immediately south of the balcony is the Terrace Room's corridor and foyer.<ref name="NYCL pp. 21-22" /><ref name="NPS p. 11" />
The Plaza Hotel's condominiums and suites start at the second floor.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 142">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=14}}</ref> As built, they contained three primary types of suites: those with one bedroom and one bathroom; those with two bedrooms and two bathrooms; and those with a parlor and a varying number of beds and baths.<ref name="rer19070914" /><ref name="Frohne pp. 352-353">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|pp=352–353}}</ref> The walls were originally painted in rose, yellow, cream, and gray hues.<ref name="Gathje p. 81">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=81}}</ref> For decorative effect, the rooms contained wooden wainscoting and furniture, while the plaster ceilings contained crystal chandeliers.<ref name="Gathje pp. 81-82">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|pp=81&ndash;82}}</ref> A guest or resident could request multiple suites, since there were smaller private hallways adjacent to the main hallway on each floor. There were also staff rooms at the corners of the main corridor on each floor.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 16">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=16}}</ref><ref name="Frohne pp. 352-353" /> Dumbwaiters led from the staff rooms to the basement kitchen, allowing guests to order meals and eat them in-suite.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="Harris pp. 22-23">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=22–23}}</ref><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 22">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=22}}</ref>
 
Following its 2008 renovation, the building contains 181 privately owned condominiums, which are marketed as the Plaza Residences or One Central Park South.<ref name="aia5" /><ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Haughney|first=Christine|date=2008-02-February 17, 2008|title=It’s Lonely at the Plaza Hotel ...|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/17/fashion/17plaza.html|access-date=2020-11-November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The condominiums are on the northern and eastern sides of the building and contain a variety of layouts, from studio apartments to three-story penthouse units. The condos' interior furnishings include parquet floors and stone counters, and largely reflect the original design of these rooms.<ref name="Horsley">{{Cite web|title=The Plaza, 1 Central Park South|first=Carter|last=Horsley|url=https://www.cityrealty.com/nyc/midtown-west/the-plaza-1-central-park-south/30362|access-date=2020-11-November 30, 2020|website=City Realty|language=en}}</ref> There are also 282 hotel units on the southern side of the building. Of these, 152 condo-hotel units occupy eleven of the upper stories; they serve as residences for investors or staff for up to four months a year, and are used as short-term hotel units for the remaining time. In addition, there are 130 rooms exclusively for short-term stays on seven of the lower stories.<ref name="Horsley" /><ref name="latimes20080303" /><ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> The hotel portion of the building retains a butler on each floor, reminiscent of the hotel's original ambience.<ref name="latimes20080303" />
 
Hardenbergh's design included the State Apartments on the northern side of the first floor.<ref name="Frohne p. 356">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=356}}</ref><ref name="AA (1907) pp. 134-135">{{harvnb|American Architect|1907|ps=.|pp=134–135}}</ref> The [[state room]] was one of the most lavish suites in the entire hotel; it had a drawing room, antechambers, dining rooms, bedrooms and bathrooms, and food storage.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 135" /> Also on the first floor were private banquet, reception, and card rooms.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="Frohne p. 352" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 14" /> The state room was turned into a private dining area and restored in 1974.<ref name="NPS p. 6" /> Similarly ornate suites were located along the Central Park South side on eleven of the upper floors.<ref name="Gathje p. 81" />
 
=== First hotel ===
John Duncan Phyfe and James Campbell acquired the site in 1883.<ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /><ref name="Stern (1999) pp. 529-530">{{harvnb|Stern|Mellins|Fishman|1999|ps=.|pp=529–530}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|date=October 30, 1883|title=Sale of Fifth Avenue Plaza Lots|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1883/10/30/archives/sale-of-fifthavenue-plaza-lots.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Phyfe and Campbell announced plans for a nine-story apartment building at the site that October,<ref>{{cite journal|date=October 13, 1883|title=Out Among the Builders|url=https://rerecord.library.columbia.edu/document.php?vol=ldpd_7031128_032&page=ldpd_7031128_032_00000336&no=1|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=32|pages=785|via=[[Columbia University|columbia.edu]]|number=813}}</ref> to be designed by [[Carl Pfeiffer (architect)|Carl Pfeiffer]],<ref name="Gathje p. 4">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=4}}</ref> and construction on the apartment block began that same year.<ref name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Stern (1999) pp. 529-530" /><ref>{{Cite news|date=November 4, 1883|title=A Grand Family Hotel.; the Mammoth Structure to Be Erected on the Fifth-Avenue Plaza|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1883/11/04/archives/a-grand-family-hotel-the-mammoth-structure-to-be-erected-on-the.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The builders borrowed over $800,000 from the [[New York Life Insurance Company]], and obtained a second mortgage to John Charles Anderson for a total investment of $2 million.{{efn-lg|New York Life's investment is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|0.8|1888|r=2}} million, and the total investment is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|2|1888|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}.{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="nyt18880228">{{Cite news|date=February 28, 1888|title=Prospect of a New Hotel.; the New Structure at Central Park May Be Finished|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1888/02/28/archives/prospect-of-a-new-hotel-the-new-structure-at-central-park-may-be.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> In 1885, John Anderson's family contested his will, and his granddaughter Mary Maude Watson disputed Phyfe and Campbell's title to the property.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=1885-10-October 14, 1885|title=Mary Maud Watson's Suit.; an Effort to Obtain an Interest in Fifth-avenue Property|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1885/10/14/archives/mary-maud-watsons-suit-an-effort-to-obtain-an-interest-in.html|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The senior Anderson's will was invalidated in 1887,<ref name="nyt18870605" /><ref name="btu18880522">{{cite news|last=|first=|date=1888-05-May 22, 1888|title=A Son-in-law's $750,000|page=1|work=Brooklyn Times-Union|url=https://newspapers.com/clip/63954618/|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-November 25, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> and Watson gave a [[quitclaim deed]] to Phyfe and Campbell, allowing them to continue holding the land.<ref name="btu18880522" />
 
By 1887, after taking three loans from New York Life, Phyfe and Campbell found that they did not have enough funds to complete the apartment block.<ref name="nyt18910826">{{Cite news|date=August 26, 1891|title=The Plaza Hotel Case; How Beers Bought a White Elephant for His Company|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1891/08/26/archives/the-plaza-hotel-case-how-beers-bought-a-white-elephant-for-his.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The extent to which the apartment building was completed before the builders' bankruptcy is unclear.<ref name="NYCL p. 17">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=17}}</ref>{{efn|The 1885 E. Robinson Atlas shows the "Fifth Avenue Plaza Hotel" as occupying part of the site, without indicating its construction status<ref name="NYCL p. 17"/> and ''The New York Times'' of February 28, 1888, describes the hotel's interior as being partially furnished.<ref name=nyt18880228/> Although architectural writer [[Robert A. M. Stern]] implies that only the foundations were completed,<ref name="Stern (1999) pp. 529-530" /><ref name="NYCL p. 17"/> the building had progressed several stories above ground by 1886, when a worker died after falling seven stories from the structure.<ref>{{Cite news|date=March 23, 1886|title=FAlling Seven Stories.; a Workman Killed at the New Plaza Hotel in Fifty-ninth-street|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1886/03/23/archives/falling-seven-stories-a-workman-killed-at-the-new-plaza-hotel-in.html|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>}} In February 1888, brothers Eugene M. and Frank Earle entered contract to lease the hotel from Phyfe and Campbell, and furnish it.<ref name="nyt18880228" /> New York Life concurrently foreclosed on the apartment building,<ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /><ref>{{cite news|date=December 5, 1888|title=The Plaza Hotel Property Sold|page=2|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63955089/|access-date=November 25, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> and that September, bought it at public auction for $925,000.<ref name="nyt18880919">{{Cite news|date=September 19, 1888|title=Sale of the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1888/09/19/archives/sale-of-the-plaza-hotel.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Shortly afterward, New York Life decided to remodel the interiors completely,<ref>{{Cite news|date=November 24, 1888|title=Must Be Reconstructed.; the Interior of the Plaza Hotel of Inferior Workmanship.|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1888/11/24/archives/must-be-reconstructed-the-interior-of-the-plaza-hotel-of-inferior.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> hiring architects [[McKim, Mead & White]] to complete the hotel.<ref name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /> New York Life leased the hotel to Frederick A. Hammond in 1889,<ref>{{Cite news|date=April 17, 1899|title=Plaza Hotel May Close; Said that Mr. Hammond Will Not Get a Renewal of His Lease|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1899/04/17/archives/plaza-hotel-may-close-said-that-mr-hammond-will-not-get-a-renewal.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and the Hammond brothers became the operators of the hotel for the next fifteen years.<ref name="Harris p. 9">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=9}}</ref>
 
The first Plaza Hotel finally opened on October 1, 1890,<ref name="Gathje p. 4" /><ref>{{Cite news|date=September 30, 1890|title=For Eight Hours of Work.; Letter Carriers' Mass Meeting in Cooper Union Indorses the Bill|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1890/09/30/archives/for-eight-hours-of-work-letter-carriers-mass-meeting-in-cooper.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 24, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="tribune18900930">{{cite news|date=September 30, 1890|title=A Great Hotel Finished|page=7|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/64065129/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> at a cost of $3 million.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|3|1890|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="Gathje p. 4" /><ref name="NPS p. 3">{{harvnb|ps=.|National Park Service|1978|p=3}}</ref><ref name="King 1892 p.">{{cite book|last=King|first=Moses|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/King_s_Handbook_of_New_York_City/cKkUAAAAYAAJ|title=King's Handbook of New York City: An Outline History and Description of the American Metropolis|publisher=Moses King|year=1892|isbn=|location=|page=208|pages=|oclc=848600041}}</ref> The original hotel stood eight stories tall and had 400 rooms.<ref name="Gathje p. 4" /><ref name="King 1892 p." /> The interiors featured extensive mahogany and carved wood furnishings; lion motifs, representing the hotel's coat of arms; and a {{Convert|30|ft||-tall|abbr=|adj=mid}} dining room, with stained glass windows and gold and white decorations.<ref name="tribune18900930" /><ref name="King 1892 p." /><ref name="Harris pp. 8-9">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=8–9}}</ref> [[Moses King]], in his 1893 ''Handbook of New York City'', characterized the hotel as "one of the most attractive public houses in the wide world".<ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /><ref name="Harris p. 6" /> Despite being described as fashionable,<ref name="Gathje p. 6">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=6}}</ref> it was not profitable.<ref name="nyt18910826" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003">{{harvnb|Jackson|2010|ps=.|p=1003}}</ref> ''The New York Times'' reported in 1891 that the hotel netted $72,000 in rental income, out of $1.8 million that New York Life had spent to complete the hotel, including loans to Phyfe and Campbell.{{efn-lg|The rental income is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|0.072|1891|r=2}} million, and the total investment is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|1.8|1891|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}.{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="nyt18910826" /> Furthermore, New York Life's claim to the first Plaza Hotel remained controversial. One of John Anderson's daughters, Laura V. Appleton, sued the insurance company in 1891, claiming that she was the rightful owner of the land.<ref>{{cite news|date=December 6, 1891-12-06|title=Claiming the Plaza Hotel|page=17|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63955626/|access-date=2020-11-November 25, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> New York Life ultimately settled with Appleton the next year, paying her for a deed for the property.<ref>{{cite news|date=January 21, 1892|title=The Plaza Hotel Suit: Attorney Hornblower Makes a Statement as to the Settlement|page=6|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63955796/|access-date=2020-11-November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref>
 
=== Replacement and early 20th century ===
 
==== Opening and expansion ====
The new 800-room Plaza Hotel was opened October 1, 1907, twenty-seven months after work had commenced.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref name="tribune19071001">{{cite news|date=October 1, 1907|title=Dinner at the New Plaza Hotel|page=9|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63967422/|access-date=November 25, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> The opening was observed by people including businessman [[Diamond Jim Brady]]; actresses [[Lillian Russell]], [[Billie Burke]], [[Maxine Elliott]], and [[Fritzi Scheff]]; producers [[David Belasco]] and [[Oscar Hammerstein I]]; actor [[John Drew Jr.]]; and author [[Mark Twain]].<ref name="Harris p. 29" /> Though the opening coincided with the [[Panic of 1907]], the hotel suffered minimal losses.<ref name="Satow ch. 1" /><ref name="Brown p. 35">{{harvnb|Brown|1967|ps=.|p=35}}</ref> The new hotel more than doubled the capacity of the first structure,<ref name="Frohne p. 349">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=349}}</ref> and it was intended as a largely residential hotel at opening, although the terms for "hotel" and "apartment" were largely synonymous at the time.<ref name="nyt20190607">{{Cite news|last=Satow|first=Julie|date=June 7, 2019-06-07|title=The Widows of the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/07/realestate/the-widows-of-the-plaza-hotel.html|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Estimates held that ninety percent of the units were for long-term residents.<ref name="NPS p. 3" /><ref name="Harris p. 29">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=29}}</ref><ref name="nyt20190607" /> The owners charged short-term guests $2.50 nightly.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|2.50|1907|r=2}} in {{Inflation year|US}}{{inflation/fn|index=US|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="NPS p. 3" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /> Gates, one of the original investors, was among the residents of the new Plaza;<ref name="ABM (1907) pp. 16-18"/> when he died in 1911, his funeral was held at the hotel.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/1954150/gates_funeral/|title=Mourners Came From Many States|newspaper=The Cincinnati Enquirer|page=4|date=August 24, 1911|access-date=March 9, 2015|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref><ref name="Satow ch. 5">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 5}}</ref>
 
Most of the public rooms were not originally given formal names.<ref name="Harris p. 40">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=40}}</ref> Although Hardenbergh had predicted that gender-segregated spaces were going out of fashion,<ref name="Hardenbergh 1902">{{Cite book|last=Hardenbergh|first=Henry Janeway|url=https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015006308418&view=1up&seq=256|title=A dictionary of architecture and building: biographical, historical, and descriptive|publisher=|year=1902|isbn=|editor-last=Sturgis|editor-first=Russell|volume=2|location=|pages=411|language=English|chapter=Hotel|oclc=670096}}</ref> there was a women's reception room near 58th Street, and the bar room and men's grill (respectively the present Oak and Edwardian Rooms) were exclusively used by men.<ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179" /><ref name="rer19070914" /><ref name="NYCL p. 10" /> In practice, the men's grill acted as a social club where business discussion was socially inappropriate, while the bar was a space for businessmen to talk.<ref name="Harris pp. 47-48">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=47–48}}</ref> Sometime between 1912 and the start of [[Prohibition in the United States]] in 1920, the brokerage office near the entrance, now the Oak Bar, was turned into an extension of the bar room.<ref name="NYCL p. 14" /> The Champagne Porch along Grand Army Plaza was the most exclusive area of the hotel, with meals costing between $50 and $500.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to between ${{Inflation|index=US|value=50|start_year=1907|fmt=c}} and ${{Inflation|index=US|value=500|start_year=1907|fmt=c}} in {{Inflation/year|index=US}}{{inflation/fn|index=US|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="Harris p. 33">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=33}}</ref><ref name="bt19210708">{{cite news|date=July 8, 1921|title=Champagne Porch is No More|page=6|work=Buffalo Times|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/64067746/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> The basement's grill room hosted ice-skating in the summer, as well as a "dog check room" where residents' dogs could be fed luxuriously. In its first decade, the Plaza employed a staff of over 1,500.<ref name="Satow ch. 1" />
 
==== Trump ownership ====
The Plaza was sold to real estate developer [[Donald Trump]] in March 1988 following a [[handshake agreement]];<ref name="wsj19880318" /><ref>{{cite news|date=March 19, 1988|title=Trump May Buy Plaza Hotel; Sues to Block Resorts Bid|page=13|work=Newsday|id={{ProQuest|277985843}} }}</ref> the sale was valued at either $390 million<ref>{{Cite news|last=Cole|first=Robert J.|date=March 27, 1988|title=Plaza Hotel Is Sold To Donald Trump For $390 Million|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1988/03/27/nyregion/plaza-hotel-is-sold-to-donald-trump-for-390-million.html|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> or $410 million.<ref>{{cite news|date=March 28, 1988|title=Trump to Pay $410 Million for Plaza; Developer Vows to Restore Hotel's Luster|page=4|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|135376084}} |issn=0099-9660}}</ref> After gaining title in July of that year, Trump appointed his wife [[Ivana Trump|Ivana]] as the hotel's president<ref>{{cite news|title=Ivana Trump: Hard work, discipline and self-reliance|newspaper=Tampa Bay Times|first=Marion M.|last=White|date=September 26, 1988|url=http://infoweb.newsbank.com/resources/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_dat=document_id%3Anews%252F0EB528F413ED16AC&rft_id=info%3Asid%2Finfoweb.newsbank.com&rft_val_format=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Actx&svc_dat=AWNB&req_dat=1028A39C75C2B899|via=NewsBank}}</ref><ref name="newsday19880720">{{cite news|date=July 20, 1988|title=Playing The Palm Court As a Trump Card Says Ivana Trump, `We appreciate the old beauty|page=04|work=Newsday|id={{ProQuest|277975714}} }}</ref> and announced a major renovation program.<ref name="newsday19880328" /> The work involved gilding many surfaces, replacing carpets, and reupholstering furniture.<ref>{{cite news|last=Revson|first=James A.|date=1989-09-September 21, 1989|title=Donald and Ivana Glitz the Plaza|page=04|work=Newsday|id={{ProQuest|1943384125}} }}</ref> The hotel made a modest profit for about two years after Trump's purchase, largely from increased occupancy, suite rates, and banquet bookings.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Agovino|first=Theresa|date=January 29, 1990|title=Profit in Sight for a Rejuvenated Plaza|id={{ProQuest|219134786}}|journal=Crain's New York Business|volume=6|issue=5|pages=1}}</ref>
 
Trump had borrowed extensively to purchase the Plaza Hotel, but its [[operating income]] was several million dollars below the [[Break-even (economics)|breakeven]] point.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Norris|first=Floyd|date=June 5, 1990|title=A Haze of Debt Clouds The Plaza Hotel's Gleam|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1990/06/05/business/a-haze-of-debt-clouds-the-plaza-hotel-s-gleam.html|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> As a result, the Plaza Hotel's debt ultimately grew to $600 million.<ref name="Sun Sentinel 1992">{{Cite news|last=Reuters|first=|date=March 19, 1992|title=Trump Relinquishing Half of Plaza Hotel Sale of Suites as Condos Fails to Raise Cash|page=2D|work=Sun Sentinel|id={{ProQuest|388941901}} }}</ref> By 1991, Trump was making plans to pay off the hotel's debt by selling off the vast majority of its units as [[condominium]]s. Trump estimated that the conversion would net $750 million, almost twice the purchase price.<ref>{{cite news|date=April 10, 1991|title=Trump planning to convert posh Plaza Hotel into condos|page=16|work=Star-Gazette|location=Elmira, NY|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/64215188/|access-date=November 29, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Hylton|first=Richard D.|date=April 9, 1991|title=Trump Aims to Turn Most of Plaza Hotel Into Condominiums|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1991/04/09/business/trump-aims-to-turn-most-of-plaza-hotel-into-condominiums.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Trump expected to sell rooms in Plaza Hotel|newspaper=Los Angeles Daily News|first=Richard D.|last=Hylton|date=April 9, 1991|url=http://infoweb.newsbank.com/resources/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_dat=document_id%3Anews%252F0EF612924BA52D15&rft_id=info%3Asid%2Finfoweb.newsbank.com&rft_val_format=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Actx&svc_dat=AWNB&req_dat=1028A39C75C2B899|via=NewsBank}}</ref> Trump also considered converting the offices within the mansard roof to penthouse condos.<ref name="Satow ch. 11" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Lueck|first=Thomas J.|date=June 3, 1990-06-03|title=Reaching for the Sky to Add a Room|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1990/06/03/realestate/reaching-for-the-sky-to-add-a-room.html|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The conversion plan failed because of a drop-off in prices in the city's real estate market.<ref name="Satow ch. 11" /><ref name="Sun Sentinel 1992" /> As a last resort, in March 1992, Trump approached the Plaza's creditors, a group of seventy banks led by [[Citibank]], who agreed to take a 49% stake in the hotel in exchange for forgiveness of $250&nbsp;million in debt and an interest rate reduction.<ref name="Sun Sentinel 1992" /><ref>{{cite news|title=Trump yields 49% of Plaza Hotel in N.Y.|newspaper=The Star-Ledger|location=Newark, NJ|date=March 19, 1992|url=http://infoweb.newsbank.com/resources/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_dat=document_id%3Anews%252F12246C4B02ABA3B8&rft_id=info%3Asid%2Finfoweb.newsbank.com&rft_val_format=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Actx&svc_dat=AWNB&req_dat=1028A39C75C2B899|via=NewsBank}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Lowenstein|first=Roger|date=1992-03-March 19, 1992|title=Trump Agrees to Give Lenders 49% of Plaza Hotel|page=A5|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|135320103}}| issn=0099-9660}}</ref> The agreement was submitted as a [[prepackaged bankruptcy]] in November 1992<ref>{{cite news|date=November 4, 1992-11-04|title=Prepackaged Bankruptcy Is Filed for Plaza Hotel|page=A6|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|398326488}}|issn=0099-9660}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|date=November 4, 1992-11-04|title=Company News; Trump Revises Plaza Loan|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1992/11/04/business/company-news-trump-revises-plaza-loan.html|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and approved the next month.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Reuters|date=December 12, 1992|title=Company News; Trump's Plaza Hotel Bankruptcy Plan Approved|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1992/12/12/business/company-news-trump-s-plaza-hotel-bankruptcy-plan-approved.html|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
==== Sale to Kwek and Al-Waleed ====
By 1994, Trump was looking to sell the Plaza before Citibank and other creditors could find a buyer, thereby wiping out his investment; one of his executives identified Hong Kong-based [[Sun Hung Kai Properties]] as a potential buyer. The deal fell through after the family of Sun Hung Kai executive [[Walter Kwok]] got trapped behind a jammed door while touring the Plaza Hotel.<ref name="Satow ch. 12">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 12}}</ref><!-- Trump, attempting to maintain public appearances, threatened to sue the ''New York Post'' that December for reporting on another potential buyer.<ref name="Satow ch. 12" /><ref>{{cite news|last=Henry|first=David|date=1994-12-December 22, 1994|title=Trump Says He'll Sue Post for $500M|page=A53|work=Newsday|id={{ProQuest|278840199}}}}</ref>--> Meanwhile, the creditors had also identified Singaporean developer [[Kwek Leng Beng]] as a likely buyer.<ref name="Satow 2019">{{cite web|last=Satow|first=Julie|date=May 23, 2019|title=That Time Trump Sold the Plaza Hotel at an $83 Million Loss|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2019-05-23/that-time-trump-sold-the-plaza-hotel-at-an-83-million-loss|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Bloomberg.com}}</ref> Kwek's company, Singaporean chain [[City Developments Limited]] (CDL), offered to take over the creditors' ownership stake.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Barron|first=James|date=January 11, 1995|title=Company News; Singapore Chain Seeks Plaza Hotel Stake|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1995/01/11/business/company-news-singapore-chain-seeks-plaza-hotel-stake.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Saudi prince [[Al-Waleed bin Talal]] was also interested in buying the Plaza, and by March 1995, Al-Waleed and CDL had raised $325 million for a controlling stake.<ref>{{cite news|last=Sutton|first=Larry|last2=Michelini|first2=Alex|date=March 16, 1995|title=Looking to Trump two on Plaza deal|page=1272|work=New York Daily News|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/64215917/|access-date=November 26, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> Trump unsuccessfully petitioned Kwek to partner with him instead of Al-Waleed.<ref name="wsj19970219">{{cite news|last=Pacelle|first=Mitchell|date=1997-02-February 19, 1997|title=Asian Investors Buy Up Hotels in U.S., Europe, But Move Cautiously|page=A1|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|1619948359}}|issn=0099-9660}}</ref>
 
Trump sold the controlling stake to Kwek and Al-Waleed in April 1995.<ref>{{cite news|date=April 12, 1995|title=Trump selling controlling interest in Plaza Hotel|page=44|work=Journal News|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/64216225/|access-date=November 29, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Gilpin|first=David|last2=Stout|first2=Kenneth N.|date=April 12, 1995|title=Trump Is Selling Plaza Hotel To Saudi and Asian Investors|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1995/04/12/business/trump-is-selling-plaza-hotel-to-saudi-and-asian-investors.html|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> As part of the transaction, the hotel's debt was cut by $25 million and Kwek and Al-Waleed each bought a 42 percent stake. Citibank received the other 16 percent stake, a move intended to prevent Trump from intervening in the sale.<ref name="Satow ch. 12" /><ref name="Satow 2019" /><ref name="wsj19970219" /> The partnership also agreed that, if the mansard penthouses were ever created, some of the profits would be shared with Trump.<ref name="Satow ch. 12" /> In 1997, Hong Kong developer [[Great Eagle Holdings]] agreed to buy half of Al-Waleed's stake in the Plaza Hotel.<ref>{{Cite news|date=September 30, 1997|title=Metro Business; New Plaza Hotel Owner|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1997/09/30/nyregion/metro-business-new-plaza-hotel-owner.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> DiLorenzo International renovated the ballroom in the mid-1990s,<ref name="NYCL p. 36" /> and Adam Tihany refurbished the Edwardian Room prior to 2001.<ref name="NYCL p. 27" /> The Plaza was highly profitable in the late 1990s, with operating income of almost $46 million at the end of that decade.<ref name="Satow ch. 12" />
[[File:Plaza Hotel Birthday Celebration.JPG|thumb|The Plaza Hotel turned 100 years old in October 2007, celebrating with ceremonies and fireworks]]
 
The [[September 11 attacks]] in 2001 resulted in a downturn in the New York City tourism industry. Correspondingly, the Plaza's operating profits decreased greatly, leaving Kwek and Al-Waleed unable to refurbish the Plaza as they had previously planned to do.<ref name="Satow ch. 12" /> In 2004, they sold the Plaza Hotel for $675 million to developer [[El Ad Properties]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Barron|first=James|date=August 14, 2004|title=Eloise Gets a New Landlord: Plaza Sells for $675 Million|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/14/nyregion/eloise-gets-a-new-landlord-plaza-sells-for-675-million.html|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=2004-08-August 16, 2004|title=Elad Properties: Plaza Hotel Will Change Hands In a $675 Million Transaction|page=A6|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|398907334}}|issn=0099-9660}}</ref> El Ad wished to add residential and commercial units, but initially faced pushback from hotel unions and preservationists, who opposed El Ad's plan to remove most of the hotel rooms and convert the restaurant spaces to stores.<ref name="Satow ch. 13"/><ref>{{cite web|title=Council fights hotels-to-condos trend|url=https://www.newsday.com/business/technology/council-fights-hotels-to-condos-trend-1.653200|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=Newsday}}</ref> After over sixty hours of discussions between El Ad and the hotel unions,<ref name="Satow ch. 13" /> they came to an agreement on April 14, 2005, in which El Ad would convert fewer units to apartments, while preserving more of the hotel suites.<ref>{{Cite news|date=2005-04-April 14, 2005|title=Mayor Announces Deal to Ease Job Cuts in Plaza Hotel Overhaul (Published 2005)|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/14/nyregion/mayor-announces-deal-to-ease-job-cuts-in-plaza-hotel-overhaul.html|access-date=2020-11-November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Steele|first=Lockhart|date=April 14, 2005|title=Breaking: Plaza Hotel 'Saved,' Sort Of|url=https://ny.curbed.com/2005/4/14/10615138/breaking-plaza-hotel-saved-sort-of|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=Curbed NY}}</ref>
 
The Plaza Hotel temporarily closed for a $450 million renovation on April 30, 2005, two weeks after the agreement had been brokered.<ref>{{Cite news|date=March 5, 2005|title=The Plaza Says It'll Be History After April 30|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2005/03/05/nyregion/the-plaza-says-itll-be-history-after-april-30.html|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Danto|first=Ginger|title=Suite Deal for the Plaza|work=Brandweek|date=April 25, 2005|page=30}}</ref> The Plaza's furnishings were auctioned on-site and at a 2006 [[Christie's]] auction.<ref name="Gura p. 95" /> [[Fairmont Hotels and Resorts]] took over operation of the hotel portion.<ref>{{Cite news|title=Fairmont to manage New York City's Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=CBC|url=https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/fairmont-to-manage-new-york-city-s-plaza-hotel-1.565230|access-date=November 23, 2020}}</ref> During the renovation, most of the short-term hotel rooms were converted into residential units,<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> and the Palm Court's stained glass ceiling was restored.<ref name="nyt20051212" /><ref name="latimes20080303" /> The hotel reopened on March 1, 2008.<ref name="latimes20080303" /><ref>{{cite news|last=Baltic|first=Scott|title=New York's Plaza Hotel Reopens After $400M Renovation|url=https://www.cpexecutive.com/post/new-yorks-plaza-hotel-reopens-after-400m-renovation/|work=Commercial Property News|date=March 3, 2008|access-date=July 9, 2020}}</ref> That November, the Plaza Hotel unveiled its retail collection, an underground mall featuring luxury brands.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Dworin|first=Caroline H.|date=December 6, 2008-12-06|title=For a Luxury Mall, an Ill-Timed Debut|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/07/nyregion/thecity/07mall.html|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Two years later, the Plaza Food Hall opened in the underground mall, anchored by the Todd English Food Hall in collaboration with chef [[Todd English]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Collins|first=Glenn|date=November 22, 2011|title=Plaza Food Hall Is Growing|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/23/dining/food-hall-at-plaza-hotel-is-expanding.html|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|date=2011-05-May 24, 2011|title=Q & A with Miki Naftali|url=https://therealdeal.com/2011/05/24/departing-elad-group-ceo-miki-naftali-brushes-off-rumored-plaza-hotel-tension-hits-the-ground-running-with-new-venture-the-naftali-group/|access-date=2020-11-November 30, 2020|website=The Real Deal New York|language=en-US}}</ref> The Oak Room restaurant closed in July 2011, two years after the renovation was completed.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Buckley|first=Cara|date=May 6, 2011-05-06|title=Oak Room Is Set to Close After Rent Fight With Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/06/nyregion/oak-room-at-plaza-hotel-plaza-is-scheduled-to-close.html|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Kludt 2011">{{cite web|last=Kludt|first=Amanda|date=May 6, 2011|title=The Plaza Hotel's Oak Room is Set to Close in July|url=https://ny.eater.com/2011/5/6/6682351/the-plaza-hotels-oak-room-is-set-to-close-in-july|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=Eater NY}}</ref>
 
In July 2012, [[Sahara India Pariwar]] agreed to buy a 75% controlling stake for $570 million from El Ad Properties.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018">{{cite web|last=Mashayekhi|first=Rey|date=July 18, 2018|title=The Plaza Hotel - The Long and Winding Ownership History|url=https://commercialobserver.com/2018/07/the-plaza-hotel-ownership-history/|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Commercial Observer}}</ref> Two years later, Sahara's [[Subrata Roy]] announced he was seeking a buyer for his company's majority stake in the Plaza for $4 billion.<ref name="nyt20140823">{{Cite news|last=Bagli|first=Charles V.|date=August 22, 2014|title=Legal Woes of Owners Help Put the Plaza Back in Play|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/23/nyregion/legal-woes-of-owners-help-put-the-plaza-back-in-play.html|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> At the time, Sahara was experiencing legal issues and was selling off other properties that it owned.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> The construction of the nearby [[Billionaires' Row (Manhattan)|Billionaires' Row]], a collection of residential skyscrapers marketed for the ultra-wealthy, also negatively affected sales at the Plaza.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Clarke|first=Katherine|title=The Plaza's Plight: Owners of apartments at the storied Central Park Hotel aren’t making the profits they’d hoped for|url=https://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/real-estate/owners-apartments-plaza-aren-big-profits-article-1.2337156|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=New York Daily News}}</ref> After Roy was unable to secure a buyer, he hired a broker in August 2017 to sell the hotel,<ref name="wsj20170822">{{Cite news|last=Karmin|first=Craig|date=August 22, 2017|title=Famed Plaza Hotel Is On the Block|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/famed-plaza-hotel-is-on-the-block-1503394221|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0099-9660}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Bagli|first=Charles V.|date=August 23, 2017|title=The Plaza Is for Sale, but a Part-Owner Has Other Ideas|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/23/nyregion/plaza-hotel-for-sale-subrata-roy.html|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> prompting inquiries from about 50 potential buyers.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Karmin|first=Craig|date=September 19, 2017|title=Dozens of Investors Show Interest in Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/several-investors-show-interest-in-plaza-hotel-1505836448|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0099-9660}}</ref> The same year, Saudi businessman [[Al-Waleed bin Talal]], whose [[Kingdom Holding Company]] owned a minor stake in the hotel, partnered with [[Ben Ashkenazy|Ashkenazy Acquisition Corporation]].<ref>{{Cite web|last=Warerkar|first=Tanay|date=May 25, 2017|title=Beleaguered Plaza Hotel purchase may soon be finalized|url=https://ny.curbed.com/2017/5/25/15690120/plaza-hotel-saudi-prince-sale|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Curbed NY|language=en}}</ref> Kingdom and Ashkenazy's partnership included a [[right of first refusal]], which allowed the companies to match any third-party offer for the hotel.<ref name="wsj20170822" /> In May 2018, the Sahara Group announced it had finalized a deal with businessmen [[Shahal M. Khan]] and [[Kamran Hakim]] to buy a majority share of the hotel for $600 million.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Satow|first=Julie|date=May 4, 2018|title=Deal Is Reached to Sell the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/03/nyregion/plaza-hotel-sale.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Warerkar|first=Tanay|date=May 3, 2018|title=Legendary Plaza Hotel will sell for $600M to Saudi prince|url=https://ny.curbed.com/2018/5/3/17316124/plaza-hotel-nyc-contract-sale-600-million-prince-alwaleed-bin-talal|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Curbed NY}}</ref> However, Ashkenazy and Kingdom exercised their right of first refusal,<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> sued Sahara for trying to sell the hotel to a third party,<ref>{{cite web|last=Hall|first=Miriam|date=May 21, 2018|title=Minority Owners Of The Plaza Hotel Sue Majority Owner For Trying To Sell To Third Party|url=https://www.bisnow.com/new-york/news/hotel/investors-trying-to-buy-the-plaza-hotel-are-suing-its-majority-owner-88672|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Bisnow}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Tan|first=Gillian|date=May 18, 2018|title=New York Plaza Hotel Buyers Ashkenazy, Alwaleed Sue Owner|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-05-18/alwaleed-ashkenazy-partnership-sues-over-sale-of-plaza-hotel|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Bloomberg.com}}</ref> and received an extension to close on their purchase of the Plaza.<ref>{{cite web|last=Parker|first=Will|last2=Maurer|first2=Mark|date=June 26, 2018|title=Ashkenazy, Kingdom get extension to close on Plaza deal: sources|url=https://therealdeal.com/2018/06/26/ashkenazy-kingdom-get-extension-to-close-on-plaza-deal-sources/|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=The Real Deal New York}}</ref>
 
Qatari state-owned hotelier [[Katara Hospitality]] ultimately acquired full ownership of the Plaza Hotel in July 2018.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref>{{Cite web|last=Kim|first=Betsy|date=July 5, 2018|title=Plaza Hotel Sold for $600 Million|url=https://www.globest.com/2018/07/05/plaza-hotel-sold-for-600-million/|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=GlobeSt|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Tan|first=Gillian|date=July 5, 2018|title=NYC’s Historic Plaza Hotel Sold to Qatari State-Owned Company|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-07-05/nyc-s-historic-plaza-hotel-is-sold-to-qatari-state-owned-company|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Bloomberg.com}}</ref> Under Katara's ownership, the condominium units garnered high asking prices; for instance, a four-bedroom unit was listed for $45 million in early 2020. Around the same time, the Plaza's condominium board sought to make repairs to the facade.<ref>{{Cite web|date=August 28, 2020-08-28|title=Balcony Repair Ignites Civil War at Plaza Hotel Over Union Labor|url=https://therealdeal.com/2020/08/28/house-divided-plaza-residents-hotel-battle-over-union-labor/|access-date=2020-11-November 30, 2020|website=The Real Deal New York|language=en-US}}</ref> Because of the [[COVID-19 pandemic in New York City]], and a corresponding [[Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism|downturn in tourism globally]], the Plaza's hotel rooms were temporarily closed in March 2020 for an indefinite period, and several hundred employees were laid off.<ref>{{cite web|last=Engquist|first=Erik|date=March 27, 2020|title=Plaza Hotel in New York City Closes, Lays Off 251|url=https://therealdeal.com/2020/03/27/the-plaza-shuts-down-and-lays-off-251/|access-date=November 26, 2020|website=The Real Deal New York}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Yeginsu|first=Ceylan|last2=Norman|first2=Derek M.|date=October 9, 2020|title=‘If No Tourists Come, I Have No Business’: New York’s Tourism Crisis|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/09/travel/nyc-tourism-travel-restrictions.html|access-date=November 26, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
== UseResidents and guests ==
=== Residents and guests ===
When the Plaza Hotel opened in 1907, the first guest to sign its register was [[Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt]].<ref name="NYCL p. 5" /> The hotel also housed other wealthy residents such as [[George Jay Gould]], as well as [[Oliver Harriman Jr.]] and his wife [[Grace Carley Harriman]].<ref name="tribune190710012">{{cite news|date=October 1, 1907|title=Dinner at the New Plaza Hotel|page=9|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63967422/|access-date=November 25, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> John Gates, the hotel's co-developer, had a 16-room apartment on the third floor.<ref name="ABM (1907) pp. 16-18">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|pp=16, 18}}</ref> [[Harry Frank Guggenheim]] lived in the hotel's State Apartment,<ref name="NPS p. 6" /><ref name="Gathje p. 82">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=82}}</ref> while Russian princess [[Vilma Lwoff-Parlaghy]], a prominent portrait painter in the early 20th century, lived in a third-floor suite with her lion.<ref name="Gathje p. 89">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=89}}</ref><ref name="nyt20190607" /> The hotel's appeal to the wealthy came from the fact that, in the early 20th century, apartments at the Plaza were generally cheaper than in more upscale apartment buildings, and that it faced Central Park, which at the time was highly patronized by the wealthy.<ref name="Frohne p. 354">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=354}}</ref>
 
=== Residents and guests ===
Later in the 20th century, the Plaza Hotel served as home to "wealthy widows", such as performer [[Kay Thompson]], who wrote the ''[[Eloise (books)|Eloise]]'' children's book series about a young girl who lived at the hotel.<ref name="nyt20190607" /> During the Great Depression, the "wealthy widows" were considered "a tourist attraction in their own right", with their rent income keeping the hotel solvent.<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /> The hotel's other residents included playwright [[Ferenc Molnár]].<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /><ref name="Gathje p. 90">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=90}}</ref> After many units were converted to condominium units in 2008, the Plaza Hotel's residents included musician [[Moby]],<ref>{{Cite web|last=Gould|first=Jennifer|date=2020-03-13|title=Moby’s Central Park penthouse asking $5.75M|url=https://nypost.com/2020/03/13/mobys-central-park-penthouse-asking-5-8m/|access-date=2020-11-30|website=New York Post|language=en-US}}</ref> developer [[Christian Candy]],<ref>{{Cite news|last=Barbanel|first=Josh|date=2012-03-06|title=Candy Gets Taste of the Plaza|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=https://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203370604577263714290343358.html|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0099-9660}}</ref> and fashion designer [[Tommy Hilfiger]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Marino|first=Vivian|date=2019-11-01|title=Tommy Hilfiger’s Duplex Sells After 11 Years on the Market (Published 2019)|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/01/realestate/tommy-hilfigers-duplex-sells-after-11-years-on-the-market.html|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
When the Plaza Hotel opened in 1907, the first guest to sign its register was [[Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt]].<ref name="NYCL p. 5" /> The hotel also housed other wealthy residents such as [[George Jay Gould]], as well as [[Oliver Harriman Jr.]] and his wife [[Grace Carley Harriman]].<ref name="tribune190710012">{{cite news|date=October 1, 1907|title=Dinner at the New Plaza Hotel|page=9|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63967422/|access-date=November 25, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> John Gates, the hotel's co-developer, had a 16-room apartment on the third floor.<ref name="ABM (1907) pp. 16-18">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|pp=16, 18}}</ref> [[Harry Frank Guggenheim]] lived in the hotel's State Apartment,<ref name="NPS p. 6" /><ref name="Gathje p. 82">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=82}}</ref> while Russian princess [[Vilma Lwoff-Parlaghy]], a prominent portrait painter in the early 20th century, lived in a third-floor suite with her lion.<ref name="Gathje p. 89">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=89}}</ref><ref name="nyt20190607" /> The hotel's appeal to the wealthy came from the fact that, in the early 20th century, apartments at the Plaza were generally cheaper than in more upscale apartment buildings, and that it faced Central Park, which at the time was highly patronized by the wealthy.<ref name="Frohne p. 354">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=354}}</ref>
 
Later in the 20th century, the Plaza Hotel served as home to "wealthy widows", such as performer [[Kay Thompson]], who wrote the ''[[Eloise (books)|Eloise]]'' children's book series about a young girl who lived at the hotel.<ref name="nyt20190607" /> During the Great Depression, the "wealthy widows" were considered "a tourist attraction in their own right", with their rent income keeping the hotel solvent.<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /> The hotel's other residents included playwright [[Ferenc Molnár]].<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /><ref name="Gathje p. 90">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=90}}</ref>
The guestrooms have also hosted several notable guests. These have included opera singer [[Enrico Caruso]], as well as novelists [[F. Scott Fitzgerald]] and [[Zelda Fitzgerald]].<ref name="NYCL p. 16" /> [[Frank Lloyd Wright]] often stayed at the Plaza when he was designing the [[Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum]] on Fifth Avenue, considering it to be his home.<ref name="aia5" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|pp=82, 84}}</ref> Art dealer [[Joseph Duveen, 1st Baron Duveen]], who helped assemble the [[Frick Collection]] at the nearby [[Henry Clay Frick House|Frick House]], lived at the Plaza and held important auctions in the ballroom.<ref name="Gathje p. 81" /> In addition, [[the Beatles]] stayed at the Plaza Hotel during their first visit to the United States in February 1964.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref name="Gathje pp. 124-125">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|pp=124–125}}; {{harvnb|ps=.|Harris|1981|pp=94, 99}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|date=February 14, 1964|title=4,000 Hail Beatles on Arrival in Miami|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1964/02/14/archives/4000-hail-beatles-on-arrival-in-miami.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
After many units were converted to condominium units in 2008, the Plaza Hotel became highly coveted as a residence for the rich.<ref name="Satow ch. 13" /> The residents included executives such as [[Kraft Company]] CEO [[Robert Kraft]],<ref>{{Cite web|last=Keil|first=Braden|date=September 10, 2008|title=White Elephant|url=https://nypost.com/2008/09/10/white-elephant/|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=New York Post|language=en-US}}</ref> [[JetBlue]] CEO [[David Barger]],<ref>{{Cite news|last=Barbanel|first=Josh|date=September 30, 2007|title=Taking Refuge at the Plaza|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/30/realestate/30deal1.html|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> [[Bear Stearns]] CEO [[James Cayne]],<ref>{{Cite news|date=August 15, 2013|title=Bear Stearns's Cayne Lists in New York|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=https://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324085304579011753073278332.html|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0099-9660}}</ref> [[Viacom]] CEO [[Thomas E. Dooley]],<ref>{{Cite web|date=November 20, 2007|title=When Is $7.8 M. Not A Lot? When It’s A Condo at The Plaza|url=https://observer.com/2007/11/when-is-78-m-not-a-lot-when-its-a-condo-at-the-plaza/|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=Observer|language=en-US}}</ref> [[Sony Music Entertainment]] CEO [[Doug Morris]],<ref>{{Cite web|last=Stone|first=Madeline|title=The CEO Of Sony Music Is Selling His Ritzy New York City Condo For $11.5 Million|url=https://www.businessinsider.com/doug-morris-is-selling-his-condo-for-115-million-2014-10|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=Business Insider}}</ref> and ''[[Idols (franchise)|Idols]]'' franchise producer [[Simon Fuller]].<ref>{{cite web|last=Alberts|first=Hana R.|title=Huxley Building Action; American Idol Creator Sells Plaza Pads|website=Curbed NY|date=October 16, 2014|url=https://ny.curbed.com/2014/10/16/10034812/huxley-building-action-american-idol-creator-sells-plaza-pads|access-date=November 30, 2020}}</ref> Other notable residents included musician [[Moby]],<ref>{{Cite web|last=Gould|first=Jennifer|date=March 13, 2020|title=Moby’s Central Park penthouse asking $5.75M|url=https://nypost.com/2020/03/13/mobys-central-park-penthouse-asking-5-8m/|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=New York Post|language=en-US}}</ref> developer [[Christian Candy]],<ref>{{Cite news|last=Barbanel|first=Josh|date=March 6, 2012|title=Candy Gets Taste of the Plaza|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=https://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203370604577263714290343358.html|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0099-9660}}</ref> and fashion designer [[Tommy Hilfiger]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Marino|first=Vivian|date=November 1, 2019|title=Tommy Hilfiger’s Duplex Sells After 11 Years on the Market (Published 2019)|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/01/realestate/tommy-hilfigers-duplex-sells-after-11-years-on-the-market.html|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
=== Social scene ===
 
=== Guests ===
The guestrooms have also hosted several notable guestspersonalities. These have included opera singer [[Enrico Caruso]], as well as novelists [[F. Scott Fitzgerald]] and [[Zelda Fitzgerald]].<ref name="NYCL p. 16" /> [[Frank Lloyd Wright]] often stayed at the Plaza when he was designing the [[Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum]] on Fifth Avenue, considering it to be his home.<ref name="aia5" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|pp=82, 84}}</ref> Art dealer [[Joseph Duveen, 1st Baron Duveen]], who helped assemble the [[Frick Collection]] at the nearby [[Henry Clay Frick House|Frick House]], lived at the Plaza and held important auctions in the ballroom.<ref name="Gathje p. 81" /> In addition, [[the Beatles]] stayed at the Plaza Hotel during their first visit to the United States in February 1964.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref name="Gathje pp. 124-125">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|pp=124–125}}; {{harvnb|ps=.|Harris|1981|pp=94, 99}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|date=February 14, 1964|title=4,000 Hail Beatles on Arrival in Miami|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1964/02/14/archives/4000-hail-beatles-on-arrival-in-miami.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
=== Social scene ===
The Plaza Hotel became associated with celebrities and the wealthy upon its opening, surpassing the original Waldorf Astoria in that respect.<ref name="Satow ch. 1">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 1}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Groth|first=Paul|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=iISubnikC2kC|title=Living Downtown: The History of Residential Hotels in the United States|publisher=University of California Press|year=1994|isbn=978-0-520-06876-6|location=|page=42}}</ref> The Palm Court (then the tea room), with its mostly female guest list, was particularly frequented. Weeks after the hotel's 1907 opening, actress [[Mrs Patrick Campbell]] attempted to smoke there, and the resulting controversy boosted the Plaza's stature.<ref name="NYCL p. 57" /><ref name="Harris p. 66, 68">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=66, 68}}</ref> In January 1908, crowds flocked to see heiress [[Gladys Vanderbilt Széchenyi|Gladys Vanderbilt]] and her fiance, Hungarian count [[László Széchenyi]], have tea while Theodora Shonts arrived with her fiance [[Emmanuel d'Albert de Luynes]], the [[Duke of Chaulnes]].<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref>{{Cite news|date=January 12, 1908|title=Crush to See Brides Who'll Wear Titles; Throng of Women at the Plaza Jams Corridors, Men's Cafe, and Grill. Duke and Count on View With Miss Theodora Shonts and Miss Gladys Vanderbilt, Whom They Are Soon to Wed|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1908/01/12/archives/crush-to-see-brides-wholl-wear-titles-throng-of-women-at-the-plaza.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Brown p. 174">{{harvnb|Brown|1967|ps=.|p=174}}</ref> That year, the ''New York World'' dubbed the hotel the "Home-for-the-Incurably Opulent".<ref name="NPS p. 8">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=8}}</ref><ref name="Harris p. 66">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=66}}</ref> By 1909, the Palm Court was consistently exceeding its 350-person capacity.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref>{{Cite news|date=April 25, 1909|title=Society's Latest Fad--Tearooms|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1909/04/25/archives/societys-latest-fadtearooms.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
The hotel has also been popular among world leaders, particularly presidents of the United States. The first of these was [[Theodore Roosevelt]], the 26th U.S. president, who moved his [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican Party]]'s events to the Plaza Hotel from the [[Fifth Avenue Hotel]] after the closure of the former in 1908.<ref name="Harris pp. 109-110">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=109–110}}</ref> Theodore Roosevelt's distant cousin, president [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]], had his birthday luncheon in the Palm Court in 1935.<ref name="NYCL p. 58">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=58 (PDF p.&nbsp;59)}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|date=January 31, 1935|title=Gay Pageant Here Honors President|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1935/01/31/archives/gay-pageant-here-honors-president-ball-at-the-waldorf-is-central.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Other U.S. presidents who frequented the hotel's guestrooms or restaurants have included [[William Howard Taft]], [[Harry S. Truman]], and [[Richard Nixon]],<ref name="NYCL p. 58" /><ref name="Harris p. 110">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=110}}</ref> as well as onetime owner Donald Trump.<ref name="nyt20190607" /> For other world leaders, the Plaza Hotel kept a series of national flags, which were displayed whenever a foreign head of state visited.<ref name="Harris p. 110" /> The Plaza Hotel has additionally been used for diplomacy, as in September 1985, the finance ministers of several countries signed the [[Plaza Accord]] at the hotel, which [[Currency appreciation and depreciation|depreciated]] the [[United States dollar|U.S. dollar]] in relation to other currencies.<ref>{{cite book|last=Funabashi|first=Yōichi|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=wuZgDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA263|title=Managing the Dollar: From the Plaza to the Louvre|publisher=Institute for International Economics|year=1989|isbn=978-0-88132-097-8|series=Books / Institute for international economics|pages=261–271}}</ref>
 
==== Receptions ====
[[File:Dinner at the Plaza Hotel, New York 1908.jpg|thumb|Depiction of a dinner at the Plaza Hotel in 1908]]
The Terrace Room has frequently been used for press conferences, luncheons, and receptions.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /> For instance, it hosted a 1956 press conference where [[Laurence Olivier]] and [[Marilyn Monroe]] talked about their upcoming film ''[[The Prince and the Showgirl]].''<ref name="Gathje p. 111">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=111}}</ref> At another press conference in the Terrace Room in 1968, [[Richard Burton]] and [[Elizabeth Taylor]] discussed their film ''[[Doctor Faustus (1967 film)|Dr. Faustus]]''.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref name="Gathje p. 137">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=137}}</ref> During the Beatles' 1964 stay at the hotel, visitors were allowed to take pictures with the Beatles at the Terrace Room.<ref name="Gathje pp. 124-125" />
 
==== Benefits and weddings ====
Upon the Grand Ballroom's opening in 1921, it immediately became popular as a venue for [[debutante ball]]s, including those in honor of [[Joan Whitney Payson]] and [[Cathleen Vanderbilt]].<ref name="NYCL p. 35" /><ref name="Brown pp. 223-229">{{harvnb|Brown|1967|ps=.|pp=223–229}}</ref> The rebuilt ballroom hosted social benefits such as a dinner honoring physicist [[Marie Curie]] in 1929,<ref>{{Cite news|date=October 31, 1929|title=Honor Mme. Curie Tonight; Cancer Society Members Hosts at Only Public Event for Her Here|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1929/10/31/archives/honor-mme-curie-tonight-cancer-society-members-hosts-at-only-public.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and a meeting of the Girls Service League in 1935 that was attended by U.S. first lady [[Eleanor Roosevelt]].<ref>{{Cite news|date=November 3, 1935|title=President's Wife to Speak on Youth; Mrs. Roosevelt Will Address Girls Service League Here at Nov. 14 Meeting|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1935/11/03/archives/presidents-wife-to-speak-on-youth-mrs-roosevelt-will-address-girls.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Following World War II, the Grand Ballroom again became a popular venue for debutante balls and benefits,<ref name="NYCL p. 35" /><ref name="Brown pp. 223-229" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Gardner|first=Evelyn|date=November 20, 1955|title=Forthcoming Debutante Balls Here Recall Cotillions of Earlier Days|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1955/11/20/archives/forthcoming-debutante-balls-here-recall-cotillions-of-earlier-days.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> including a disabled veterans; benefit called the December Ball,<ref name="NYCL pp. 15-16">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=15–16}}</ref><ref name="Gathje p. 84">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=84}}</ref> as well as an event benefiting the Kennedy Child Care Study Center in 1959.<ref name="NYCL p. 16">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=16}}</ref><ref name="Gathje p. 120">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=120}}</ref> Writer [[Truman Capote]] hosted the "[[Black and White Ball]]" there in 1966, in honor of publisher [[Katharine Graham]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Curtis|first=Charlotte|date=November 29, 1966|title=Capote's Black and White Ball: 'The Most Exquisite of Spectator Sports'|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1966/11/29/archives/capotes-black-and-white-ball-the-most-exquisite-of-spectator-sports.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Gathje pp. 130-133">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|pp=130–133}}</ref><ref name="Jackson p. 202">{{harvnb|Jackson|2010|ps=.|p=202}}</ref> Another popular venue for benefits was the Terrace Court, which hosted events such as the Mid-Winter Ball in 1949.<ref name="NYCL p. 58" /><ref>{{Cite news|date=January 16, 1949|title=Auction of Thoroughbred Filly on Thursday To Be Feature of Annual Midwinter Ball|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1949/01/16/archives/auction-of-thoroughbred-filly-on-thursday-to-be-feature-of-annual.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
=== Landmark designations ===
[[File:New York City, Nov 29, 2008 (3075044187).jpg|thumb|New York City designated landmark plaque]]
The demolition of the nearby Savoy-Plaza in 1964, and its replacement with the General Motors Building, resulted in a preservation movement to save the Plaza Hotel and nearby structures.<ref name="Satow ch. 9" /> The Plaza Hotel's exterior was designated a city landmark by the [[New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission]] in 1969.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1" /><ref>{{Cite news|date=December 18, 1969|title=2 City Sites Designated Landmarks|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1969/12/18/archives/2-city-sites-designated-landmarks.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The hotel was added to the [[National Register of Historic Places]] in 1978,<ref name="nris">{{cite web | title=Federal Register: 44 Fed. Reg. 7107 (Feb. 6, 1979) | publisher=[[Library of Congress]] | date=February 6, 1979 | url=http://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/fedreg/fr044/fr044026/fr044026.pdf | access-date=March 8, 2020 | page=7539 (PDF p.&nbsp;339) | url-status=live }}</ref> and it was also made a [[National Historic Landmark]] in 1986.<ref name="nhlsum">{{cite web | title=List of NHLs by State | website=National Historic Landmarks (U.S. National Park Service) | date=May 4, 1970 | url=https://www.nps.gov/subjects/nationalhistoriclandmarks/list-of-nhls-by-state.htm | access-date=November 30, 2020}}</ref>
 
A large part of the main public space in the interior, including the lobbies, ballroom, and restaurant spaces, was made a New York City designated landmark in 2005.<ref name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Gura p. 90" /> The interior-landmark designation had been partially motivated by opposition to El Ad's original plans to renovate the hotel during 2004. The restaurant spaces, preserved under the interior-landmark designation, would have been converted into retail space.<ref name="Satow ch. 13">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 13}}</ref><ref name="AR 2005">{{cite journal|url=https://www.usmodernist.org/AR/AR-2005-03.pdf|title=What does the future hold for the Plaza Hotel?|last=Ulam|first=Alex|journal=Architectural Record|volume=193|issue=3|date=March 2005|page=36}}</ref>