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The '''Plaza Hotel''' (also known as '''The Plaza''') is a [[luxury hotel]] and condominium [[apartment building]] in [[Midtown Manhattan]] in [[New York City]]. It is on the western side of [[Grand Army Plaza (Manhattan)|Grand Army Plaza]], just west of [[Fifth Avenue]], between 58th Street and [[Central Park South]]. The Plaza Hotel is named for Grand Army Plaza, which in turn is at the southeastern corner of [[Central Park]]. Its primary address is at 768 Fifth Avenue, though the residential entrance is at One Central Park South.
 
The 19-story, [[French Renaissance]]-inspired [[château]]-style building was designed by [[Henry Janeway Hardenbergh]]. The facade is made of marble at the base and white brick in the intermediate stories, while the hotel is topped by a [[mansard roof]]. The ground floor contains the two primary lobbies, as well as a corridor connecting severalthe large roomsground-floor suchrestaurant asspaces, including the [[Oak Room (Plaza Hotel)|Oak Room]], the Oak Bar, the Edwardian Room, the Palm Court, and the Terrace Room. The upper stories contain the ballroom and a variety of residential [[Condominium|condominiums]], condo-hotel suites, and short-term hotel suites. At its peak, the Plaza Hotel had over 800 rooms;. followingFollowing a renovation in 2008, the building has 282 hotel rooms and 181 condos.
 
A predecessor hotel of the same name was built from 1883 to 1890. The original hotel was replaced by the current structure from 1905 to 1907; [[Warren and Wetmore]] designed an expansion to the Plaza Hotel from 1919 to 1921, and several major renovations were conducted through the rest of the 20th century. [[ConradThe Hilton]]Plaza acquiredOperating Company, which erected the current building, operated the hotel inuntil 1943. Subsequently, andit ownershipwas passedsold throughto several other owners during the remainder of the 20th century, including [[Conrad Hilton]], A.M. Sonnabend, [[Westin Hotels & Resorts]], [[Donald Trump]], and a partnership of [[City Developments Limited]] and [[Al-Waleed bin Talal]]. The Plaza Hotel was renovated again after [[El Ad Properties]] purchased it in 2005, and the hotel was subsequently sold to [[Sahara India Pariwar]] and finally to [[Katara Hospitality]].
 
Since its inception, the Plaza Hotel has become an icon of New York City, hostingwith manynumerous wealthy and famous guests. The restaurant spaces and largeballrooms have hosted events such as weddings, [[Ball (dance party)|balls]], benefits, and press conferences. The hotel's design, as well as its location near Central Park, has generally received positive acclaim. In addition, the Plaza Hotel has appeared in numerous books and films. The hotel's exterior and some of its interior spaces are [[New York City designated landmark]]s, and the building is also a [[National Historic Landmark]].
 
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The current ballroom on the first floor is at the center of that story.<ref name="NYCL p. 23">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=21 (PDF p.&nbsp;23)}}</ref><ref name="NPS p. 11">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=11}}</ref> It was initially designed by Warren and Wetmore, and had a capacity of 800 people during dinners and 1,000 people during dances.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /><ref name="NYCL p. 13" /> The room contained a coved ceiling designed by Smeraldi, with crosses, hexagons, and octagons, as well as six overhanging chandeliers. The ballroom had a stage on its western wall, within a rectangular opening. A balcony ran across the three other walls and was supported by pilasters with bronze capitals.<ref name="NYCL p. 35">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=35 (PDF p.&nbsp;36)}}</ref>
 
Warren and Wetmore's ballroom was reconstructed in 1929 to a neoclassical design by Schultze & Weaver.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="NYCL p. 35" /> The room has a white and cream color scheme with gold ornamentation, evocative of the original ballroom's design.<ref name="NYCL p. 13" /><ref name="Brown p. 73">{{harvnb|ps=.|Brown|1967|p=73}}</ref> The stage remains on the western wall, but is within a rounded opening. The redesign added audience boxes on the north and east walls, with decorative metal railings.<ref name="NYCL p. 36">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=36 (PDF p.&nbsp;37)}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|date=November 8, 1929|title=1,000 Hear Mary Garden.; With Ruth Breton She Gives First of "Artistic Mornings" at Plaza.|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1929/11/08/archives/1000-hear-mary-garden-with-ruth-breton-she-gives-first-of-artistic.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The ballroom contains a coved ceiling with roundels, lunettes, bas reliefs, and two chandeliers.<ref name="NYCL p. 36" /> South of the ballroom proper is a corridor running west to east.<ref name="NYCL p. 23" /><ref name="NPS p. 11" /> The corridor has a decorative barrel-vaulted paneled ceiling and had a balcony that was removed in the 1929 redesign.<ref name="NYCL p. 39">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=39 (PDF p.&nbsp;40)}}</ref> On the southernmost section of the first floor is the ballroom foyer and the stair hall, two formerly separate rooms that were combined in 1965 to form a neoclassical marble-clad space. The stair hall contains the stair leading from the mezzanine foyer.<ref name="NYCL p. 40">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=40 (PDF p.&nbsp;41)}}</ref><ref name="nyt19641117">{{Cite news|date=November 17, 1964|title=Plaza Pressing Expansion Drive; Hotel Will Get Trader Vic's From Savoy‐Plaza and Enlarge Banquet Room|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1964/11/17/archives/plaza-pressing-expansion-drive-hotel-will-get-trader-vics-from.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
==== Condominiums and suites ====
The Plaza Hotel's condominiums and suites start at the second floor.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 142">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=14}}</ref> As built, they contained three primary types of suites: those with one bedroom and one bathroom; those with two bedrooms and two bathrooms; and those with a parlor and a varying number of beds and baths.<ref name="rer19070914" /><ref name="Frohne pp. 352-353">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|pp=352–353}}</ref> The walls were originally painted in rose, yellow, cream, and gray hues.<ref name="Gathje p. 81">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=81}}</ref> For decorative effect, the rooms contained wooden wainscoting and furniture, while the plaster ceilings contained crystal chandeliers.<ref name="Gathje pp. 81-82">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|pp=81&ndash;82}}</ref> A guest or resident could request multiple suites, since there were smaller private hallways adjacent to the main hallway on each floor. There were also staff rooms at the corners of the main corridor on each floor.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 16">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=16}}</ref><ref name="Frohne pp. 352-353" /> Dumbwaiters led from the staff rooms to the basement kitchen, allowing guests to order meals and eat them in-suite.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="Harris pp. 22-23">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=22–23}}</ref><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 22">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=22}}</ref>
 
Following its 2008 renovation, the hotelbuilding contains 181 privately owned condominiums, which are marketed as the Plaza Residences or One Central Park South.<ref name="aia5" /><ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Haughney|first=Christine|date=2008-02-17|title=It’s Lonely at the Plaza Hotel ...|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/17/fashion/17plaza.html|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The condominiums are on the northern and eastern sides of the building and contain a variety of layouts, from studio apartments to three-story penthouse units. The condos' interior furnishings include parquet floors and stone counters, and largely reflect the original design of these rooms.<ref name="Horsley">{{Cite web|title=The Plaza, 1 Central Park South|first=Carter|last=Horsley|url=https://www.cityrealty.com/nyc/midtown-west/the-plaza-1-central-park-south/30362|access-date=2020-11-30|website=City Realty|language=en}}</ref> There are also 282 hotel units on the southern side of the building. Of these, 152 condo-hotel units occupy eleven of the upper stories; they serve as residences for investors or staff for up to four months a year, and are used as short-term hotel units for the remaining time. In addition, there are 130 rooms exclusively for short-term stays on seven of the lower stories.<ref name="Horsley" /><ref name="latimes20080303" /><ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> The hotel portion of the building retains a butler on each floor, reminiscent of the hotel's original ambience.<ref name="latimes20080303" />
 
Hardenbergh's design included the State Apartments on the northern side of the first floor.<ref name="Frohne p. 356">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=356}}</ref><ref name="AA (1907) pp. 134-135">{{harvnb|American Architect|1907|ps=.|pp=134–135}}</ref> The [[state room]] was one of the most lavish suites in the entire hotel; it had a drawing room, antechambers, dining rooms, bedrooms and bathrooms, and food storage.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 135" /> Also on the first floor were private banquet, reception, and card rooms.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="Frohne p. 352" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 14" /> The state room was turned into a private dining area and restored in 1974.<ref name="NPS p. 6" /> Similarly ornate suites were located along the Central Park South side on eleven of the upper floors.<ref name="Gathje p. 81" />
 
=== First hotel ===
John Duncan Phyfe and James Campbell acquired the site in 1883.<ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /><ref name="Stern (1999) pp. 529-530">{{harvnb|Stern|Mellins|Fishman|1999|ps=.|pp=529–530}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|date=October 30, 1883|title=Sale of Fifth Avenue Plaza Lots|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1883/10/30/archives/sale-of-fifthavenue-plaza-lots.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Phyfe and Campbell announced plans for a nine-story apartment building at the site that October,<ref>{{cite journal|date=October 13, 1883|title=Out Among the Builders|url=https://rerecord.library.columbia.edu/document.php?vol=ldpd_7031128_032&page=ldpd_7031128_032_00000336&no=1|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=32|pages=785|via=[[Columbia University|columbia.edu]]|number=813}}</ref> to be designed by [[Carl Pfeiffer (architect)|Carl Pfeiffer]],<ref name="Gathje p. 4">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=4}}</ref> and construction on the apartment block began that same year.<ref name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Stern (1999) pp. 529-530" /><ref>{{Cite news|date=November 4, 1883|title=A Grand Family Hotel.; the Mammoth Structure to Be Erected on the Fifth-Avenue Plaza|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1883/11/04/archives/a-grand-family-hotel-the-mammoth-structure-to-be-erected-on-the.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The builders borrowed over $800,000 from the [[New York Life Insurance Company]], and obtained a second mortgage to John Charles Anderson for a total investment of $2 million.{{efn-lg|New York Life's investment is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|0.8|1888|r=2}} million, and the total investment is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|2|1888|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}.{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="nyt18880228">{{Cite news|date=February 28, 1888|title=Prospect of a New Hotel.; the New Structure at Central Park May Be Finished|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1888/02/28/archives/prospect-of-a-new-hotel-the-new-structure-at-central-park-may-be.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> ByIn 18871885, afterJohn takingAnderson's threefamily loanscontested fromhis New York Lifewill, Phyfe and Campbellhis foundgranddaughter thatMary theyMaude didWatson notdisputed havePhyfe enoughand fundsCampbell's title to complete the apartment blockproperty.<ref name="nyt18910826">{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=August 26, 18911885-10-14|title=TheMary PlazaMaud HotelWatson's CaseSuit.; Howan BeersEffort Boughtto aObtain Whitean ElephantInterest forin HisFifth-avenue CompanyProperty|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/18911885/0810/2614/archives/themary-plazamaud-hotelwatsons-casesuit-howan-beerseffort-boughtto-aobtain-whitean-elephantinterest-for-hisin.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 2020-11-25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The extentsenior to which the apartment building was completed before the builders' bankruptcy is unclear.<ref name="NYCL p. 17">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=17}}</ref>{{efn|The 1885 E. Robinson Atlas shows the "Fifth Avenue Plaza Hotel" as occupying part of the site, without indicating its construction status<ref name="NYCL p. 17"/> and ''The New York Times'' of February 28, 1888, describes the hotelAnderson's interiorwill aswas beinginvalidated partiallyin furnished.<ref name=nyt18880228/> Although architectural writer [[Robert A. M. Stern]] implies that only the foundations were completed1887,<ref name="Stern (1999) pp. 529-530nyt18870605" /><ref name="NYCL p. 17btu18880522"/> the building had progressed several stories above ground by 1886, when a worker died after falling seven stories from the structure.<ref>{{Citecite news|datelast=March 23, 1886|titlefirst=FAlling Seven Stories.; a Workman Killed at the New Plaza Hotel in Fifty-ninth-street|languagedate=en1888-US05-22|worktitle=TheA New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1886/03/23/archives/falling-seven-stories-a-workman-killed-at-the-new-plaza-hotelSon-in.html|access-date=Novemberlaw's 27$750, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>}} In February 1888, brothers Eugene M. and Frank Earle entered contract to lease the hotel from Phyfe and Campbell, and furnish it.<ref name="nyt18880228" /> New York Life concurrently foreclosed on the apartment building,<ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /><ref>{{cite news|date=December 5, 1888|title=The Plaza Hotel Property Sold000|page=21|work=NewBrooklyn Times-York TribuneUnion|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/6395508963954618/|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020-11-25|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> and thatWatson September,gave bought it at public auction for $925,000.<ref name="nyt18880919">{{Cite news|date=September 19, 1888|title=Sale of the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1888/09/19/archives/sale-of-the-plaza-hotel.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Shortly afterward, New York Life decided to remodel the interiors completely,<ref>{{Cite news|date=November 24, 1888|title=Must Be Reconstructed.; the Interior of the Plaza Hotel of Inferior Workmanship.|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1888/11/24/archives/must-be-reconstructed-the-interior-of-the-plaza-hotel-of-inferior.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> hiring architectsa [[McKim, Mead &quitclaim Whitedeed]] to completePhyfe theand hotel.<refCampbell, name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /> New York Life leased theallowing hotelthem to Frederickcontinue A. Hammond in 1889,<ref>{{Cite news|date=April 17, 1899|title=Plaza Hotel May Close; Said that Mr. Hammond Will Not Get a Renewal of His Lease|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1899/04/17/archives/plaza-hotel-may-close-said-that-mr-hammond-will-not-get-a-renewal.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> andholding the Hammond brothers became the operators of the hotel for the next fifteen yearsland.<ref name="Harrisbtu18880522" p. 9">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=9}}</ref>
 
By 1887, after taking three loans from New York Life, Phyfe and Campbell found that they did not have enough funds to complete the apartment block.<ref name="nyt18910826">{{Cite news|date=August 26, 1891|title=The Plaza Hotel Case; How Beers Bought a White Elephant for His Company|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1891/08/26/archives/the-plaza-hotel-case-how-beers-bought-a-white-elephant-for-his.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The extent to which the apartment building was completed before the builders' bankruptcy is unclear.<ref name="NYCL p. 17">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=17}}</ref>{{efn|The 1885 E. Robinson Atlas shows the "Fifth Avenue Plaza Hotel" as occupying part of the site, without indicating its construction status<ref name="NYCL p. 17"/> and ''The New York Times'' of February 28, 1888, describes the hotel's interior as being partially furnished.<ref name=nyt18880228/> Although architectural writer [[Robert A. M. Stern]] implies that only the foundations were completed,<ref name="Stern (1999) pp. 529-530" /><ref name="NYCL p. 17"/> the building had progressed several stories above ground by 1886, when a worker died after falling seven stories from the structure.<ref>{{Cite news|date=March 23, 1886|title=FAlling Seven Stories.; a Workman Killed at the New Plaza Hotel in Fifty-ninth-street|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1886/03/23/archives/falling-seven-stories-a-workman-killed-at-the-new-plaza-hotel-in.html|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>}} In February 1888, brothers Eugene M. and Frank Earle entered contract to lease the hotel from Phyfe and Campbell, and furnish it.<ref name="nyt18880228" /> New York Life concurrently foreclosed on the apartment building,<ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /><ref>{{cite news|date=December 5, 1888|title=The Plaza Hotel Property Sold|page=2|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63955089/|access-date=November 25, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> and that September, bought it at public auction for $925,000.<ref name="nyt18880919">{{Cite news|date=September 19, 1888|title=Sale of the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1888/09/19/archives/sale-of-the-plaza-hotel.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Shortly afterward, New York Life decided to remodel the interiors completely,<ref>{{Cite news|date=November 24, 1888|title=Must Be Reconstructed.; the Interior of the Plaza Hotel of Inferior Workmanship.|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1888/11/24/archives/must-be-reconstructed-the-interior-of-the-plaza-hotel-of-inferior.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> hiring architects [[McKim, Mead & White]] to complete the hotel.<ref name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /> New York Life leased the hotel to Frederick A. Hammond in 1889,<ref>{{Cite news|date=April 17, 1899|title=Plaza Hotel May Close; Said that Mr. Hammond Will Not Get a Renewal of His Lease|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1899/04/17/archives/plaza-hotel-may-close-said-that-mr-hammond-will-not-get-a-renewal.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and the Hammond brothers became the operators of the hotel for the next fifteen years.<ref name="Harris p. 9">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=9}}</ref>
The first Plaza Hotel finally opened on October 1, 1890,<ref name="Gathje p. 4" /><ref>{{Cite news|date=September 30, 1890|title=For Eight Hours of Work.; Letter Carriers' Mass Meeting in Cooper Union Indorses the Bill|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1890/09/30/archives/for-eight-hours-of-work-letter-carriers-mass-meeting-in-cooper.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 24, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="tribune18900930">{{cite news|date=September 30, 1890|title=A Great Hotel Finished|page=7|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/64065129/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> at a cost of $3 million.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|3|1890|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="Gathje p. 4" /><ref name="NPS p. 3">{{harvnb|ps=.|National Park Service|1978|p=3}}</ref><ref name="King 1892 p.">{{cite book|last=King|first=Moses|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/King_s_Handbook_of_New_York_City/cKkUAAAAYAAJ|title=King's Handbook of New York City: An Outline History and Description of the American Metropolis|publisher=Moses King|year=1892|isbn=|location=|page=208|pages=|oclc=848600041}}</ref> The original hotel stood eight stories tall and had 400 rooms.<ref name="Gathje p. 4" /><ref name="King 1892 p." /> The interiors featured extensive mahogany and carved wood furnishings; lion motifs, representing the hotel's coat of arms; and a {{Convert|30|ft||-tall|abbr=|adj=mid}} dining room, with stained glass windows and gold and white decorations.<ref name="tribune18900930" /><ref name="King 1892 p." /><ref name="Harris pp. 8-9">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=8–9}}</ref> [[Moses King]], in his 1893 ''Handbook of New York City'', characterized the hotel as "one of the most attractive public houses in the wide world".<ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /><ref name="Harris p. 6" /> Despite being described as fashionable,<ref name="Gathje p. 6">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=6}}</ref> it was not profitable.<ref name="nyt18910826" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003">{{harvnb|Jackson|2010|ps=.|p=1003}}</ref> ''The New York Times'' reported in 1891 that the hotel netted $72,000 in rental income, out of $1.8 million that New York Life had spent to complete the hotel, including loans to Phyfe and Campbell.{{efn-lg|The rental income is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|0.072|1891|r=2}} million, and the total investment is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|1.8|1891|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}.{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="nyt18910826" />
 
The first Plaza Hotel finally opened on October 1, 1890,<ref name="Gathje p. 4" /><ref>{{Cite news|date=September 30, 1890|title=For Eight Hours of Work.; Letter Carriers' Mass Meeting in Cooper Union Indorses the Bill|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1890/09/30/archives/for-eight-hours-of-work-letter-carriers-mass-meeting-in-cooper.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 24, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="tribune18900930">{{cite news|date=September 30, 1890|title=A Great Hotel Finished|page=7|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/64065129/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> at a cost of $3 million.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|3|1890|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="Gathje p. 4" /><ref name="NPS p. 3">{{harvnb|ps=.|National Park Service|1978|p=3}}</ref><ref name="King 1892 p.">{{cite book|last=King|first=Moses|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/King_s_Handbook_of_New_York_City/cKkUAAAAYAAJ|title=King's Handbook of New York City: An Outline History and Description of the American Metropolis|publisher=Moses King|year=1892|isbn=|location=|page=208|pages=|oclc=848600041}}</ref> The original hotel stood eight stories tall and had 400 rooms.<ref name="Gathje p. 4" /><ref name="King 1892 p." /> The interiors featured extensive mahogany and carved wood furnishings; lion motifs, representing the hotel's coat of arms; and a {{Convert|30|ft||-tall|abbr=|adj=mid}} dining room, with stained glass windows and gold and white decorations.<ref name="tribune18900930" /><ref name="King 1892 p." /><ref name="Harris pp. 8-9">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=8–9}}</ref> [[Moses King]], in his 1893 ''Handbook of New York City'', characterized the hotel as "one of the most attractive public houses in the wide world".<ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /><ref name="Harris p. 6" /> Despite being described as fashionable,<ref name="Gathje p. 6">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=6}}</ref> it was not profitable.<ref name="nyt18910826" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003">{{harvnb|Jackson|2010|ps=.|p=1003}}</ref> ''The New York Times'' reported in 1891 that the hotel netted $72,000 in rental income, out of $1.8 million that New York Life had spent to complete the hotel, including loans to Phyfe and Campbell.{{efn-lg|The rental income is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|0.072|1891|r=2}} million, and the total investment is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|1.8|1891|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}.{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="nyt18910826" /> Furthermore, New York Life's claim to the first Plaza Hotel remained controversial. One of John Anderson's daughters, Laura V. Appleton, sued the insurance company in 1891, claiming that she was the rightful owner of the land.<ref>{{cite news|date=1891-12-06|title=Claiming the Plaza Hotel|page=17|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63955626/|access-date=2020-11-25|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> New York Life ultimately settled with Appleton the next year, paying her for a deed for the property.<ref>{{cite news|date=January 21, 1892|title=The Plaza Hotel Suit: Attorney Hornblower Makes a Statement as to the Settlement|page=6|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63955796/|access-date=2020-11-25|issn=0362-4331|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref>
 
=== Replacement and early 20th century ===
==== Construction ====
[[File:Plaza Hotel NYC.jpg|thumb|The rebuilt Plaza Hotel during the early 20th century]]
Henry J. Hardenbergh was hired as architect in 1905, initially being commissioned to expand the existing hotel by five stories.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="rer19050513">{{cite journal|date=May 13, 1905|title=Plans for Plaza Hotel Annex|url=https://rerecord.library.columbia.edu/document.php?vol=ldpd_7031148_035&page=ldpd_7031148_035_00001134&no=2|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=75|pages=1057|via=[[Columbia University|columbia.edu]]|number=1939}}</ref> Hardenbergh had already gained some renown for designing other upscale hotels,<ref name="Gathje p. 13">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=13}}</ref> such as the [[Waldorf–Astoria (1893–1929)|Waldorf Astoria Hotel]], twenty-five blocks south, induring 1893 andthe 18971890s.<ref name="NYCL p. 6" /><ref>{{cite book|last=Morrison|first=William Alan|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=MAUaAwAAQBAJ|title=Waldorf Astoria|publisher=Arcadia Publishing|year=2014|isbn=978-1-4671-2128-6|series=Images of America|pages=11, 26}}</ref> However, Beinecke, Black, and Gates subsequently discovered that the foundation of the existing hotel could not support the additional stories, so they decided to rebuild it completely.<ref name="rer19050617" /><ref>{{harvnb|American Architect|1907|p=134}}; {{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=11}}</ref> The George A. Fuller Company was contracted to construct the new hotel,<ref name="rer19050617" /> and the Plaza Operating Company was created in mid-1905 as a subsidiary of the U.S. Realty Company.<ref>{{cite book|author=New York Stock Exchange|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2TYlAQAAMAAJ|title=Listing Statements of the New York Stock Exchange|publisher=F. E. Fitch, Incorporated|year=1929|page=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issue=v. 64}}</ref> Hardenbergh designed the new hotel building while the owners waited for the existing lease to expire.<ref name="NPS p. 7">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=7}}</ref>
 
The first Plaza Hotel was closed on June 11, 1905,<ref>{{cite news|date=June 10, 1905|title=Old Plaza Hotel to Make Way for New Structure|page=9|work=Buffalo Times|url=https://newspapers.com/clip/64050137/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref><ref name="tribune19050613">{{cite news|date=June 13, 1905|title=Won't Leave Plaza|page=7|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/64065310/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> and demolition commenced immediately upon the expiration of the lease there.<ref name="NPS p. 7" /><ref name="Harris p. 17" /> The existing hotel's furnishings were auctioned immediately.<ref name="rer19050617" /><ref name="tribune19050613" /> The site was cleared within two months of the start of demolition.<ref name="NPS p. 3" /><ref name="NPS p. 7" /> Hardenbergh filed plans for the hotel with the [[New York City Department of Buildings]] that September.<ref>{{cite news|date=September 21, 1905|title=The Vendome Changes Hands|page=12|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://newspapers.com/clip/64049935/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> By the next month, contractors were clearing the old hotel's foundation.<ref>{{cite news|date=June 5, 1887|title=Framework Still Sound|page=2|work=The New York Times|url=https://newspapers.com/clip/64048330/|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> The new hotel was to use {{Convert|10000|ST|LT t|abbr=}} of steel, and a group of 100 workers and seven derricks erected two stories of steelwork every six days.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=oidPAAAAYAAJ|title=A Few Facts Regarding the Plaza Hotel|date=May 1, 1907|journal=Carpentry and Building|publisher=David Williams Company|volume=29|pages=159-160}}</ref> The Fuller Company decided to hire both [[Trade union|union]] and non-union ironworkers for the hotel's construction, a decision that angered the union workers.<ref group="lower-alpha">{{Harvnb|Satow|2019|loc=chapter 1}}, states that union workers were hired for high-skill jobs, but required higher wages. Non-union workers were hired for low-skill jobs and could be paid lower wages.</ref> Patrolmen were hired to protect the non-union workers,<ref name="Satow ch. 1"/> and one patrolmen was killed during a dispute with union workers.<ref>{{Cite news|date=July 12, 1906|title=Murder in Mid-air by Union Workers; Thirty Iron Erectors Attack Three Watchmen|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1906/07/12/archives/murder-in-midair-by-union-workers-thirty-iron-erectors-attack-three.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=July 27, 1906|title=Butler Killed by Fall|page=1|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/64112353/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> By October 1906, the facade of the new hotel was under construction.<ref name="Harris p. 17" />
==== Hilton operation ====
[[File:New York City (4374514714).jpg|thumb|Seen from the east on 58th Street]]
U.S. Realty continued to lose money through the 1930s, and was selling off its properties by 1942, including the Plaza Hotel.<ref name="Satow ch. 6">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 6}}</ref> [[Atlas Corporation]], collaborating with hotelier [[Conrad Hilton]], bought the Plaza Hotel for $7.4&nbsp;million in October 1943.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|7.4|1943|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref>{{Cite news|date=October 8, 1943|title=Atlas in Control of Plaza Hotel; Corporation Buys All Stock of U.S. Realty in Fifth Avenue Property|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1943/10/08/archives/atlas-in-control-of-plaza-hotel-corporation-buys-all-stock-of-us.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=October 8, 1943|title=Atlas Interests Buy Plaza Hotel In Security Deal: Large 5th Avenue Property Sold by General Realty to Floyd B. Odlum Group|page=29|work=New York Herald Tribune|id={{ProQuest|1268022005}} }}</ref> At the time, the Plaza was 61 percent occupied, and many public areas were closed due to supply shortages caused by [[World War II]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Dabney|first=Thomas Ewing|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=FOFEAAAAIAAJ|title=The Man who Bought the Waldorf: The Life of Conrad N. Hilton|publisher=Duell, Sloan and Pearce|year=1950|page=173}}</ref><ref name="Satow ch. 7">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 7}}</ref> Hilton subsequently spent $6&nbsp;million refurbishing the hotel.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> During mid-1944, the lobby on Fifth Avenue was renovated and its mezzanine was enclosed. The Palm Court skylight, having fallen into disrepair, was removed for the installation of air conditioning equipment.<ref name="NYCL p. 14" /><ref name="Gathje p. 26">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=26}}</ref> A mezzanine was also built above the Palmhotel's Courtformer courtyard,<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="nyt19820927" /><ref name="Gura p. 95">{{harvnb|Gura|2015|ps=.|p=95}}</ref> and the room itself became the Court Lounge.<ref name="NYCL p. 58" /> The brokerage office at the ground level's northwestern corner was turned into the Oak Bar, which opened in January 1945, and EF Hutton was relegated to the Fifth Avenue lobby's mezzanine.<ref name="Brown p. 188">{{harvnb|Brown|1967|p=188}}; {{harvnb|Gura|2015|p=95}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=14}}</ref> The contractor for the renovations may have been Frederick P. Platt & Brother, which was the Plaza Hotel's primary contractor in the 1940s.<ref name="NYCL p. 14" />
 
The Plaza Hotel Corporation, the hotel's operator, was merged into the [[Hilton Worldwide|Hilton Hotels Corporation]] in 1946.<ref>{{Cite news|date=June 7, 1946|title=$60,000,000 Hilton Hotel Concern Formed as Four Companies Merge; Plaza, Stevens, Palmer House, Dayton-Biltmore Combined|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1946/06/07/archives/60000000-hilton-hotel-concern-formed-as-four-companies-merge-plaza.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The following year, the Plaza Rendez-Vous opened within the old grill room space.<ref name="Harris p. 69">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=69}}</ref> By the early 1950s, women were allowed inside the Oak Room and Bar during the evenings and summers,. The Oak Room althoughand itBar still acted as a men-only space before 3 p.m., while the stock exchanges operated, as a concession to the space's regular patrons.<ref>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|p=142}}; {{harvnb|Harris|1981|pp=55–56}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=15}}</ref>
 
Hilton sold the hotel in 1953 to Boston industrialist A.M. "Sonny" Sonnabend for $15&nbsp;million,{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|15|1953|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}} and immediately leased it back for 2.5 years.<ref>{{Cite news|date=October 15, 1953|title=$15,000,000 Paid for Plaza Hotel; Hilton Interests Take Lease Back From the Sonnabend Group of Boston, Mass|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1953/10/15/archives/15000000-paid-for-plaza-hotel-hilton-interests-take-lease-back-from.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Gathje p. 163">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=163}}</ref> Sonnabend became president of national restaurant chain [[Childs Company]] in 1955, and Childs purchased the Plaza that November, for $6.2&nbsp;million in stock.<ref>{{Cite news|date=November 18, 1955|title=Childs Approves Plaza Purchase; Holders Also Agree to Lease 3 Other Hotels, Change Corporate Name|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1955/11/18/archives/childs-approves-plaza-purchase-holders-also-agree-to-lease-3-other.html|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The same year, the ground-floor Plaza Restaurant was renamed the Edwardian Room.<ref>{{harvnb|Brown|1967|p=192}}; {{harvnb|Gathje|2000|p=30}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=15}}</ref> Air conditioning was also installed in each guest room around this time.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Grutzner|first=Charles|date=July 8, 1956|title=Year of the Air Conditioning; New York Hotels Putting Millions Into Cooling and Renovations|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1956/07/08/archives/year-of-the-air-conditioning-new-york-hotels-putting-millions-into.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Childs became the Hotel Corporation of America (HCA) in 1956,<ref>{{Cite news|date=February 23, 1956|title=Childs Co. Changes Name|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1956/02/23/archives/childs-co-changes-name.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and Hilton's lease was renewed indefinitely that year.<ref>{{Cite news|date=March 1, 1956|title=Hotel Corporation of America Buys 2 Hotels for $14,930,000|page=15|work=Daily Boston Globe|id={{ProQuest|842256840}} }}</ref> HCA sold the Plaza to [[Lawrence Wien]] in November 1958 for $21 million{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|index=US-GDP|value=21|start_year=1958}} million in {{Inflation/year|index=US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}} and immediately leased it back for 25 years.<ref>{{Cite news|date=November 21, 1958|title=Plaza Hotel Sold for 21 Millions; Wien Pays Record Sum for 5th Ave. Building -- Chain to Lease It Back|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1958/11/21/archives/plaza-hotel-sold-for-21-millions-wien-pays-record-sum-for-5th-ave.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The transaction included curtailing Hilton's lease to April 1960,<ref>{{Cite news|date=January 2, 1959|title=Plaza Hotel Title Passes|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1959/01/02/archives/plaza-hotel-title-passes.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> upon which HCA assumed the operating lease.<ref>{{Cite news|date=April 1, 1960|title=Plaza Hotel in Shift; Hotel Corporation to Take Over on Lease Today|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1960/04/01/archives/plaza-hotel-in-shift-hotel-corporation-to-take-over-on-lease-today.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
==== Sonnabend operation ====
The Plaza Hotel experienced financial difficulties during the early 1960s, but under Sonnabend's management, the Plaza's financial outlook improved by 1964.<ref name="nyt19791230">{{Cite news|last=Cuff|first=Daniel F.|date=December 30, 1979|title=The Plaza Hotel: A Moneymaking Fairyland|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1979/12/30/archives/the-plaza-hotel-a-moneymaking-fairyland-but-its-an-easy-target-for.html|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Satow ch. 9">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 9}}</ref> The facade of the Plaza Hotel was cleaned in late 1960, the first time that the exterior had been fully cleaned since its construction.<ref>{{Cite news|date=November 25, 1960|title=Sidewalk Foremen Watch Face-Lifting At the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1960/11/25/archives/sidewalk-foremen-watch-facelifting-at-the-plaza-hotel.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> This was followed in 1962 by extensive exterior and interior renovations, which resulted in the redecoration of many of the suites and public rooms.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Ennis|first=Thomas W.|date=September 9, 1962|title=Hotels Spruce Up as Rivalry Rises|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1962/09/09/archives/hotels-spruce-up-as-rivalry-rises-they-answer-newcomers-with-vast.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="wsj19650823">{{cite news|date=August 23, 1965|title=The Grand Hotel: Aging but Still Elegant, Gotham's Storied Plaza Prospers on Nostalgia Edwardian Opulence, Service Enchant Jet-Age Patrons|page=1|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|132999458}} |issn=0099-9660 }}</ref> Four of the hotel's hydraulic elevators were replaced with electric elevators in 1964,<ref>{{Cite news|date=April 6, 1964|title=Plaza to Install New Elevators|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1964/04/06/plaza-to-install-new-elevators.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> including the three elevators at the 58th Street lobby.<ref name="nyt19760415">{{Cite news|last=McElheny|first=Victor K.|date=April 15, 1976|title=Plaza's Old Elevators Wheezing to a Halt|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1976/04/15/archives/plazas-old-elevators-wheezing-to-a-halt.html|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> A second phase of renovations was announced the same year, which entailed enlarging some public rooms and replacing the ground-floor barber shop with a [[Trader Vic's]] bar.<ref name="Satow ch. 9nyt19641117" /><ref name="nyt19641117">{{CiteSatow news|date=November 17, 1964|title=Plaza Pressing Expansion Drive; Hotel Will Get Trader Vic's From Savoy‐Plaza and Enlarge Banquet Room|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://wwwch.nytimes.com/1964/11/17/archives/plaza-pressing-expansion-drive-hotel-will-get-trader-vics-from.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28,9" 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The ballroom's foyer and stair hall were combined during this renovation.<ref name="NYCL p. 40" /><ref name="nyt19641117" /> The improvements were completed by 1965, having cost $9 million.<ref name="wsj19650823" />
 
Upon Sonny Sonnabend's death in 1964, his son Roger took over the hotel.<ref name="Satow ch. 10" /> Further changes to the hotel's ownership occurred the next year, when [[Sol Goldman]] and [[Alexander DiLorenzo]]'s firm Wellington Associates bought an [[Option (finance)|option]] to obtain a half-interest in the underlying land from Hilton.<ref>{{Cite news|date=August 31, 1965|title=Wellington to Get Land Under Plaza|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1965/08/31/archives/wellington-to-get-land-under-plaza.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Gender restrictions at the Oak Room were removed in 1969, after the [[National Organization for Women]] held a sit-in to protest the men-only policy during middays.<ref>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|p=142}}; {{harvnb|Harris|1981|p=56}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=15}}</ref> HCA, by then renamed Sonesta International Hotels,<ref>{{Cite news|date=October 23, 1969|title=Hotel America To Change Name Nov. 10 to Sonesta|page=64|work=Hartford Courant|id={{ProQuest|550282274}} }}</ref> announced another round of renovations in 1971. This included the redecoration of the Grand Ballroom.<ref name="Gura p. 95" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Edwards|first=Russell|date=August 27, 1971|title=Plaza Plans ‘Original Elegance’ in ‘World of Tomorrow’|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1971/08/27/archives/plaza-plans-original-elegance-in-world-of-tomorrow.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> as well as the replacement of the Edwardian Room with a restaurant called the Green Tulip.<ref name="Harris p. 40" /><ref name="NYCL p. 14" /><ref name="nyt19711105">{{Cite news|last=Huxtable|first=Ada Louise|date=November 5, 1971|title=An Appraisal: An Edwardian Splendor Or Green Tulip Modern?|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1971/11/05/archives/an-edwardian-splendor-or-green-tulip-modern-an-edwardian-splendor.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Sally Dryden's pink, lime, and brown design for the Green Tulip<ref name="NYCL pp. 26-27" /> received largely negative public reception.<ref name="wp19750615" /><ref name="Satow ch. 10" /><ref name="NYCL pp. 26-27">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=26–27}}</ref> The ballroom also received a renovation at this time.<ref name="NYCL p. 36"/>
In July 2012, [[Sahara India Pariwar]] agreed to buy a 75% controlling stake for $570 million from El Ad Properties.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018">{{cite web|last=Mashayekhi|first=Rey|date=July 18, 2018|title=The Plaza Hotel - The Long and Winding Ownership History|url=https://commercialobserver.com/2018/07/the-plaza-hotel-ownership-history/|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Commercial Observer}}</ref> Two years later, Sahara's [[Subrata Roy]] announced he was seeking a buyer for his company's majority stake in the Plaza for $4 billion.<ref name="nyt20140823">{{Cite news|last=Bagli|first=Charles V.|date=August 22, 2014|title=Legal Woes of Owners Help Put the Plaza Back in Play|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/23/nyregion/legal-woes-of-owners-help-put-the-plaza-back-in-play.html|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> At the time, Sahara was experiencing legal issues and was selling off other properties that it owned.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> After Roy was unable to secure a buyer, he hired a broker in August 2017 to sell the hotel,<ref name="wsj20170822">{{Cite news|last=Karmin|first=Craig|date=August 22, 2017|title=Famed Plaza Hotel Is On the Block|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/famed-plaza-hotel-is-on-the-block-1503394221|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0099-9660}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Bagli|first=Charles V.|date=August 23, 2017|title=The Plaza Is for Sale, but a Part-Owner Has Other Ideas|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/23/nyregion/plaza-hotel-for-sale-subrata-roy.html|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> prompting inquiries from about 50 potential buyers.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Karmin|first=Craig|date=September 19, 2017|title=Dozens of Investors Show Interest in Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/several-investors-show-interest-in-plaza-hotel-1505836448|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0099-9660}}</ref> The same year, Saudi businessman [[Al-Waleed bin Talal]], whose [[Kingdom Holding Company]] owned a minor stake in the hotel, partnered with [[Ben Ashkenazy|Ashkenazy Acquisition Corporation]].<ref>{{Cite web|last=Warerkar|first=Tanay|date=May 25, 2017|title=Beleaguered Plaza Hotel purchase may soon be finalized|url=https://ny.curbed.com/2017/5/25/15690120/plaza-hotel-saudi-prince-sale|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Curbed NY|language=en}}</ref> Kingdom and Ashkenazy's partnership included a [[right of first refusal]], which allowed the companies to match any third-party offer for the hotel.<ref name="wsj20170822" /> In May 2018, the Sahara Group announced it had finalized a deal with businessmen [[Shahal M. Khan]] and [[Kamran Hakim]] to buy a majority share of the hotel for $600 million.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Satow|first=Julie|date=May 4, 2018|title=Deal Is Reached to Sell the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/03/nyregion/plaza-hotel-sale.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Warerkar|first=Tanay|date=May 3, 2018|title=Legendary Plaza Hotel will sell for $600M to Saudi prince|url=https://ny.curbed.com/2018/5/3/17316124/plaza-hotel-nyc-contract-sale-600-million-prince-alwaleed-bin-talal|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Curbed NY}}</ref> However, Ashkenazy and Kingdom exercised their right of first refusal,<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> sued Sahara for trying to sell the hotel to a third party,<ref>{{cite web|last=Hall|first=Miriam|date=May 21, 2018|title=Minority Owners Of The Plaza Hotel Sue Majority Owner For Trying To Sell To Third Party|url=https://www.bisnow.com/new-york/news/hotel/investors-trying-to-buy-the-plaza-hotel-are-suing-its-majority-owner-88672|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Bisnow}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Tan|first=Gillian|date=May 18, 2018|title=New York Plaza Hotel Buyers Ashkenazy, Alwaleed Sue Owner|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-05-18/alwaleed-ashkenazy-partnership-sues-over-sale-of-plaza-hotel|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Bloomberg.com}}</ref> and received an extension to close on their purchase of the Plaza.<ref>{{cite web|last=Parker|first=Will|last2=Maurer|first2=Mark|date=June 26, 2018|title=Ashkenazy, Kingdom get extension to close on Plaza deal: sources|url=https://therealdeal.com/2018/06/26/ashkenazy-kingdom-get-extension-to-close-on-plaza-deal-sources/|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=The Real Deal New York}}</ref>
 
Qatari state-owned hotelier [[Katara Hospitality]] ultimately acquired full ownership of the Plaza Hotel in July 2018.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref>{{Cite web|last=Kim|first=Betsy|date=July 5, 2018|title=Plaza Hotel Sold for $600 Million|url=https://www.globest.com/2018/07/05/plaza-hotel-sold-for-600-million/|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=GlobeSt|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Tan|first=Gillian|date=July 5, 2018|title=NYC’s Historic Plaza Hotel Sold to Qatari State-Owned Company|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-07-05/nyc-s-historic-plaza-hotel-is-sold-to-qatari-state-owned-company|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Bloomberg.com}}</ref> Under Katara's ownership, the condominium units garnered high asking prices; for instance, a four-bedroom unit was listed for $45 million in early 2020. Around the same time, the Plaza's condominium board sought to make repairs to the facade.<ref>{{Cite web|date=2020-08-28|title=Balcony Repair Ignites Civil War at Plaza Hotel Over Union Labor|url=https://therealdeal.com/2020/08/28/house-divided-plaza-residents-hotel-battle-over-union-labor/|access-date=2020-11-30|website=The Real Deal New York|language=en-US}}</ref> Because of the [[COVID-19 pandemic in New York City]], and a corresponding [[Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism|downturn in tourism globally]], the Plaza's hotel rooms were temporarily closed in March 2020 for an indefinite period, and several hundred employees were laid off.<ref>{{cite web|last=Engquist|first=Erik|date=March 27, 2020|title=Plaza Hotel in New York City Closes, Lays Off 251|url=https://therealdeal.com/2020/03/27/the-plaza-shuts-down-and-lays-off-251/|access-date=November 26, 2020|website=The Real Deal New York}}</ref> The residential section of the Plaza remained open through the pandemic.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Yeginsu|first=Ceylan|last2=Norman|first2=Derek M.|date=October 9, 2020|title=‘If No Tourists Come, I Have No Business’: New York’s Tourism Crisis|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/09/travel/nyc-tourism-travel-restrictions.html|access-date=November 26, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
== Use ==
 
== Impact ==
The Plaza Hotel has become an icon of New York City. [[Paul Goldberger]], writing for ''The New York Times'' in 1982, stated that the Plaza had become an important part of the city's architectural history, similar to the [[Grand Central Terminal]] and the [[New York Public Library Main Branch]].<ref name="nyt19820927" /> As another historian said, "Every tourist I’ve ever met, every [tour] group I’ve ever had, they all know the Plaza Hotel".<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> The PlazaNational isTrust for Historic Preservation recognized the Plaza Hotel as a Historic Hotel of America by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.<ref name="HHA The Plaza History">{{cite web|title=The Plaza|url=https://www.historichotels.org/hotels-resorts/the-plaza/history.php|accessdate=November 16, 2018|website=Historic Hotels|publisher=Historic Hotels of America; National Trust for Historic Preservation}}</ref>
 
=== Critical reception ===
=== Landmark designations ===
[[File:New York City, Nov 29, 2008 (3075044187).jpg|thumb|New York City designated landmark plaque]]
The demolition of the nearby Savoy-Plaza in 1964, and its replacement with the General Motors Building, resulted in a preservation movement to save the Plaza Hotel and nearby structures.<ref name="Satow ch. 9" /> The Plaza Hotel's exterior was designated a city landmark by the [[New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission]] in 1969.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1" /><ref>{{Cite news|date=December 18, 1969|title=2 City Sites Designated Landmarks|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1969/12/18/archives/2-city-sites-designated-landmarks.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The hotel was added to the [[National Register of Historic Places]] in 1978,<ref name="nris">{{cite web | title=Federal Register: 44 Fed. Reg. 7107 (Feb. 6, 1979) | publisher=[[Library of Congress]] | date=February 6, 1979 | url=http://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/fedreg/fr044/fr044026/fr044026.pdf | access-date=March 8, 2020 | page=7539 (PDF p.&nbsp;339) | url-status=live }}</ref> and it was also made a [[National Historic Landmark]] in 1986.<ref name="nhlsum">{{cite web | title=List of NHLs by State | website=National Historic Landmarks (U.S. National Park Service) | date=May 4, 1970 | url=https://www.nps.gov/subjects/nationalhistoriclandmarks/list-of-nhls-by-state.htm | access-date=November 30, 2020}}</ref> A large part of the main public space in the interior, including the lobbies, ballroom, and restaurant spaces, was made a New York City designated landmark in 2005.<ref name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Gura p. 90" /> The interior-landmark designation had been partially motivated by opposition to El Ad's original plans to renovate the hotel.<ref name="Satow ch. 13">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 13}}</ref><ref name="AR 2005">{{cite journal|url=https://www.usmodernist.org/AR/AR-2005-03.pdf|title=What does the future hold for the Plaza Hotel?|last=Ulam|first=Alex|journal=Architectural Record|volume=193|issue=3|date=March 2005|page=36}}</ref>
 
A large part of the main public space in the interior, including the lobbies, ballroom, and restaurant spaces, was made a New York City designated landmark in 2005.<ref name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Gura p. 90" /> The interior-landmark designation had been partially motivated by opposition to El Ad's original plans to renovate the hotel during 2004. The restaurant spaces, preserved under the interior-landmark designation, would have been converted into retail space.<ref name="Satow ch. 13">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 13}}</ref><ref name="AR 2005">{{cite journal|url=https://www.usmodernist.org/AR/AR-2005-03.pdf|title=What does the future hold for the Plaza Hotel?|last=Ulam|first=Alex|journal=Architectural Record|volume=193|issue=3|date=March 2005|page=36}}</ref>
 
=== In media ===
The Plaza Hotel has been used as a setting in several media works throughout its history. Most notably, it served as the setting for books such as the ''Eloise'' series,<ref name="nyt19791230" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref name="Jackson p. 411">{{harvnb|Jackson|2010|ps=.|p=411}}</ref> the success of which led the hotel's owners during the 1960s to hang the character's portrait in the lobby.<ref name="nyt19791230" /> The Plaza was also featured in F. Scott Fitzgerald's 1925 novel ''[[The Great Gatsby]]''.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" />
 
SeveralThe filmsPlaza haveHotel beenis setalso orone filmed atof the most popular filming locations in New York City.<ref>{{cite web|title=Plaza Hotel in Films|url=http://onthesetofnewyork.com/mostpopularplazahotel.html|access-date=November 30, such2020|website=On the Set of New York}}</ref> Films shot or set in the hotel asincluded ''[[North by Northwest]]'' (1959),''<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" />''<ref name="Gathje p. 116">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=116}}</ref> [[Barefoot in the Park (film)|<u>''Barefoot in the Park''</u>]] (1967),<ref name="Horsley" /><ref name="NYCL p. 16" /><ref>{{cite book|last=Shelley|first=Peter|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2CpzBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA23|title=Neil Simon on Screen: Adaptations and Original Scripts for Film and Television|publisher=McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers|year=2015|isbn=978-0-7864-7198-0|page=23|access-date=November 29, 2020}}</ref> [[Funny Girl (film)|''Funny Girl'']] (1968),<ref name="Horsley" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref name="NYCL p. 16" /> [[Plaza Suite (film)|''Plaza Suite'']] (1971),<ref name="Horsley" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref name="NYCL p. 16" /> ''[[The Way We Were]]'' (1973),<ref name="Horsley" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /> and ''[[Home Alone 2: Lost in New York]]'' (1992).<ref>{{Cite web|last=Alberts|first=Hana R.|date=November 7, 2017|title=The definitive guide to 'Home Alone 2' filming locations in NYC|url=https://ny.curbed.com/maps/home-alone-2-new-york-filming-locations|access-date=July 22, 2020|website=Curbed NY|language=en}}</ref> Other films that show the Plaza include ''[[Arthur (1981 film)|Arthur]]'' (1981), ''[[Scent of a Woman (1992 film)|Scent of a Woman]]'' (1992), and [[Sleepless in Seattle|''Sleepless in Seattle'']] (1993).<ref name="Horsley" /> Conversely, the Plaza Hotel has disallowed some productions from filming there.<ref name="Tampa Bay Times 2018">{{cite web|last=Spears|first=Steve|date=June 10, 2018|title=30 years ago, ‘Big Business’ was really small potatoes|url=https://www.tampabay.comundefined/|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=Tampa Bay Times}}</ref> The producers of [[Big Business (1988 film)|''Big Business'']] (1988), faced with such a restriction, created their own version of the Plaza Hotel on a [[sound stage]].<ref name="newsday19880720" /><ref name="Tampa Bay Times 2018" />
 
== See also ==