Plaza Hotel: Difference between revisions

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[[File:Plaza Hotel May 2010.JPG|left|thumb|The Plaza Hotel and surrounding buildings (including the [[Solow Building]] in the center background) as seen from [[Central Park]] in May 2010]]
The Plaza Hotel is at 768 [[Fifth Avenue]] and One Central Park South in the [[Midtown Manhattan]] neighborhood of [[New York City]].<ref name="ZoLa">{{Cite web|last=|first=|date=|title=768 5 Avenue, 10019|url=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=September 8, 2020|website=|publisher=[[New York City Department of City Planning]]}}</ref> It faces [[Central Park South]] (59th Street) and [[the Pond and Hallett Nature Sanctuary]] in [[Central Park]] to the north; [[Grand Army Plaza (Manhattan)|Grand Army Plaza]] to the east; and [[58th Street (Manhattan)|58th Street]] to the south. Fifth Avenue itself is opposite Grand Army Plaza from the hotel.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1">{{harvnb|ps=.|Landmarks Preservation Commission|1969|p=1}}</ref><ref name="NYCityMap">{{Cite web|last=|first=|date=|title=NYCityMap|url=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=March 20, 2020||publisher=[[New York City Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications]]}}</ref> The Plaza Hotel's site covers {{convert|53,772|ft2||abbr=}}.<ref name="ZoLa" /> It measures {{Convert|285|ft||abbr=}} along 58th Street and {{Convert|275|ft||abbr=}} along Central Park South, with a depth of {{convert|200.83|ft}} between the two streets.<ref name="NPS p. 2">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=2}}</ref> As completed in 1907, it originally measured {{Convert|145|ft||abbr=}} along 58th Street and {{Convert|250|ft||abbr=}} along Central Park South, with an "L" running the entire 200-foot depth of the lot along Grand Army Plaza.<ref name="rer19050617">{{cite journal|date=June 17, 1905|title=Fuller Company Will Build the New Plaza Hotel|url=|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=75|pages=1325|via=[[Columbia University|]]|number=1944}}</ref>
The Plaza Hotel is near the [[General Motors Building (Manhattan)|General Motors Building]] to the east, [[Park Lane Hotel]] to the west, and [[Solow Building]] and [[Bergdorf Goodman Building]] to the south.<ref name="NYCityMap" /> The hotel's main entrance faces the ''[[Pulitzer Fountain]]'' in the southern portion of Grand Army Plaza.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1" /><ref name="Stern (1987) p. 18">{{harvnb|Stern|Gilmartin|Mellins|1987|ps=.|p=18}}</ref> An entrance to the [[Fifth Avenue–59th Street station]] of the [[New York City Subway]]'s {{NYCS trains|Broadway 60th}} is within the base of the hotel at Central Park South.<ref>{{cite NYC neighborhood map|Midtown}}</ref>
Fifth Avenue between [[42nd Street (Manhattan)|42nd Street]] and Central Park South was relatively undeveloped through the late 19th century, when brownstone rowhouses were built on the avenue.<ref name="">{{cite web|last=|first=|date=January 29, 1985|title=714 Fifth Avenue|url=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=June 9, 2020|website=|publisher=[[New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission]]|page=5}}</ref> By the early 1900s, that section of Fifth Avenue was becoming a commercial area.<ref>{{cite journal|last=|first=|date=April 6, 1907|title=Mr. Edward Harriman...|url=|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide|volume=79|pages=296|via=[[Columbia University|]]|number=2038}}</ref><ref name="Jackson pp. 617-618">{{harvnb|Jackson|2010|ps=.|pp=617–618}}</ref> The first decade of the 20th century saw the construction of hotels, stores, and clubs such as the [[St. Regis New York]], [[University Club of New York]], and the [[The Peninsula New York|Gotham Hotel]].<ref name="NYCL p. 3">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=3}}</ref> The corner of Fifth Avenue, Central Park South, and 59th Street was developed with the Plaza, Savoy, and [[Hotel New Netherland|New Netherland]] hotels during the 1890s;<ref name="Jackson pp. 617-618" /><ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261">{{harvnb|Stern|Gilmartin|Massengale|1983|ps=.|p=261}}</ref> the Savoy would be replaced in 1927 by the [[Savoy-Plaza Hotel]], which itself would have.<ref name="Stern (1987) p. 217">{{harvnb|Stern|Gilmartin|Mellins|1987|ps=.|p=217}}</ref> All three hotels contributed to Fifth Avenue's importance as an upscale area.<ref name="Stern (1983) p. 254">{{harvnb|Stern|Gilmartin|Massengale|1983|ps=.|p=254}}</ref>
== Design ==
==== Ground-floor restaurants ====
[[File:Oak Room (Plaza Hotel) door, Sept 2017.jpg|thumb|Door leading to the Oak Room]]
The [[Oak Room (Plaza Hotel)|Oak Room]], on the western part of the ground floor,<ref name="NYCL p. 21">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=21 (PDF p.&nbsp;22)}}</ref> was built in 1907 as the bar room. It is west of the Central Park South foyer, separated from the foyer by a corridor.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="nyt19070929">{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=September 29, 1907|title=Another Fine Hotel Now on the City's List; Built During the Last Two Years on Site of Old Plaza Hotel Which Was Demolished to Make Place for New Structure|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Compared to other spaces in the Plaza Hotel, it retains many details from the original design.<ref name="nyt19820927" /><ref name="NYCL p. 53">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=53 (PDF p.&nbsp;54)}}</ref> The Oak Room was designed in a [[German Renaissance#Architecture|German Renaissance]] style, originally by L. Alavoine and Company.<ref name="Gura p. 90" /><ref name="NYCL p. 10" /> It features oak walls and floors, a coved ceiling, frescoes of Bavarian castles, faux wine casks carved into the woodwork, and a grape-laden brass chandelier.<ref>{{harvnb|Harris|1981|p=48}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=52 (PDF p.&nbsp;53)}}</ref> The eastern wall contains a gridded glass double door leading to the main hallway,<ref name="NYCL p. 52">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=52 (PDF p.&nbsp;53)}}</ref> while the northern wall contains two openings to the Oak Bar.<ref name="NYCL p. 53" />
The Oak Bar is just north of the Oak Room, at the northwest corner of the ground floor.<ref name="NYCL p. 21" /> It is designed in [[Tudor Revival architecture|Tudor Revival]] style with a plaster ceiling, [[strapwork]], and floral and foliage motifs.<ref name="NYCL p. 14">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=14}}</ref> The bar room contains walnut woodwork with French furnishings.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179" /> It also has three murals by [[Everett Shinn]], which were added in a 1945 renovation and show the neighborhood as it would have appeared in 1907.<ref>{{harvnb|Harris|1981|p=51}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|p=14}}; {{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=6}}</ref> Prior to the 1945 renovation, it served as a brokerage office.<ref name="Brown p. 188"/>
The current ballroom on the first floor is at the center of that story.<ref name="NYCL p. 23">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=21 (PDF p.&nbsp;23)}}</ref><ref name="NPS p. 11">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=11}}</ref> It was initially designed by Warren and Wetmore, and had a capacity of 800 people during dinners and 1,000 people during dances.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /><ref name="NYCL p. 13" /> The room contained a coved ceiling designed by Smeraldi, with crosses, hexagons, and octagons, as well as six overhanging chandeliers. The ballroom had a stage on its western wall, within a rectangular opening. A balcony ran across the three other walls and was supported by pilasters with bronze capitals.<ref name="NYCL p. 35">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=35 (PDF p.&nbsp;36)}}</ref>
Warren and Wetmore's ballroom was reconstructed in 1929 to a neoclassical design by Schultze & Weaver.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="NYCL p. 35" /> The room has a white and cream color scheme with gold ornamentation, evocative of the original ballroom's design.<ref name="NYCL p. 13" /><ref name="Brown p. 73">{{harvnb|ps=.|Brown|1967|p=73}}</ref> The stage remains on the western wall, but is within a rounded opening. The redesign added audience boxes on the north and east walls, with decorative metal railings.<ref name="NYCL p. 36">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=36 (PDF p.&nbsp;37)}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=November 8, 1929|title=1,000 Hear Mary Garden.; With Ruth Breton She Gives First of "Artistic Mornings" at Plaza.|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The ballroom contains a coved ceiling with roundels, lunettes, bas reliefs, and two chandeliers.<ref name="NYCL p. 36" /> South of the ballroom proper is a corridor running west to east.<ref name="NYCL p. 23" /><ref name="NPS p. 11" /> The corridor has a decorative barrel-vaulted paneled ceiling and had a balcony that was removed in the 1929 redesign.<ref name="NYCL p. 39">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=39 (PDF p.&nbsp;40)}}</ref> On the southernmost section of the first floor is the ballroom foyer and the stair hall, two formerly separate rooms that were combined in 1965 to form a neoclassical marble-clad space. The stair hall contains the stair leading from the mezzanine foyer.<ref name="NYCL p. 40">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=40 (PDF p.&nbsp;41)}}</ref><ref name="nyt19641117" />
==== Condominiums and suites ====
=== First hotel ===
John Duncan Phyfe and James Campbell acquired the site in 1883.<ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /><ref name="Stern (1999) pp. 529-530">{{harvnb|Stern|Mellins|Fishman|1999|ps=.|pp=529–530}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 30, 1883|title=Sale of Fifth Avenue Plaza Lots|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Phyfe and Campbell announced plans for a nine-story apartment building at the site that October,<ref>{{cite journal|last=|first=|date=October 13, 1883|title=Out Among the Builders|url=|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=32|pages=785|via=[[Columbia University|]]|number=813}}</ref> to be designed by [[Carl Pfeiffer (architect)|Carl Pfeiffer]],<ref name="Gathje p. 4">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=4}}</ref> and construction on the apartment block began that same year.<ref name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Stern (1999) pp. 529-530" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=November 4, 1883|title=A Grand Family Hotel.; the Mammoth Structure to Be Erected on the Fifth-Avenue Plaza|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The builders borrowed over $800,000 from the [[New York Life Insurance Company]], and obtained a second mortgage to John Charles Anderson for a total investment of $2 million.{{efn-lg|New York Life's investment is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|0.8|1888|r=2}} million, and the total investment is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|2|1888|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}.{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="nyt18880228">{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=February 28, 1888|title=Prospect of a New Hotel.; the New Structure at Central Park May Be Finished|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> By 1887, after taking three loans from New York Life, Phyfe and Campbell found that they did not have enough funds to complete the apartment block.<ref name="nyt18910826">{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=August 26, 1891|title=The Plaza Hotel Case; How Beers Bought a White Elephant for His Company|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The extent to which the apartment building was completed before the builders' bankruptcy is unclear.<ref name="NYCL p. 17">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=17}}</ref>{{efn|The 1885 E. Robinson Atlas shows the "Fifth Avenue Plaza Hotel" as occupying part of the site, without indicating its construction status<ref name="NYCL p. 17"/> and ''The New York Times'' of February 28, 1888, describes the hotel's interior as being partially furnished.<ref name=nyt18880228/> Although architectural writer [[Robert A. M. Stern]] implies that only the foundations were completed,<ref name="Stern (1999) pp. 529-530" /><ref name="NYCL p. 17"/> the building had progressed several stories above ground by 1886, when a worker died after falling seven stories from the structure.<ref>{{Cite news|date=March 23, 1886|title=FAlling Seven Stories.; a Workman Killed at the New Plaza Hotel in Fifty-ninth-street|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>}} In February 1888, brothers Eugene M. and Frank Earle entered contract to lease the hotel from Phyfe and Campbell, and furnish it.<ref name="nyt18880228" /> New York Life concurrently foreclosed on the apartment building,<ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /><ref>{{cite news|date=December 5, 1888|title=The Plaza Hotel Property Sold|page=2|work=New-York Tribune|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref> and that September, bought it at public auction for $925,000.<ref name="nyt18880919">{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=September 19, 1888|title=Sale of the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Shortly afterward, New York Life decided to remodel the interiors completely,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=November 24, 1888|title=Must Be Reconstructed.; the Interior of the Plaza Hotel of Inferior Workmanship.|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> hiring architects [[McKim, Mead & White]] to complete the hotel.<ref name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /> New York Life leased the hotel to Frederick A. Hammond in 1889,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=April 17, 1899|title=Plaza Hotel May Close; Said that Mr. Hammond Will Not Get a Renewal of His Lease|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and the Hammond brothers became the operators of the hotel for the next fifteen years.<ref name="Harris p. 9">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=9}}</ref>
The first Plaza Hotel finally opened on October 1, 1890,<ref name="Gathje p. 4" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=September 30, 1890|title=For Eight Hours of Work.; Letter Carriers' Mass Meeting in Cooper Union Indorses the Bill|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 24, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="tribune18900930">{{cite news|date=September 30, 1890|title=A Great Hotel Finished|page=7|work=New-York Tribune|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref> at a cost of $3 million.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|3|1890|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="Gathje p. 4" /><ref name="NPS p. 3">{{harvnb|ps=.|National Park Service|1978|p=3}}</ref><ref name="King 1892 p.">{{cite book|last=King|first=Moses|url=|title=King's Handbook of New York City: An Outline History and Description of the American Metropolis|publisher=Moses King|year=1892|isbn=|location=|page=208|pages=|oclc=848600041}}</ref> The original hotel stood eight stories tall and had 400 rooms.<ref name="Gathje p. 4" /><ref name="King 1892 p." /> The interiors featured extensive mahogany and carved wood furnishings; lion motifs, representing the hotel's coat of arms; and a {{Convert|30|ft||-tall|abbr=|adj=mid}} dining room, with stained glass windows and gold and white decorations.<ref name="tribune18900930" /><ref name="King 1892 p." /><ref name="Harris pp. 8-9">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=8–9}}</ref> [[Moses King]], in his 1893 ''Handbook of New York City'', characterized the hotel as "one of the most attractive public houses in the wide world".<ref name="Stern (1983) p. 261" /><ref name="Harris p. 6" /> Despite being described as fashionable,<ref name="Gathje p. 6">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=6}}</ref> it was not profitable.<ref name="nyt18910826" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003">{{harvnb|Jackson|2010|ps=.|p=1003}}</ref> ''The New York Times'' reported in 1891 that the hotel netted $72,000 in rental income, out of $1.8 million that New York Life had spent to complete the hotel, including loans to Phyfe and Campbell.{{efn-lg|The rental income is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|0.072|1891|r=2}} million, and the total investment is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|1.8|1891|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}.{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="nyt18910826" />
=== Replacement and early 20th century ===
The first Plaza Hotel had been relatively remote when it was completed, but by the first decade of the 20th century, was part of a rapidly growing commercial district on Fifth Avenue.<ref name="NYCL p. 6">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=6}}</ref> Furthermore, several upscale hotels in Manhattan were also being rebuilt during that time.<ref>{{cite journal|date=June 24, 1905|title=The Hotels of Manhattan|url=|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=75|pages=1367|via=[[Columbia University|]]|number=1945}}</ref> In May 1902, a syndicate purchased the Plaza and three adjacent lots on Central Park South for $3 million.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=May 4, 1902|title=In the Real Estate Field; Plaza Hotel Sale the Feature of Another Lively Week|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|date=May 3, 1902|title=The Real Estate Situation|url=|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=69|pages=788|via=[[Columbia University|]]|number=1781}}</ref>{{efn|The syndicate was composed of the Central Realty, Bond and Trust Company; Hallgarten and Company; and the [[George A. Fuller]] Company.<ref name=tribune19020603/>}} The sale was the largest-ever cash-only purchase for a Manhattan property at the time.<ref name=tribune19020603>{{cite news|date=June 3, 1902|title=Pay Cash for Plaza Hotel|page=7|work=New-York Tribune|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=June 3, 1902|title=Plaza Hotel Property Fetches $3,000,000 Cash|page=7|work=Brooklyn Daily Eagle|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=June 3, 1902|title=Plaza Hotel Reconstruction; Ten Millions of Dollars Involved in the New Enterprise. The Purchase by the Fuller Company One of the Largest in the Annals of City Real Estate Transactions|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The purchase was headed by [[Harry S. Black]]—who headed the [[George A. Fuller Company]], one of the syndicate's members—as well as German financier [[Bernhard Beinecke]].<ref>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=11}}; {{harvnb|Harris|1981|p=11}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=6}}</ref> Shortly after the purchase, Black and Beinecke formed the Plaza Realty Company to redevelop the hotel.<ref>{{cite journal|date=June 14, 1902|title=Real Estate Notes|url=|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=69|pages=1097|via=[[Columbia University|]]|number=1787}}</ref> Black also formed the [[United States Realty and Construction Company]], a [[Trust law|trust]] whose subsidiaries included the Fuller Company and the Plaza Realty Company.<ref>{{cite flatiron|page=114}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|url=|title=Moody's Manual of Corporation Securities|publisher=John Moody & Company|year=1903|page=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issue=v. 4}}</ref> To acquire sufficient funding for the redevelopment, Black and Beinecke approached barbed-wire entrepreneur [[John Warne Gates]], who agreed to fund the project on the condition that Frederic Sterry be named the managing director of the Plaza Hotel.<ref>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=11}}; {{harvnb|Harris|1981|p=15}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=6}}</ref>
==== Construction ====
Henry J. Hardenbergh was hired as architect in 1905, initially being commissioned to expand the existing hotel by five stories.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="rer19050513">{{cite journal|date=May 13, 1905|title=Plans for Plaza Hotel Annex|url=|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=75|pages=1057|via=[[Columbia University|]]|number=1939}}</ref> Hardenbergh had already gained some renown for designing upscale hotels,<ref name="Gathje p. 13">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=13}}</ref> such as the [[Waldorf–Astoria (1893–1929)|Waldorf Astoria Hotel]] twenty-five blocks south in 1893 and 1897.<ref name="NYCL p. 6" /><ref>{{cite book|last=Morrison|first=William Alan|url=|title=Waldorf Astoria|publisher=Arcadia Publishing|year=2014|isbn=978-1-4671-2128-6|series=Images of America|pages=11, 26}}</ref> However, Beinecke, Black, and Gates discovered that the foundation of the existing hotel could not support the additional stories, so they decided to rebuild it completely.<ref name="rer19050617" /><ref>{{harvnb|American Architect|1907|p=134}}; {{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=11}}</ref> The George A. Fuller Company was contracted to construct the new hotel,<ref name="rer19050617" /> and the Plaza Operating Company was created in mid-1905 as a subsidiary of the U.S. Realty Company.<ref>{{cite book|author=New York Stock Exchange|url=|title=Listing Statements of the New York Stock Exchange|publisher=F. E. Fitch, Incorporated|year=1929|page=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issue=v. 64}}</ref> Hardenbergh designed the new hotel building while the owners waited for the existing lease to expire.<ref name="NPS p. 7">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=7}}</ref>
The first Plaza Hotel was closed on June 11, 1905,<ref>{{cite news|date=June 10, 1905|title=Old Plaza Hotel to Make Way for New Structure|page=9|work=Buffalo Times|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref><ref name="tribune19050613">{{cite news|date=June 13, 1905|title=Won't Leave Plaza|page=7|work=New-York Tribune|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref> and demolition commenced immediately upon the expiration of the lease there.<ref name="NPS p. 7" /><ref name="Harris p. 17" /> The existing hotel's furnishings were auctioned immediately.<ref name="rer19050617" /><ref name="tribune19050613" /> The site was cleared within two months of the start of demolition.<ref name="NPS p. 3" /><ref name="NPS p. 7" /> Hardenbergh filed plans for the hotel with the [[New York City Department of Buildings]] that September.<ref>{{cite news|date=September 21, 1905|title=The Vendome Changes Hands|page=12|work=New-York Tribune|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref> By the next month, contractors were clearing the old hotel's foundation.<ref>{{cite news|date=June 5, 1887|title=Framework Still Sound|page=2|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331| {{open access}}}}</ref> The new hotel was to use {{Convert|10000|ST|LT t|abbr=}} of steel, and a group of 100 workers and seven derricks erected two stories of steelwork every six days.<ref>{{cite book|url=|title=A Few Facts Regarding the Plaza Hotel|date=May 1, 1907|journal=Carpentry and Building|publisher=David Williams Company|volume=29|pages=159-160}}</ref> The Fuller Company decided to hire both [[Trade union|union]] and non-union ironworkers for the hotel's construction, a decision that angered the union workers.<ref group="lower-alpha">{{Harvnb|Satow|2019|loc=chapter 1}}, states that union workers were hired for high-skill jobs, but required higher wages. Non-union workers were hired for low-skill jobs and could be paid lower wages.</ref> Patrolmen were hired to protect the non-union workers,<ref name="Satow ch. 1"/> and one patrolmen was killed during a dispute with union workers.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=July 12, 1906|title=Murder in Mid-air by Union Workers; Thirty Iron Erectors Attack Three Watchmen|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=July 27, 1906|title=Butler Killed by Fall|page=1|work=New-York Tribune|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref> By October 1906, the facade of the new hotel was under construction.<ref name="Harris p. 17" />
Hardenbergh and Sterry directed several firms to furnish the interior spaces.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="NYCL p. 10" /> Sterry recalled that all of the interior features were custom-designed for the hotel,<ref name="NYCL p. 10" /><ref name="Harris p. 17">{{harvnb|ps=.|Harris|1981|p=17}}</ref> such as 1,650 crystal chandeliers and the largest-ever order of gold-rimmed cutlery.<ref name="Gura p. 92" /> Much of the furniture was manufactured by the Pooley Company of Philadelphia; where the Pooley Company could not manufacture the furnishings, the Plaza's developers chartered ships to import material from Europe.<ref name="NPS p. 7" /><ref name="Harris pp. 17-18">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=17–18}}</ref> Sterry was himself dispatched to Europe to purchase these materials.<ref name="Harris p. 17" /> The developers anticipated that the hotel would cost $8.5 million to construct, including the furnishings.<ref name="NYCL p. 5">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=5}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|date=September 12, 1907|title=New Plaza Hotel Cost $12,500,000; $4,000,000 More Than Original Estimate, but the Fund Was Easily Raised|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> However, additional expenditures pushed the final construction cost to $12.5&nbsp;million.{{efn-lg|The original budget is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|8.5|1907|r=2}} million, and the final cost is equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|12.5|1907|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}.{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="NPS p. 7" /><ref name="NYCL p. 5" /> To pay for the construction costs, the developers received a $5 million loan in mid-1906,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=June 29, 1906|title=In the Real Estate Field; Loan of $5,000,000 on the New Plaza Hotel -- West Side Apartments Sold -- Bulk of Trading Confined to Small Properties|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=June 29, 1906|title=A $5,000,000 Building Loan|page=14|work=New-York Tribune|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref> followed by another $4.5 million loan in 1907.<ref>{{cite news|date=November 8, 1907|title=A $4,500,000 Mortgage|page=14|work=New-York Tribune|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref>
==== Opening and expansion ====
[[File:Day Trip to New York City (2788481970).jpg|thumb|The main entrance was moved to Grand Army Plaza (pictured) as a result of the 1921 expansion by Warren and Wetmore.]]
From the start, the Plaza Operating Company was already preparing for the possibility of expansion, and came to acquire the lots between 5 and 19 West 58th Street in the first two decades of the 20th century.<ref name="NYCL p. 12">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=12}}</ref> This land acquisition commenced before the second hotel had even opened.<ref name="NYCL p. 12" /><ref name="Frohne p. 358">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=358}}</ref> By 1915, the Plaza Operating Company had acquired four lots at West 58th Street and one on Central Park South.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 15, 1915|title=The Real Estate Field.; Allerton Realty Company Buys East Thirty-ninth Street Plot for Apartment House Site|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 26, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The Plaza Operating Company received an exemption from the [[1916 Zoning Resolution]], which set height restrictions for new buildings on the 58th Street side of the lots.<ref name="Satow ch. 5" /> The company filed plans for a 19-story annex along 58th Street in August 1919, to be designed by Warren and Wetmore.<ref>{{cite journal|date=August 9, 1919|title=Alterations|url=|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=104|pages=120|via=[[Columbia University|]]|number=6}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=August 5, 1919|title=$2,500,000 To Be Spent Enlarging Plaza Hotel|page=17|work=New-York Tribune|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref> The final lots, at 15 and 17 West 58th Street, were acquired in 1920 after the plans had been filed.<ref name="NYCL p. 12" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=May 28, 1920|title=Plaza Hotel Buys.; Finally Secures Dugro Property on Fifty-eighth Street|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The George A. Fuller Company was again hired as the builder.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /> To fund the construction of the annex, the Plaza Operating Company took out mortgage loans worth $2.275 million.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=July 14, 1921|title=$2,275,000 in Loans.: $2,000,000 Additional Loan Placed on Plaza Hotel Property.|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
The Champagne Porch was only frequented by the extremely wealthy, and after the start of Prohibition, Sterry decided to remove the room altogether in 1921.<ref name="Harris p. 34" /><ref name="bt19210708" /> An enlarged entrance was placed at the site of the Champagne Porch.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /><ref name="NYCL pp. 9-10" /><ref name="Harris p. 30">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=30}}</ref> The work also included building a new restaurant called the Terrace Room, as well as a ballroom and 350 additional suites.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /><ref name="Harris p. 34" /><ref name="bt19210708" /> Warren and Wetmore designed the expanded interior with more subtle contrasts in the decor, compared to Hardenbergh's design.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /><ref name="NYCL p. 12" /> The annex opened October 14, 1921, with an event in the ballroom,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 15, 1921|title=Society Aids a Benefit.; Appears in 'The Garden of Youth' in New Ballroom of the Plaza|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> but was not officially completed until April 1922.<ref name="NYCL p. 12" /> With the advent of Prohibition, the bar room was also closed, and the gender segregation rule was relaxed.<ref>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=30}}; {{harvnb|Harris|1981|p=40}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=54 (PDF p.&nbsp;55)}}</ref> The space occupied by the present-day Oak Bar became the offices of brokerage [[EF Hutton]].<ref name="NYCL p. 14" /> The Plaza had become the city's most valuable hotel by 1923,<ref name="Satow ch. 5" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 2, 1923|title=City Realty Value Jumps One Billion to $11,275,526,200; Total and $840,629,525 in Personalty Three-fourths of the State's Wealth|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and the U.S. Realty Company overall was highly profitable, paying increasingly high dividends during the 1920s.<ref name="Satow ch. 5" />
==== Great Depression ====
For unknown reasons, Warren and Wetmore's ballroom was reconstructed from June to September 1929, based on neoclassical designs by Schultze & Weaver.<ref name="NYCL p. 36" /> Shortly afterward, U.S. Realty's stock price collapsed in the [[Wall Street Crash of 1929|Wall Street Crash]] of October 1929, from which commenced the [[Great Depression in the United States]].<ref name="Satow ch. 5" /> Plaza Hotel co-owner Harry Black killed himself the following year in 1930,<ref>{{Cite news|date=July 20, 1930|title=H.s. Black Ends Life by Bullet in Home|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and his partner Bernhard Beinecke died two years later.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=December 21, 1932|title=Bernhard Beinecke Dies; a Hotel Man|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The rebuilt Plaza's first manager, Fred Sterry, died in 1933.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=August 15, 1933|title=To Manage Hotel Plaza.; Henry A. Host Will Fill Position of the Late Frederic Sterry|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 26, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The early 1930s were also financially difficult for the Plaza Hotel, as only half of the suites were occupied by 1932. To reduce operating costs for the hotel's restaurants, the grill room in the basement was converted into a closet, while the Rose Room became an automobile showroom. The furnishings of the Plaza Hotel fell into disrepair and, during some months, management was unable to pay staff.<ref name="Satow ch. 6" />
By the mid-1930s, the old tea room was officially known as the Palm Court, having been referred to as the "Palm Room" for the previous decade.<ref>{{harvnb|Brown|1967|p=79}}; {{harvnb|Harris|1981|p=38}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=15}}</ref> The back room was reopened as the Oak Room restaurant in 1934,<ref name="NYCL p. 15">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=15}}</ref><ref name="Gathje p. 32">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=32}}</ref> although it was still referred to as the "back room" by its frequent visitors, which included bankers and brokers.<ref name="Harris p. 51">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=51}}</ref> The same year, display windows and a doorway on the southern wall were added to the Fifth Avenue lobby, and the southeastern corner of the ground floor was refurbished into the Persian Room.<ref name="Brown p. 76" /><ref>{{cite news|date=January 31, 1934|title=Hotel Plaza Plans New Cocktail Room: Corner at 5th Av. And 58th St. Will Be Fitted Up at Cost of $50,000|page=34|work=The New York Times|id={{ProQuest|101079852}}|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
==== Hilton operation ====
[[File:New York City (4374514714).jpg|thumb|Seen from the east on 58th Street]]
U.S. Realty continued to lose money through the 1930s, and was selling off its properties by 1942, including the Plaza Hotel.<ref name="Satow ch. 6">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 6}}</ref> [[Atlas Corporation]], collaborating with hotelier [[Conrad Hilton]], bought the Plaza Hotel for $7.4&nbsp;million in October 1943.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|7.4|1943|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 8, 1943|title=Atlas in Control of Plaza Hotel; Corporation Buys All Stock of U.S. Realty in Fifth Avenue Property|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=October 8, 1943|title=Atlas Interests Buy Plaza Hotel In Security Deal: Large 5th Avenue Property Sold by General Realty to Floyd B. Odlum Group|page=29|work=New York Herald Tribune|id={{ProQuest|1268022005}} }}</ref> At the time, the Plaza was 61 percent occupied, and many public areas were closed due to supply shortages caused by [[World War II]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Dabney|first=Thomas Ewing|url=|title=The Man who Bought the Waldorf: The Life of Conrad N. Hilton|publisher=Duell, Sloan and Pearce|year=1950|page=173}}</ref><ref name="Satow ch. 7">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 7}}</ref> Hilton subsequently spent $6&nbsp;million refurbishing the hotel.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> During mid-1944, the lobby on Fifth Avenue was renovated and its mezzanine was enclosed. The Palm Court skylight, having fallen into disrepair, was removed for the installation of air conditioning equipment.<ref name="NYCL p. 14" /><ref name="Gathje p. 26">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=26}}</ref> A mezzanine was also built above the Palm Court,<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="nyt19820927" /><ref name="Gura p. 95">{{harvnb|Gura|2015|ps=.|p=95}}</ref> and the room itself became the Court Lounge.<ref name="NYCL p. 58" /> The brokerage office at the ground level's northwestern corner was turned into the Oak Bar, which opened in January 1945, and EF Hutton was relegated to the Fifth Avenue lobby's mezzanine.<ref name="Brown p. 188">{{harvnb|Brown|1967|p=188}}; {{harvnb|Gura|2015|p=95}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=14}}</ref> The contractor for the renovations may have been Frederick P. Platt & Brother, which was the Plaza Hotel's primary contractor in the 1940s.<ref name="NYCL p. 14" />
The Plaza Hotel Corporation, the hotel's operator, was merged into the [[Hilton Worldwide|Hilton Hotels Corporation]] in 1946.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=June 7, 1946|title=$60,000,000 Hilton Hotel Concern Formed as Four Companies Merge; Plaza, Stevens, Palmer House, Dayton-Biltmore Combined|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The following year, the Plaza Rendez-Vous opened within the old grill room space.<ref name="Harris p. 69">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=69}}</ref> By the early 1950s, women were allowed inside the Oak Room and Bar during the evenings and summers, although it still acted as a men-only space before 3 p.m., while the stock exchanges operated.<ref>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|p=142}}; {{harvnb|Harris|1981|pp=55–56}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=15}}</ref>
Hilton sold the hotel in 1953 to Boston industrialist A.M. "Sonny" Sonnabend for $15&nbsp;million,{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|15|1953|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}} and immediately leased it back for 2.5 years.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 15, 1953|title=$15,000,000 Paid for Plaza Hotel; Hilton Interests Take Lease Back From the Sonnabend Group of Boston, Mass|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Gathje p. 163">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=163}}</ref> Sonnabend became president of national restaurant chain [[Childs Company]] in 1955, and Childs purchased the Plaza that November, for $6.2&nbsp;million in stock.<ref>{{Cite news|date=November 18, 1955|title=Childs Approves Plaza Purchase; Holders Also Agree to Lease 3 Other Hotels, Change Corporate Name|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The same year, the ground-floor Plaza Restaurant was renamed the Edwardian Room.<ref>{{harvnb|Brown|1967|p=192}}; {{harvnb|Gathje|2000|p=30}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=15}}</ref> Air conditioning was also installed in each guest room around this time.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Grutzner|first=Charles|date=July 8, 1956|title=Year of the Air Conditioning; New York Hotels Putting Millions Into Cooling and Renovations|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Childs became the Hotel Corporation of America (HCA) in 1956,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=February 23, 1956|title=Childs Co. Changes Name|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and Hilton's lease was renewed indefinitely that year.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=March 1, 1956|title=Hotel Corporation of America Buys 2 Hotels for $14,930,000|page=15|work=Daily Boston Globe|id={{ProQuest|842256840}} }}</ref> HCA sold the Plaza to [[Lawrence Wien]] in November 1958 for $21 million{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|index=US-GDP|value=21|start_year=1958}} million in {{Inflation/year|index=US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}} and immediately leased it back for 25 years.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=November 21, 1958|title=Plaza Hotel Sold for 21 Millions; Wien Pays Record Sum for 5th Ave. Building -- Chain to Lease It Back|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The transaction included curtailing Hilton's lease to April 1960,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=January 2, 1959|title=Plaza Hotel Title Passes|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> upon which HCA assumed the operating lease.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=April 1, 1960|title=Plaza Hotel in Shift; Hotel Corporation to Take Over on Lease Today|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
==== Sonnabend operation ====
The Plaza Hotel experienced financial difficulties during the early 1960s, but under Sonnabend's management, the Plaza's financial outlook improved by 1964.<ref name="nyt19791230">{{Cite news|last=Cuff|first=Daniel F.|date=December 30, 1979|title=The Plaza Hotel: A Moneymaking Fairyland|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Satow ch. 9">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 9}}</ref> The facade of the Plaza Hotel was cleaned in late 1960, the first time that the exterior had been fully cleaned since its construction.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=November 25, 1960|title=Sidewalk Foremen Watch Face-Lifting At the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> This was followed in 1962 by extensive exterior and interior renovations, which resulted in the redecoration of many of the suites and public rooms.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Ennis|first=Thomas W.|date=September 9, 1962|title=Hotels Spruce Up as Rivalry Rises|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="wsj19650823">{{cite news|last=|first=|date=August 23, 1965|title=The Grand Hotel: Aging but Still Elegant, Gotham's Storied Plaza Prospers on Nostalgia Edwardian Opulence, Service Enchant Jet-Age Patrons|page=1|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|132999458}} |issn=0099-9660 }}</ref> Four of the hotel's hydraulic elevators were replaced with electric elevators in 1964,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=April 6, 1964|title=Plaza to Install New Elevators|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> including the three elevators at the 58th Street lobby.<ref name="nyt19760415">{{Cite news|last=McElheny|first=Victor K.|date=April 15, 1976|title=Plaza's Old Elevators Wheezing to a Halt|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> A second phase of renovations was announced the same year, which entailed enlarging some public rooms and replacing the ground-floor barber shop with a [[Trader Vic's]] bar.<ref name="Satow ch. 9" /><ref name="nyt19641117">{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=November 17, 1964|title=Plaza Pressing Expansion Drive; Hotel Will Get Trader Vic's From Savoy‐Plaza and Enlarge Banquet Room|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The ballroom's foyer and stair hall were combined during this renovation.<ref name="NYCL p. 40" /><ref name="nyt19641117" /> The improvements were completed by 1965, having cost $9 million.<ref name="wsj19650823" />
Upon Sonny Sonnabend's death in 1964, his son Roger took over the hotel.<ref name="Satow ch. 10" /> Further changes to the hotel's ownership occurred the next year, when [[Sol Goldman]] and [[Alexander DiLorenzo]]'s firm Wellington Associates bought an [[Option (finance)|option]] to obtain a half-interest in the underlying land from Hilton.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=August 31, 1965|title=Wellington to Get Land Under Plaza|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Gender restrictions at the Oak Room were removed in 1969, after the [[National Organization for Women]] held a sit-in to protest the men-only policy during middays.<ref>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000=|p=142}}; {{harvnb|Harris|1981=|p=56}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=15}}</ref> HCA, by then renamed Sonesta International Hotels,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 23, 1969|title=Hotel America To Change Name Nov. 10 to Sonesta|page=64|work=Hartford Courant|id={{ProQuest|550282274}} }}</ref> announced another round of renovations in 1971. This included the redecoration of the Grand Ballroom.<ref name="Gura p. 95" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Edwards|first=Russell|date=August 27, 1971|title=Plaza Plans ‘Original Elegance’ in ‘World of Tomorrow’|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> as well as the replacement of the Edwardian Room with a restaurant called the Green Tulip.<ref name="Harris p. 40" /><ref name="NYCL p. 14" /><ref name="nyt19711105">{{Cite news|last=Huxtable|first=Ada Louise|date=November 5, 1971|title=An Appraisal: An Edwardian Splendor Or Green Tulip Modern?|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Sally Dryden's pink, lime, and brown design for the Green Tulip<ref name="NYCL pp. 26-27" /> received largely negative public reception.<ref name="wp19750615" /><ref name="Satow ch. 10" /><ref name="NYCL pp. 26-27">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=26–27}}</ref> The ballroom also received a renovation at this time.<ref name="NYCL p. 36"/>
The renovations coincided with a decline in Sonesta's and the Plaza's finances, with the hotel recording a net negative income by 1971.<ref name="Satow ch. 10" /> Sonesta repurchased the Plaza Hotel from Wien in 1972.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Reckert|first=Clare M.|date=July 6, 1972|title=Sonesta International Takes Title to Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Shortly afterward, Sonesta looked to sell its interest in the Plaza Hotel to [[Harry Helmsley]], and Wellington attempted to take over Sonesta by buying its shares.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Hammer|first=Alexander R.|date=May 10, 1973|title=Sonesta Shares Target in Deal|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Gallese|first=Liz Roman|date=May 10, 1973|title=Sonesta Sought by Wellington Associates, But Such a Take-Over May Prove Difficult|page=16|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|133819150}}|issn=0099-9660}}</ref> Both the sale and the attempted Sonesta takeover were unsuccessful, and Wellington made an offer for Sonesta's share of the hotel in April 1974,<ref>{{cite news|last=Meyer|first=Priscilla S.|date=April 2, 1974|title=Sonesta's Plaza Hotel Is Sought by Partners In New York Concern: Wellington Associates, Which Tried Sonesta Take-Over in '73, Is Discussing Purchase|page=16|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|133919074}} |issn=0099-9660}}</ref> which Sonesta refused.<ref>{{cite news|date=May 3, 1974|title=Sonesta Won't Sell The Plaza, New York, To Wellington Group|page=16|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|133971802}}|issn=0099-9660}}</ref>
==== Westin ownership ====
In November 1974, [[Westin Hotels|Western International Hotels]] announced its intention to buy the Plaza Hotel from Sonesta for $25&nbsp;million.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|25|1974|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref>{{Cite news|date=November 13, 1974|title=Western Hotels Co. Buying the Plaza For $25‐Million|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The same year, the Edwardian Room was largely restored to designs by Charles Winslow, being rebranded as the Plaza Suite.<ref name="NYCL p. 27">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=27}}</ref><ref name="Harris p. 43">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=43}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Goldberger|first=Paul|date=February 12, 1974|title=Plaza Turning Back Clock to ‘1907‐New’ Look|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Following Western International's acquisition of the Plaza, it renovated the interior spaces, cleaned the exterior, and restored many of the original designs,<ref name="nyt19820927" /><ref name="wp19750615" /> at a total cost of $200 million.<ref name="newsday19880328">{{cite news|last=Moss|first=Michael|date=March 28, 1988|title=5-Star Facelift; Trump to make over city's Plaza Hotel|page=02|work=Newsday|id={{ProQuest|277975654}} }}</ref> The four hydraulic elevators serving the Central Park South lobby, among the last of their type in the city, were also replaced with electric elevators in 1976.<ref name="nyt19760415" /> Westin also bought the Shinn murals that year for $1 million; they had not been part of the original sale.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=May 18, 1976|title=Plaza Buys Murals By Everett Shinn From Old Owners|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The next year, a 204-seat theater called Cinema 3 opened in the basement.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Goldberger|first=Paul|date=March 24, 1977|title=Design Notebook: Inglorious Urban Entries See a Movie In Style Order Carved Out of Openness|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The Persian Room was closed in 1978 and a clothing boutique opened in its place.<ref name="Satow ch. 10" /> Westin had planned to restore the Palm Court's skylight, but this did not happen.<ref name="newsday19880720" />
By the late 1970s, the Plaza Hotel was again making a net profit.<ref name="Satow ch. 10" /> Western International changed its name to Westin Hotels in 1981 and the hotel was renamed soon after, becoming ''The Westin Plaza''.<ref>{{Cite news|date=August 3, 1985|title=In Hotels View, It's Better to Give|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> However, Westin started to lose money in the late 1980s. By 1987, Westin's parent company [[Allegis Corporation]] announced its intent to sell the Plaza, generating interest from at least 150 investors.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Meyers|first=William H.|date=September 25, 1988|title=Stalking the Plaza|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The Plaza, along with the rest of the Westin chain,<ref>{{cite news|date=October 28, 1987|title=Allegis to Sell Its Westin Unit For $1.35 Billion --- Accord With Bass Group, Aoki Moves Firm Closer To Restructuring Goal|page=1|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|398140080}} |issn=0099-9660}}</ref> were transferred to the [[Aoki Corporation]] and [[Robert M. Bass]] in January 1988.<ref name="wsj19880318">{{cite news|date=March 18, 1988|title=Trump Has Agreed To Purchase Plaza Hotel, Sources Say: Trump Agrees to Buy Famous Plaza Hotel From Bass and Aoki|page=2|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|135320103}} |issn=0099-9660}}</ref> Shortly afterward, Philip Pilevsky and [[Arthur G. Cohen]] expressed their intent to buy the Plaza and turn it into a hotel-cooperative.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Foderaro|first=Lisa W.|date=February 27, 1988|title=Plaza Hotel May Be Sold for Co-ops|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
The Plaza was sold to real estate developer [[Donald Trump]] in March 1988 following a [[handshake agreement]];<ref name="wsj19880318" /><ref>{{cite news|date=March 19, 1988|title=Trump May Buy Plaza Hotel; Sues to Block Resorts Bid|page=13|work=Newsday|id={{ProQuest|277985843}} }}</ref> the sale was valued at either $390 million<ref>{{Cite news|last=Cole|first=Robert J.|date=March 27, 1988|title=Plaza Hotel Is Sold To Donald Trump For $390 Million|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> or $410 million.<ref>{{cite news|date=March 28, 1988|title=Trump to Pay $410 Million for Plaza; Developer Vows to Restore Hotel's Luster|page=4|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|135376084}} |issn=0099-9660}}</ref> After gaining title in July of that year, Trump appointed his wife [[Ivana Trump|Ivana]] as the hotel's president<ref>{{cite news|title=Ivana Trump: Hard work, discipline and self-reliance|newspaper=Tampa Bay Times|first=Marion M.|last=White|date=September 26, 1988|url=|via=NewsBank}}</ref><ref name="newsday19880720">{{cite news|date=July 20, 1988|title=Playing The Palm Court As a Trump Card Says Ivana Trump, `We appreciate the old beauty|page=04|work=Newsday|id={{ProQuest|277975714}} }}</ref> and announced a major renovation program.<ref name="newsday19880328" /> The work involved gilding many surfaces, replacing carpets, and reupholstering furniture.<ref>{{cite news|last=Revson|first=James A.|date=1989-09-21|title=Donald and Ivana Glitz the Plaza|page=04|work=Newsday|id={{ProQuest|1943384125}} }}</ref> The hotel made a modest profit for about two years after Trump's purchase, largely from increased occupancy, suite rates, and banquet bookings.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Agovino|first=Theresa|date=January 29, 1990|title=Profit in Sight for a Rejuvenated Plaza|id={{ProQuest|219134786}}|journal=Crain's New York Business|volume=6|issue=5|pages=1}}</ref>
Trump had borrowed extensively to purchase the Plaza Hotel, but its [[operating income]] was several million dollars below the [[Break-even (economics)|breakeven]] point.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Norris|first=Floyd|date=June 5, 1990|title=A Haze of Debt Clouds The Plaza Hotel's Gleam|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> As a result, the Plaza Hotel's debt ultimately grew to $600 million.<ref name="Sun Sentinel 1992">{{Cite news|last=Reuters|first=|date=March 19, 1992|title=Trump Relinquishing Half of Plaza Hotel Sale of Suites as Condos Fails to Raise Cash|page=2D|work=Sun Sentinel|id={{ProQuest|388941901}} }}</ref> By 1991, Trump was making plans to pay off the hotel's debt by selling off the vast majority of its units as [[condominium]]s. Trump estimated that the conversion would net $750 million, almost twice the purchase price.<ref>{{cite news|date=April 10, 1991|title=Trump planning to convert posh Plaza Hotel into condos|page=16|work=Star-Gazette|location=Elmira, NY|url=|access-date=November 29, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Hylton|first=Richard D.|date=April 9, 1991|title=Trump Aims to Turn Most of Plaza Hotel Into Condominiums|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Trump expected to sell rooms in Plaza Hotel|newspaper=Los Angeles Daily News|first=Richard D.|last=Hylton|date=April 9, 1991|url=|via=NewsBank}}</ref> Trump also considered converting the offices within the mansard roof to penthouse condos.<ref name="Satow ch. 11" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Lueck|first=Thomas J.|date=1990-06-03|title=Reaching for the Sky to Add a Room|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The conversion plan failed because of a drop-off in prices in the city's real estate market.<ref name="Satow ch. 11" /><ref name="Sun Sentinel 1992" /> As a last resort, in March 1992, Trump approached the Plaza's creditors, a group of seventy banks led by [[Citibank]], who agreed to take a 49% stake in the hotel in exchange for forgiveness of $250&nbsp;million in debt and an interest rate reduction.<ref name="Sun Sentinel 1992" /><ref>{{cite news|title=Trump yields 49% of Plaza Hotel in N.Y.|newspaper=The Star-Ledger|location=Newark, NJ|date=March 19, 1992|url=|via=NewsBank}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Lowenstein|first=Roger|date=1992-03-19|title=Trump Agrees to Give Lenders 49% of Plaza Hotel|page=A5|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|135320103}}| issn=0099-9660}}</ref> The agreement was submitted as a [[prepackaged bankruptcy]] in November 1992<ref>{{cite news|date=1992-11-04|title=Prepackaged Bankruptcy Is Filed for Plaza Hotel|page=A6|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|398326488}}|issn=0099-9660}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=1992-11-04|title=Company News; Trump Revises Plaza Loan|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and approved the next month.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Reuters|date=December 12, 1992|title=Company News; Trump's Plaza Hotel Bankruptcy Plan Approved|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
==== Sale to Kwek and Al-Waleed ====
In July 2012, [[Sahara India Pariwar]] agreed to buy a 75% controlling stake for $570 million from El Ad Properties.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018">{{cite web|last=Mashayekhi|first=Rey|date=July 18, 2018|title=The Plaza Hotel - The Long and Winding Ownership History|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Commercial Observer}}</ref> Two years later, Sahara's [[Subrata Roy]] announced he was seeking a buyer for his company's majority stake in the Plaza for $4 billion.<ref name="nyt20140823">{{Cite news|last=Bagli|first=Charles V.|date=August 22, 2014|title=Legal Woes of Owners Help Put the Plaza Back in Play|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> At the time, Sahara was experiencing legal issues and was selling off other properties that it owned.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> After Roy was unable to secure a buyer, he hired a broker in August 2017 to sell the hotel,<ref name="wsj20170822">{{Cite news|last=Karmin|first=Craig|date=August 22, 2017|title=Famed Plaza Hotel Is On the Block|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0099-9660}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Bagli|first=Charles V.|date=August 23, 2017|title=The Plaza Is for Sale, but a Part-Owner Has Other Ideas|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> prompting inquiries from about 50 potential buyers.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Karmin|first=Craig|date=September 19, 2017|title=Dozens of Investors Show Interest in Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0099-9660}}</ref> The same year, Saudi businessman [[Al-Waleed bin Talal]], whose [[Kingdom Holding Company]] owned a minor stake in the hotel, partnered with [[Ben Ashkenazy|Ashkenazy Acquisition Corporation]].<ref>{{Cite web|last=Warerkar|first=Tanay|date=May 25, 2017|title=Beleaguered Plaza Hotel purchase may soon be finalized|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Curbed NY|language=en}}</ref> Kingdom and Ashkenazy's partnership included a [[right of first refusal]], which allowed the companies to match any third-party offer for the hotel.<ref name="wsj20170822" /> In May 2018, the Sahara Group announced it had finalized a deal with businessmen [[Shahal M. Khan]] and [[Kamran Hakim]] to buy a majority share of the hotel for $600 million.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Satow|first=Julie|date=May 4, 2018|title=Deal Is Reached to Sell the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Warerkar|first=Tanay|date=May 3, 2018|title=Legendary Plaza Hotel will sell for $600M to Saudi prince|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Curbed NY}}</ref> However, Ashkenazy and Kingdom exercised their right of first refusal,<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> sued Sahara for trying to sell the hotel to a third party,<ref>{{cite web|last=Hall|first=Miriam|date=May 21, 2018|title=Minority Owners Of The Plaza Hotel Sue Majority Owner For Trying To Sell To Third Party|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Bisnow}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Tan|first=Gillian|date=May 18, 2018|title=New York Plaza Hotel Buyers Ashkenazy, Alwaleed Sue Owner|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|}}</ref> and received an extension to close on their purchase of the Plaza.<ref>{{cite web|last=Parker|first=Will|last2=Maurer|first2=Mark|date=June 26, 2018|title=Ashkenazy, Kingdom get extension to close on Plaza deal: sources|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=The Real Deal New York}}</ref>
Qatari state-owned hotelier [[Katara Hospitality]] ultimately acquired full ownership of the Plaza Hotel in July 2018.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref>{{Cite web|last=Kim|first=Betsy|date=July 5, 2018|title=Plaza Hotel Sold for $600 Million|url=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=GlobeSt|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Tan|first=Gillian|date=July 5, 2018|title=NYC’s Historic Plaza Hotel Sold to Qatari State-Owned Company|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|}}</ref> Under Katara's ownership, the condominium units garnered high asking prices; for instance, a four-bedroom unit was listed for $45 million in early 2020. Around the same time, the Plaza's condominium board sought to make repairs to the facade.<ref>{{Cite web|date=2020-08-28|title=Balcony Repair Ignites Civil War at Plaza Hotel Over Union Labor|url=|access-date=2020-11-30|website=The Real Deal New York|language=en-US}}</ref> Because of the [[COVID-19 pandemic in New York City]], and a corresponding [[Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism|downturn in tourism globally]], the Plaza's hotel rooms temporarily closed in March 2020, and several hundred employees were laid off.<ref>{{cite web|last=Engquist|first=Erik|date=March 27, 2020|title=Plaza Hotel in New York City Closes, Lays Off 251|url=|access-date=November 26, 2020|website=The Real Deal New York}}</ref> The residential section of the Plaza remained open through the pandemic.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Yeginsu|first=Ceylan|last2=Norman|first2=Derek M.|date=October 9, 2020|title=‘If No Tourists Come, I Have No Business’: New York’s Tourism Crisis|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=November 26, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
== Use ==
Later in the 20th century, the Plaza Hotel served as home to "wealthy widows", such as performer [[Kay Thompson]], who wrote the ''[[Eloise (books)|Eloise]]'' children's book series about a young girl who lived at the hotel.<ref name="nyt20190607" /> During the Great Depression, the "wealthy widows" were considered "a tourist attraction in their own right", with their rent income keeping the hotel solvent.<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /> The hotel's other residents included playwright [[Ferenc Molnár]].<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /><ref name="Gathje p. 90">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=90}}</ref> After many units were converted to condominium units in 2008, the Plaza Hotel's residents included musician [[Moby]],<ref>{{Cite web|last=Gould|first=Jennifer|date=2020-03-13|title=Moby’s Central Park penthouse asking $5.75M|url=|access-date=2020-11-30|website=New York Post|language=en-US}}</ref> developer [[Christian Candy]],<ref>{{Cite news|last=Barbanel|first=Josh|date=2012-03-06|title=Candy Gets Taste of the Plaza|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0099-9660}}</ref> and fashion designer [[Tommy Hilfiger]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Marino|first=Vivian|date=2019-11-01|title=Tommy Hilfiger’s Duplex Sells After 11 Years on the Market (Published 2019)|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
The guestrooms have also hosted several notable guests. These have included opera singer [[Enrico Caruso]], as well as novelists [[F. Scott Fitzgerald]] and [[Zelda Fitzgerald]].<ref name="NYCL p. 16" /> [[Frank Lloyd Wright]] often stayed at the Plaza when he was designing the [[Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum]] on Fifth Avenue, considering it to be his home.<ref name="aia5" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|pp=82, 84}}</ref> Art dealer [[Joseph Duveen, 1st Baron Duveen]], who helped assemble the [[Frick Collection]] at the nearby [[Henry Clay Frick House|Frick House]], lived at the Plaza and held important auctions in the ballroom.<ref name="Gathje p. 81" /> In addition, [[the Beatles]] stayed at the Plaza Hotel during their first visit to the United States in February 1964.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref name="Gathje pp. 124-125">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|pp=124–125}}; {{harvnb|ps=.|Harris|1981|pp=94, 99}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=February 14, 1964|title=4,000 Hail Beatles on Arrival in Miami|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
=== Social scene ===
The Plaza Hotel became associated with celebrities and the wealthy upon its opening, surpassing the original Waldorf Astoria in that respect.<ref name="Satow ch. 1">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 1}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Groth|first=Paul|url=|title=Living Downtown: The History of Residential Hotels in the United States|publisher=University of California Press|year=1994|isbn=978-0-520-06876-6|location=|page=42|pages=}}</ref> The Palm Court (then the tea room), with its mostly female guest list, was particularly frequented. Weeks after the hotel's 1907 opening, actress [[Mrs Patrick Campbell]] attempted to smoke there, and the resulting controversy boosted the Plaza's stature.<ref name="NYCL p. 57" /><ref name="Harris p. 66, 68">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=66, 68}}</ref> In January 1908, crowds flocked to see heiress [[Gladys Vanderbilt Széchenyi|Gladys Vanderbilt]] and her fiance, Hungarian count [[László Széchenyi]], have tea while Theodora Shonts arrived with her fiance [[Emmanuel d'Albert de Luynes]], the [[Duke of Chaulnes]].<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=January 12, 1908|title=Crush to See Brides Who'll Wear Titles; Throng of Women at the Plaza Jams Corridors, Men's Cafe, and Grill. Duke and Count on View With Miss Theodora Shonts and Miss Gladys Vanderbilt, Whom They Are Soon to Wed|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Brown p. 174">{{harvnb|Brown|1967|ps=.|p=174}}</ref> That year, the ''New York World'' dubbed the hotel the "Home-for-the-Incurably Opulent".<ref name="NPS p. 8">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=8}}</ref><ref name="Harris p. 66">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=66}}</ref> By 1909, the Palm Court was consistently exceeding its 350-person capacity.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=April 25, 1909|title=Society's Latest Fad--Tearooms|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
During the 1920s, the basement's grill room was a popular meeting place for young adults born during the [[Lost Generation]].<ref name="Harris p. 67">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=67}}</ref> The Oak Room was frequented by actor [[George M. Cohan]], and a commemorative plaque for Cohan was installed in the room in the 1940s after his death.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref name="Gathje p. 78">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=78}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=March 11, 1943|title=Plaque to Honor Cohan, Harris|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The Persian Room was popular with the "cafe society", being frequented by socialites and fashion trendsetters.<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /> [[Eddy Duchin]] and [[Hildegarde]] were among the room's early performers,<ref name="Harris p. 104">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=104}}</ref> and it later attracted others such as [[Eartha Kitt]], [[Peggy Lee]], and [[Liza Minnelli]].<ref name="Horsley" /> By the 1970s, the Persian Room hosted performances from pop singers like [[Robert Goulet]] and [[Dusty Springfield]].<ref name="Satow ch. 10" />
The hotel has also been popular among world leaders, particularly presidents of the United States. The first of these was [[Theodore Roosevelt]], the 26th U.S. president, who moved his [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican Party]]'s events to the Plaza Hotel from the [[Fifth Avenue Hotel]] after the closure of the former in 1908.<ref name="Harris pp. 109-110">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=109–110}}</ref> Theodore Roosevelt's distant cousin, president [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]], had his birthday luncheon in the Palm Court in 1935.<ref name="NYCL p. 58">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=58 (PDF p.&nbsp;59)}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=January 31, 1935|title=Gay Pageant Here Honors President|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Other U.S. presidents who frequented the hotel's guestrooms or restaurants have included [[William Howard Taft]], [[Harry S. Truman]], and [[Richard Nixon]],<ref name="NYCL p. 58" /><ref name="Harris p. 110">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=110}}</ref> as well as onetime owner Donald Trump.<ref name="nyt20190607" /> For other world leaders, the Plaza Hotel kept a series of national flags, which were displayed whenever a foreign head of state visited.<ref name="Harris p. 110" /> The Plaza Hotel has additionally been used for diplomacy, as in September 1985, the finance ministers of several countries signed the [[Plaza Accord]] at the hotel, which [[Currency appreciation and depreciation|depreciated]] the [[United States dollar|U.S. dollar]] in relation to other currencies.<ref>{{cite book|last=Funabashi|first=Yōichi|url=|title=Managing the Dollar: From the Plaza to the Louvre|publisher=Institute for International Economics|year=1989|isbn=978-0-88132-097-8|series=Books / Institute for international economics|pages=261–271}}</ref>
==== Receptions ====
==== Benefits and weddings ====
Upon the Grand Ballroom's opening in 1921, it immediately became popular as a venue for [[debutante ball]]s, including those in honor of [[Joan Whitney Payson]] and [[Cathleen Vanderbilt]].<ref name="NYCL p. 35" /><ref name="Brown pp. 223-229">{{harvnb|Brown|1967|ps=.|pp=223–229}}</ref> The rebuilt ballroom hosted social benefits such as a dinner honoring physicist [[Marie Curie]] in 1929,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 31, 1929|title=Honor Mme. Curie Tonight; Cancer Society Members Hosts at Only Public Event for Her Here|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and a meeting of the Girls Service League in 1935 that was attended by U.S. first lady [[Eleanor Roosevelt]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=November 3, 1935|title=President's Wife to Speak on Youth; Mrs. Roosevelt Will Address Girls Service League Here at Nov. 14 Meeting|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Following World War II, the Grand Ballroom again became a popular venue for debutante balls and benefits,<ref name="NYCL p. 35" /><ref name="Brown pp. 223-229" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Gardner|first=Evelyn|date=November 20, 1955|title=Forthcoming Debutante Balls Here Recall Cotillions of Earlier Days|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> including a disabled veterans; benefit called the December Ball,<ref name="NYCL pp. 15-16">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=15–16}}</ref><ref name="Gathje p. 84">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=84}}</ref> as well as an event benefiting the Kennedy Child Care Study Center in 1959.<ref name="NYCL p. 16">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=16}}</ref><ref name="Gathje p. 120">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=120}}</ref> Writer [[Truman Capote]] hosted the "[[Black and White Ball]]" there in 1966, in honor of publisher [[Katharine Graham]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Curtis|first=Charlotte|date=November 29, 1966|title=Capote's Black and White Ball: 'The Most Exquisite of Spectator Sports'|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Gathje pp. 130-133">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|pp=130–133}}</ref><ref name="Jackson p. 202">{{harvnb|Jackson|2010|ps=.|p=202}}</ref> Another popular venue for benefits was the Terrace Court, which hosted events such as the Mid-Winter Ball in 1949.<ref name="NYCL p. 58" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=January 16, 1949|title=Auction of Thoroughbred Filly on Thursday To Be Feature of Annual Midwinter Ball|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
The Plaza Hotel, particularly the Grand Ballroom and Terrace Room, has also been used for weddings and wedding receptions.<ref name="NYCL p. 16" /> For example, the Terrace Room held the reception for figure skater [[Sonja Henie]]'s 1949 wedding to Winthrop Gardiner Jr.<ref name="NYCL p. 63" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=September 16, 1949|title=Sonja Henie, Famous Skater, Weds Winthrop Gardiner Jr., Executive|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> [[Peter Lawford]] and [[Patricia Kennedy Lawford]]'s wedding reception was hosted at the ballroom in 1954,<ref name="NYCL p. 16" /><ref name="Gathje pp. 108-109">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|pp=108–109}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=April 25, 1954|title=Patricia Kennedy Married to Actor|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> as was [[David Eisenhower]] and [[Julie Nixon Eisenhower]]'s reception in 1968.<ref name="NYCL p. 16" /><ref name="Gathje p. 140">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=140}}</ref> The ballroom also hosted Donald Trump and [[Marla Maples]]'s 1993 wedding.<ref>{{cite news|first=Mike|last=Capuzzo|date=December 21, 1993|title=Marla finally becomes Mrs. Trump|newspaper=Philadelphia Inquirer|url=|accessdate=March 26, 2016}}</ref> In 2000, actors [[Michael Douglas]] and [[Catherine Zeta-Jones]] married at the Plaza.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref>{{cite web|last=Mackelden|first=Amy|date=March 29, 2020|title=Catherine Zeta-Jones & Michael Douglas' Wedding Photos 20 Years Later|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Harper's BAZAAR}}</ref>
== Impact ==
=== Landmark designations ===
[[File:New York City, Nov 29, 2008 (3075044187).jpg|thumb|New York City designated landmark plaque]]
The demolition of the nearby Savoy-Plaza in 1964, and its replacement with the General Motors Building, resulted in a preservation movement to save the Plaza Hotel and nearby structures.<ref name="Satow ch. 9" /> The Plaza Hotel's exterior was designated a city landmark by the [[New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission]] in 1969.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=December 18, 1969|title=2 City Sites Designated Landmarks|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The hotel was added to the [[National Register of Historic Places]] in 1978,<ref name="nris">{{cite web | title=Federal Register: 44 Fed. Reg. 7107 (Feb. 6, 1979) | publisher=[[Library of Congress]] | date=February 6, 1979 | url= | access-date=March 8, 2020 | page=7539 (PDF p.&nbsp;339) | url-status=live }}</ref> and it was also made a [[National Historic Landmark]] in 1986.<ref name="nhlsum">{{cite web | title=List of NHLs by State | website=National Historic Landmarks (U.S. National Park Service) | date=May 4, 1970 | url= | access-date=November 30, 2020}}</ref> A large part of the main public space in the interior, including the lobbies, ballroom, and restaurant spaces, was made a New York City designated landmark in 2005.<ref name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Gura p. 90" /> The interior-landmark designation had been partially motivated by opposition to El Ad's original plans to renovate the hotel.<ref name="Satow ch. 13">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 13}}</ref><ref name="AR 2005">{{cite journal|url=|title=What does the future hold for the Plaza Hotel?|last=Ulam|first=Alex|journal=Architectural Record|volume=193|issue=3|date=March 2005|page=36}}</ref>
=== In media ===
* {{cite book|last=Gura|first=Judith|url=|title=Interior landmarks : treasures of New York|publisher=The Monacelli Press|year=2015|isbn=978-1-58093-422-0|publication-place=New York, New York|oclc=899332305}}
* {{Cite book|last=Harris|first=Bill|url=|title=The Plaza|last2=Clucas|first2=Philip|last3=Smart|first3=Ted|last4=Gibbon|first4=David|last5=Westin Hotels|date=1981|publisher=Poplar Books|year=|isbn=|location=Secaucas, N.J.|pages=17|language=English|oclc=1036787315|ref={{harvid|Harris|1981}}}}
* {{cite web|last=|first=|date=November 29, 1978|title=Historic Structures Report: Plaza Hotel|url=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=|website=|publisher=[[National Register of Historic Places]], [[National Park Service]]|ref={{harvid|National Park Service|1978}}}}
* {{Cite enc-nyc2|ref={{harvid|Jackson|2010}}}}
* {{cite journal|last=|first=|date=1907|title=New Plaza Hotel|url=|journal=Architecture|volume=16|pages=179, 187|ref={{harvid|Architecture|1907}}}}
* {{cite book|last=|first=|url=|title=The Plaza Hotel|date=October 26, 1907|journal=American Architect and Architecture|publisher=American Architect|year=|isbn=|volume=92|location=|pages=134-136|ref={{harvid|American Architect|1907}}}}
* {{cite web|date=December 9, 1969|title=The Plaza Hotel|url=|archive-url=|archive-date=|publisher=[[New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission]]|ref={{harvid|Landmarks Preservation Commission|1969}}}}
* {{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=October 1907|title=The Plaza Hotel, H. J. Hardenberg, Architect|url=|journal=Architects' and Builders' Magazine|volume=9|pages=1-25|ref={{harvid|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907}}|via=}}
* {{cite web|url=|title=Plaza Hotel Interior|date=July 12, 2005|publisher=[[New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission]]|archive-url=|archive-date=|ref={{harvid|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005}}}}
* {{cite book|last=Satow|first=Julie|url=|title=The Plaza : the secret life of America's most famous hotel|publisher=Twelve|year=2019|isbn=978-1-4555-6666-2|location=|publication-place=New York|pages=|oclc=1057242880}}
* {{cite New York 1930|ref={{harvid|Stern|Gilmartin|Mellins|1987}}}}