Plaza Hotel: Difference between revisions

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{{Short description|Hotel in Manhattan, New York}}
The '''Plaza Hotel''' (also known as '''The Plaza''') is a [[luxury hotel]] and condominium [[apartment building]] in [[Midtown Manhattan]] in [[New York City]]. It is on the western side of [[Grand Army Plaza (Manhattan)|Grand Army Plaza]], just west of [[Fifth Avenue]], between 58th Street and [[Central Park South]]. The Plaza Hotel is named for Grand Army Plaza, which in turn is at the southeastern corner of [[Central Park]]. Its primary address is at 768 Fifth Avenue, though the residential entrance is at One Central Park South.
The 19-story, [[French Renaissance]]-inspired [[château]]-style building was designed by [[Henry Janeway Hardenbergh]]. The facade is made of marble at the base and white brick in the intermediate stories, while the hotel is topped by a [[mansard roof]]. The ground floor contains a corridor connecting several large rooms such as the [[Oak Room (Plaza Hotel)|Oak Room]], the Oak Bar, the Edwardian Room, the Palm Court, and the Terrace Room. The upper stories contain the ballroom and a variety of residential [[Condominium|condominiums]], condo-hotel suites, and short-term hotel suites. At its peak, the Plaza Hotel had over 800 rooms; following a renovation in 2008, the building has 282 hotel rooms and 181 condos.
A predecessor hotel of the same name was built from 1883 to 1890. The original hotel was replaced by the current structure from 1905 to 1907; [[Warren and Wetmore]] designed an expansion to the Plaza Hotel from 1919 to 1921, and several major renovations were conducted through the rest of the 20th century. [[Conrad Hilton]] acquired the hotel in 1943, and ownership passed through several other owners during the 20th century, including A.M. Sonnabend, [[Westin Hotels & Resorts]], [[Donald Trump]], and [[Al-Waleed bin Talal]]. The Plaza Hotel was renovated again after [[El Ad Properties]] purchased it in 2005, and the hotel was subsequently sold to [[Sahara India Pariwar]] and finally to [[Katara Hospitality]].
[[File:Plaza Hotel May 2010.JPG|left|thumb|The Plaza Hotel and surrounding buildings (including the [[Solow Building]] in the center background) as seen from [[Central Park]] in May 2010]]
The Plaza Hotel is at 768 [[Fifth Avenue]] and One Central Park South in the [[Midtown Manhattan]] neighborhood of [[New York City]].<ref name="ZoLa">{{Cite web|last=|first=|date=|title=768 5 Avenue, 10019|url=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=September 8, 2020|website=|publisher=[[New York City Department of City Planning]]}}</ref> It faces [[Central Park South]] (59th Street) and [[the Pond and Hallett Nature Sanctuary]] in [[Central Park]] to the north; [[Grand Army Plaza (Manhattan)|Grand Army Plaza]] to the east; and [[58th Street (Manhattan)|58th Street]] to the south. Fifth Avenue itself is opposite Grand Army Plaza from the hotel.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1">{{harvnb|ps=.|Landmarks Preservation Commission|1969|p=1}}</ref><ref name="NYCityMap">{{Cite web|last=|first=|date=|title=NYCityMap|url=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=March 20, 2020||publisher=[[New York City Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications]]}}</ref> The Plaza Hotel's site covers {{convert|53,772|ft2||abbr=}}.<ref name="ZoLa" /> It measures {{Convert|285|ft||abbr=}} along 58th Street and {{Convert|275|ft||abbr=}} along Central Park South, with a depth of {{convert|200.83|ft}} between the two streets.<ref name="NPS p. 2">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=2}}</ref> As completed in 1907, it originally measured {{Convert|145|ft||abbr=}} along 58th Street and {{Convert|250|ft||abbr=}} along Central Park South, with an "L" running the entire 200-foot depth of the lot along Grand Army Plaza.<ref name="rer19050617">{{cite journal|date=June 17, 1905|title=Fuller Company Will Build the New Plaza Hotel|url=|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=75|pages=1325|via=[[Columbia University|]]|number=1944}}</ref>
The Plaza Hotel is near the [[General Motors Building (Manhattan)|General Motors Building]] to the east, [[Park Lane Hotel]] to the west, and [[Solow Building]] and [[Bergdorf Goodman Building]] to the south.<ref name="NYCityMap" /> The hotel's main entrance faces the ''[[Pulitzer Fountain]]'' in the southern portion of Grand Army Plaza.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1" /><ref name="Stern (1987) p. 18">{{harvnb|Stern|Gilmartin|Mellins|1987|ps=.|p=18}}</ref> An entrance to the [[Fifth Avenue–59th Street station]] of the [[New York City Subway]]'s {{NYCS trains|Broadway 60th}} is within the base of the hotel at Central Park South.<ref>{{cite NYC neighborhood map|Midtown}}</ref>
The detail of the [[facade]] is concentrated on its two primary [[Elevation (architecture)|elevations]], which face north toward Central Park and east toward Fifth Avenue. The facade's [[Articulation (architecture)|articulation]] consists of three horizontal sections similar to the components of a [[column]], namely a base, shaft, and crown. The northern and eastern elevations are also split vertically into three portions, with the center portion being recessed. The northeastern and southeastern corners of the hotel contain rounded corners, which resemble [[turret]]s. There are numerous [[loggia]]s, [[balustrade]]s, columns, [[pilaster]]s, balconies, and arches repeated on various parts of the facade.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1" /><ref name="NPS p. 2"/> The 1921 annex contains a design that is largely similar to Hardenbergh's 1907 design.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922">{{cite journal|year=1922|title=Hotel Plaza Addition, New York|url=|journal=Architecture and Building|publisher=W.T. Comstock Company|volume=54|pages=16-17}}</ref>
The ground and first stories of the facade{{efn|In this article, the facade is described using the interior floor-numbering system, which uses European floor numbering. For example, the first floor is one floor above the ground level; under U.S. floor numbering, it would be considered the second floor.<ref name="wp19750615"/>}} are clad with [[Rustication (architecture)|rusticated]] blocks of [[marble]], while the third story contains a smooth marble surface.<ref>{{harvnb|American Architect|1907|p=134}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|1969|p=1}}; {{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=2}}</ref> The Plaza Hotel contained two guest entrances in the 1907 design: the main entrance on Central Park South and a private entrance for long-term residents on 58th Street.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134">{{harvnb|American Architect|1907|ps=.|p=134}}</ref><ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" /> The main entrance, in the center of the Central Park South facade, contains a porch above the three center bays, and large doorways.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2">{{harvnb|ps=.|Landmarks Preservation Commission|1969|p=2}}</ref><ref name="NPS p. 5">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=5}}</ref> Since the hotel's 2008 renovation, the Central Park South entrance has served as the entrance to the building's condominiums.<ref name="Horsley"/> The Grand Army Plaza side originally contained a terrace called the Champagne Porch,<ref name="NPS p. 2" /><ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" /> and three minor entrances, including one to the porch.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 1">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=1}}</ref><ref name="nyt19070929" /> The large central entry on that side, created in 1921, consists of six [[Tuscan order|Tuscan]]-style columns, supporting a balcony on the first floor, immediately above ground level. The first and second floors at the center of the Grand Army Plaza facade contains paired [[Corinthian order|Corinthian]]-style pilasters supporting an entablature.<ref name="NPS p. 2" /><ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" />
The third through fourteenth floors, below the mansard roof, are clad with white brick and typically contain rectangular windows.<ref name="NPS p. 2" /><ref>{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|p=1}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|1969|p=2}}; {{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=2}}</ref> These stories contain terracotta veneers that harmonize with the marble facade below it and the mansard roof above.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 1" /> At the center of the Central Park South facade, the five center bays at the eleventh and twelfth floors contain an [[Arcade (architecture)|arcade]] composed of arches with paired pilasters. On the Grand Army Plaza side, there are horizontal [[band course]]s above the twelfth floor.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" /> The 58th Street facade is a scaled-down version of the two primary elevations on Grand Army Plaza and Central Park South.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /> A marble balcony runs above the twelfth floor on all sides.<ref name="NPS p. 2" /><ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" />
The Edwardian Room, previously known as the Men's Grill or Fifth Avenue Cafe, is at the northeast corner of the ground floor,<ref name="NYCL p. 21" /> measuring {{Convert|50|x|65|ft|abbr=}}. It was originally designed by William Baumgarten & Company and McNulty Brothers, but has been redecorated multiple times.<ref name="NYCL p. 25">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=25}}</ref> It contains dark Flemish-oak paneling, {{Convert|12|ft||abbr=}} high, with finishes and doorway surrounds made of Caen stone.<ref>{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|p=2}} {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|pp=25–26}}; {{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=5}}</ref> The floor is inlaid with mosaic tiles.<ref name="NYCL p. 26">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=26}}</ref> The beamed ceiling is inlaid with mirrors, giving the impression of highly decorated trusses,<ref>{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|p=2}}; {{harvnb|Frohne|1907|p=364}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|p=25|ps=.}}</ref> and the room is lit by large windows and eight large bronze chandeliers. The room's original color scheme was a relatively toned-down palette of green, dark brown, and gray hues.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 2" /><ref name="NYCL p. 25" /> When built, there was a musicians' balcony overhanging the room.<ref name="NYCL p. 25" /> The room also had an entrance at Grand Army Plaza, which was closed with the creation of the Fifth Avenue lobby.<ref name="NYCL pp. 25-26">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=25–26}}</ref> The space housed the Green Tulip and Plaza Suite restaurants in the late 20th century;<ref name="NYCL p. 25" /> by the 2000s, it was known as One CPS.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Confessore|first=Nicholas|date=December 30, 2004|title=Oak Room at the Plaza Is Going the Way of the Pince-Nez|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
The Palm Court, previously known as the [[Teahouse|tea room]], is in the center of the ground floor.<ref name="NYCL p. 21" /> It contains a design inspired by the Winter Garden at the [[Carlton Hotel, London|Carlton Hotel in London]].<ref name="Harris p. 34">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=34}}</ref><ref name="NYCL p. 57">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=57 (PDF p.&nbsp;58)}}</ref> It is outfitted with walls made of Caen stone.<ref>{{harvnb|Architecture|1907|p=179}}; {{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|p=4}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|p=57 (PDF p.&nbsp;58)}}; {{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=5}}</ref> As in the main corridor, the Palm Court contains mosaic floors, as well as marble pilasters and columns, topped by bronze capitals.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 4">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=4}}</ref><ref name="NYCL p. 57" /> The Palm Court initially had a [[stained glass]] ceiling, which was removed in a 1940s renovation;<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="nyt19820927" /><ref name="NYCL p. 57" /> it was restored in the mid-2000s.<ref name=":0nyt20051212">{{Cite news|last=Barron|first=James|date=2005-12-12|title=A New Ceiling for the Plaza, but It Has Plenty of History|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="latimes20080303">{{cite web|last=Associated Press|date=March 3, 2008|title=NYC's famed Plaza Hotel reopens|url=|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=Los Angeles Times}}</ref> There were also mirrors on the western wall.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="NYCL p. 57" /> The western wall contains four [[caryatid]]s carved by [[Pottier & Stymus]], which represent the seasons and framed the wall mirrors.<ref>{{harvnb|Gura|2015|p=92}}; {{harvnb|Harris|1981|p=38}}; {{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=57 (PDF p.&nbsp;58)}}</ref> East of the Palm Court, separated from it by the main corridor, was the Plaza Restaurant, and Champagne Porch.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="NYCL pp. 9-10">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=9–10}}</ref> The Palm Court and Plaza Restaurant originally formed a "vast dining hall",<ref name="rer19070914" /><ref name="NYCL p. 10" /> which were designed nearly identically.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 4" /> Removable glass panes along the main corridor abutted both spaces.<ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179" /><ref name="NYCL p. 57" />
The Terrace Room, west of the Palm Court,<ref name="NYCL pp. 21-22">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=21–22 (PDF pp.&nbsp;22–23)}}</ref> is part of Warren and Wetmore's 1921 design. The room was so named because it contains three terraces.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /><ref name="NYCL p. 13">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=13}}</ref> The terraces split the room in thirds, increasing in height from east to west; they are separated by balustrades and connected by small staircases.<ref name="NYCL p. 62">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=62 (PDF p.&nbsp;63)}}</ref> The space contains Renaissance style motifs on the pilasters, ceilings, and wall arches, as well as three chandeliers and rusticated-marble walls.<ref name="NYCL pp. 62-63">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=62–63 (PDF pp.&nbsp;63–64)}}</ref> [[John B. Smeraldi]] was commissioned to paint the Terrace Room's ornamentation.<ref name="Gura p. 92">{{harvnb|Gura|2015|ps=.|p=92}}</ref><ref name="NYCL pp. 62-63" /> The Terrace Room is surrounded by a balcony, with a painted coffer ceiling possibly commissioned by Smeraldi, as well as marble pilasters and floors.<ref name="NYCL p. 13" /> A balcony runs slightly above the Terrace Room on its southern wall.<ref name="NYCL p. 63">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=63 (PDF p.&nbsp;64)}}</ref> Immediately south of the balcony is the Terrace Room's corridor and foyer.<ref name="NYCL pp. 21-22" /><ref name="NPS p. 11" />
The southwesternsoutheastern corner of the ground floor also originally contained a staff dining room before being redesigned as the Oyster Bar.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /> The southeastern corner originally contained the 58th Street Restaurant, which was exclusively for the hotel's permanent residents.<ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179" /> In 1934, it was replaced by a nightclub called the Persian Room.<ref name="NPS p. 6">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=6}}</ref> The Persian Room had red and Persian blue upholstery by [[Joseph Urban]], five wall murals by [[Lillian Gaertner Palmedo]], and a 27-foot bar.<ref name="Brown p. 76">{{harvnb|Brown|1967|ps=.|p=76}}</ref><ref name="Satow ch. 6" /> The Persian Room operated until 1978.<ref name="Satow ch. 10">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 10}}</ref>
==== Ballroom ====
Warren and Wetmore's ballroom was reconstructed in 1929 to a neoclassical design by Schultze & Weaver.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="NYCL p. 35" /> The room has a white and cream color scheme with gold ornamentation, evocative of the original ballroom's design.<ref name="NYCL p. 13" /><ref name="Brown p. 73">{{harvnb|ps=.|Brown|1967|p=73}}</ref> The stage remains on the western wall, but is within a rounded opening. The redesign added audience boxes on the north and east walls, with decorative metal railings.<ref name="NYCL p. 36">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=36 (PDF p.&nbsp;37)}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=November 8, 1929|title=1,000 Hear Mary Garden.; With Ruth Breton She Gives First of "Artistic Mornings" at Plaza.|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The ballroom contains a coved ceiling with roundels, lunettes, bas reliefs, and two chandeliers.<ref name="NYCL p. 36" /> South of the ballroom proper is a corridor running west to east.<ref name="NYCL p. 23" /><ref name="NPS p. 11" /> The corridor has a decorative barrel-vaulted paneled ceiling and had a balcony that was removed in the 1929 redesign.<ref name="NYCL p. 39">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=39 (PDF p.&nbsp;40)}}</ref> On the southernmost section of the first floor is the ballroom foyer and the stair hall, two formerly separate rooms that were combined in 1965 to form a neoclassical marble-clad space. The stair hall contains the stair leading from the mezzanine foyer.<ref name="NYCL p. 40">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=40 (PDF p.&nbsp;41)}}</ref><ref name="nyt19641117" />
==== SuitesCondominiums and suites ====
[[File:Plaza Hotel corridor, Sept 2017.jpg|thumb|Suite hallway]]
The Plaza Hotel's condominiums and suites start at the second floor.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 142">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=14}}</ref> As built, they contained three primary types of suites: those with one bedroom and one bathroom; those with two bedrooms and two bathrooms; and those with a parlor and a varying number of beds and baths.<ref name="rer19070914" /><ref name="Frohne pp. 352-353">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|pp=352–353}}</ref> The walls were originally painted in rose, yellow, cream, and gray hues.<ref name="Gathje p. 81">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=81}}</ref> For decorative effect, the rooms contained wooden wainscoting and furniture, while the plaster ceilings contained crystal chandeliers.<ref name="Gathje pp. 81-82">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|pp=81&ndash;82}}</ref> A guest or resident could request multiple suites, since there were smaller private hallways adjacent to the main hallway on each floor. There were also staff rooms at the corners of the main corridor on each floor.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 16">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=16}}</ref><ref name="Frohne pp. 352-353" /> Dumbwaiters led from the staff rooms to the basement kitchen, allowing guests to order meals and eat them in-suite.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="Harris pp. 22-23">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=22–23}}</ref><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 22">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=22}}</ref>
Following its 2008 renovation, the hotel contains 181 privately owned condominiums, which are marketed as the Plaza Residences or One Central Park South.<ref name="aia5" /><ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Haughney|first=Christine|date=2008-02-17|title=It’s Lonely at the Plaza Hotel ...|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The condominiums are on the northern and eastern sides of the building and contain a variety of layouts, from studio apartments to three-story penthouse units. The condos' interior furnishings include parquet floors and stone counters, and largely reflect the original design of these rooms.<ref name="Horsley">{{Cite web|title=The Plaza, 1 Central Park South|first=Carter|last=Horsley|url=|access-date=2020-11-30|website=City Realty|language=en}}</ref> There are also 282 hotel units on the southern side of the building. Of these, 152 condo-hotel units occupy eleven of the upper stories; they serve as residences for investors or staff for up to four months a year, and are used as short-term hotel units for the remaining time. In addition, there are 130 rooms exclusively for short-term stays on seven of the lower stories.<ref name="Horsley" /><ref name="latimes20080303" /><ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" />
Following its 2008 renovation, the hotel contains 181 privately owned condominiums.<ref name="aia5" /><ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> There were 150 condo-hotel units, composed of 50 units sold to private investors and 100 units operated by the hotel's owners. In addition, there were 131 rooms reserved for short-term stays.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" />
Hardenbergh's design included the State Apartments on the northern side of the first floor.<ref name="Frohne p. 356">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=356}}</ref><ref name="AA (1907) pp. 134-135">{{harvnb|American Architect|1907|ps=.|pp=134–135}}</ref> The [[state room]] was one of the most lavish suites in the entire hotel; it had a drawing room, antechambers, dining rooms, bedrooms and bathrooms, and food storage.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 135" /> Also on the first floor were private banquet, reception, and card rooms.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="Frohne p. 352" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 14" /> The state room was turned into a private dining area and restored in 1974.<ref name="NPS p. 6" /> Similarly ornate suites were located along the Central Park South side on eleven of the upper floors.<ref name="Gathje p. 81" />
==== Opening and expansion ====
The new 800-room Plaza Hotel was opened October 1, 1907, twenty-seven months after work had commenced.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref name="tribune19071001">{{cite news|date=October 1, 1907|title=Dinner at the New Plaza Hotel|page=9|work=New-York Tribune|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref> The opening was observed by people including businessman [[Diamond Jim Brady]]; actresses [[Lillian Russell]], [[Billie Burke]], [[Maxine Elliott]], and [[Fritzi Scheff]]; producers [[David Belasco]] and [[Oscar Hammerstein I]]; actor [[John Drew Jr.]]; and author [[Mark Twain]].<ref name="Harris p. 29" /> Though the opening coincided with the [[Panic of 1907]], the hotel suffered minimal losses.<ref name="Satow ch. 1" /><ref name="Brown p. 35">{{harvnb|Brown|1967|ps=.|p=35}}</ref> The new hotel more than doubled the capacity of the first structure,<ref name="Frohne p. 349">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=349}}</ref> and it was intended as a largely residential hotel at opening, although the terms for "hotel" and "apartment" were largely synonymous at the time.<ref name=":1nyt20190607">{{Cite news|last=Satow|first=Julie|date=2019-06-07|title=The Widows of the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Estimates held that ninety percent of the units were for long-term residents.<ref name="NPS p. 3" /><ref name="Harris p. 29">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=29}}</ref><ref name=":1nyt20190607" /> The owners charged short-term guests $2.50 nightly.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|2.50|1907|r=2}} in {{Inflation year|US}}{{inflation/fn|index=US|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="NPS p. 3" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /> Gates, one of the original investors, was among the residents of the new Plaza;<ref name="ABM (1907) pp. 16-18"/> when he died in 1911, his funeral was held at the hotel.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Mourners Came From Many States|newspaper=The Cincinnati Enquirer|page=4|date=August 24, 1911|access-date=March 9, 2015| {{open access}}}}</ref><ref name="Satow ch. 5">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 5}}</ref>
Most of the public rooms were not originally given formal names.<ref name="Harris p. 40">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=40}}</ref> Although Hardenbergh had predicted that gender-segregated spaces were going out of fashion,<ref name="Hardenbergh 1902">{{Cite book|last=Hardenbergh|first=Henry Janeway|url=|title=A dictionary of architecture and building: biographical, historical, and descriptive|publisher=|year=1902|isbn=|editor-last=Sturgis|editor-first=Russell|volume=2|location=|pages=411|language=English|chapter=Hotel|oclc=670096}}</ref> there was a women's reception room near 58th Street, and the bar room and men's grill (respectively the present Oak and Edwardian Rooms) were exclusively used by men.<ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179" /><ref name="rer19070914" /><ref name="NYCL p. 10" /> In practice, the men's grill acted as a social club where business discussion was socially inappropriate, while the bar was a space for businessmen to talk.<ref name="Harris pp. 47-48">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=47–48}}</ref> Sometime between 1912 and the start of [[Prohibition in the United States]] in 1920, the brokerage office near the entrance, now the Oak Bar, was turned into an extension of the bar room.<ref name="NYCL p. 14" /> The Champagne Porch along Grand Army Plaza was the most exclusive area of the hotel, with meals costing between $50 and $500.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to between ${{Inflation|index=US|value=50|start_year=1907|fmt=c}} and ${{Inflation|index=US|value=500|start_year=1907|fmt=c}} in {{Inflation/year|index=US}}{{inflation/fn|index=US|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref name="Harris p. 33">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=33}}</ref><ref name="bt19210708">{{cite news|date=July 8, 1921|title=Champagne Porch is No More|page=6|work=Buffalo Times|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref> The basement's grill room hosted ice-skating in the summer, as well as a "dog check room" where residents' dogs could be fed luxuriously. In its first decade, the Plaza employed a staff of over 1,500.<ref name="Satow ch. 1" />
==== Westin ownership ====
In November 1974, [[Westin Hotels|Western International Hotels]] announced its intention to buy the Plaza Hotel from Sonesta for $25&nbsp;million.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|25|1974|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref>{{Cite news|date=November 13, 1974|title=Western Hotels Co. Buying the Plaza For $25‐Million|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The same year, the Edwardian Room was largely restored to designs by Charles Winslow, being rebranded as the Plaza Suite.<ref name="NYCL p. 27">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=27}}</ref><ref name="Harris p. 43">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=43}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Goldberger|first=Paul|date=February 12, 1974|title=Plaza Turning Back Clock to ‘1907‐New’ Look|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Following Western International's acquisition of the Plaza, it renovated the interior spaces, cleaned the exterior, and restored many of the original designs,<ref name="nyt19820927" /><ref name="wp19750615" /> at a total cost of $200 million.<ref name="newsday19880328">{{cite news|last=Moss|first=Michael|date=March 28, 1988|title=5-Star Facelift; Trump to make over city's Plaza Hotel|page=02|work=Newsday|id={{ProQuest|277975654}} }}</ref> The four hydraulic elevators serving the Central Park South lobby, among the last of their type in the city, were also replaced with electric elevators in 1976.<ref name="nyt19760415" /> Westin also bought the Shinn murals that year for $1 million; they had not been part of the original sale.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=May 18, 1976|title=Plaza Buys Murals By Everett Shinn From Old Owners|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The next year, a 204-seat theater called Cinema 3 opened in the basement.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Goldberger|first=Paul|date=March 24, 1977|title=Design Notebook: Inglorious Urban Entries See a Movie In Style Order Carved Out of Openness|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The Persian Room was closed in 1978 and a clothing boutique opened in its place.<ref name="Satow ch. 10" /> Westin had planned to restore the Palm Court's skylight, but this did not happen.<ref name=":2newsday19880720" />
By the late 1970s, the Plaza Hotel was again making a net profit.<ref name="Satow ch. 10" /> Western International changed its name to Westin Hotels in 1981 and the hotel was renamed soon after, becoming ''The Westin Plaza''.<ref>{{Cite news|date=August 3, 1985|title=In Hotels View, It's Better to Give|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> However, Westin started to lose money in the late 1980s. By 1987, Westin's parent company [[Allegis Corporation]] announced its intent to sell the Plaza, generating interest from at least 150 investors.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Meyers|first=William H.|date=September 25, 1988|title=Stalking the Plaza|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The Plaza, along with the rest of the Westin chain,<ref>{{cite news|date=October 28, 1987|title=Allegis to Sell Its Westin Unit For $1.35 Billion --- Accord With Bass Group, Aoki Moves Firm Closer To Restructuring Goal|page=1|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|398140080}} |issn=0099-9660}}</ref> were transferred to the [[Aoki Corporation]] and [[Robert M. Bass]] in January 1988.<ref name="wsj19880318">{{cite news|date=March 18, 1988|title=Trump Has Agreed To Purchase Plaza Hotel, Sources Say: Trump Agrees to Buy Famous Plaza Hotel From Bass and Aoki|page=2|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|135320103}} |issn=0099-9660}}</ref> Shortly afterward, Philip Pilevsky and [[Arthur G. Cohen]] expressed their intent to buy the Plaza and turn it into a hotel-cooperative.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Foderaro|first=Lisa W.|date=February 27, 1988|title=Plaza Hotel May Be Sold for Co-ops|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
==== Trump ownership ====
The Plaza was sold to real estate developer [[Donald Trump]] in March 1988 following a [[handshake agreement]];<ref name="wsj19880318" /><ref>{{cite news|date=March 19, 1988|title=Trump May Buy Plaza Hotel; Sues to Block Resorts Bid|page=13|work=Newsday|id={{ProQuest|277985843}} }}</ref> the sale was valued at either $390 million<ref>{{Cite news|last=Cole|first=Robert J.|date=March 27, 1988|title=Plaza Hotel Is Sold To Donald Trump For $390 Million|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> or $410 million.<ref>{{cite news|date=March 28, 1988|title=Trump to Pay $410 Million for Plaza; Developer Vows to Restore Hotel's Luster|page=4|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|135376084}} |issn=0099-9660}}</ref> After gaining title in July of that year, Trump appointed his wife [[Ivana Trump|Ivana]] as the hotel's president<ref>{{cite news|title=Ivana Trump: Hard work, discipline and self-reliance|newspaper=Tampa Bay Times|first=Marion M.|last=White|date=September 26, 1988|url=|via=NewsBank}}</ref><ref name=":2newsday19880720">{{cite news|date=July 20, 1988|title=Playing The Palm Court As a Trump Card Says Ivana Trump, `We appreciate the old beauty|page=04|work=Newsday|id={{ProQuest|277975714}} }}</ref> and announced a major renovation program.<ref name="newsday19880328" /> The work involved gilding many surfaces, replacing carpets, and reupholstering furniture.<ref>{{cite news|last=Revson|first=James A.|date=1989-09-21|title=Donald and Ivana Glitz the Plaza|page=04|work=Newsday|id={{ProQuest|1943384125}} }}</ref> The hotel made a modest profit for about two years after Trump's purchase, largely from increased occupancy, suite rates, and banquet bookings.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Agovino|first=Theresa|date=January 29, 1990|title=Profit in Sight for a Rejuvenated Plaza|id={{ProQuest|219134786}}|journal=Crain's New York Business|volume=6|issue=5|pages=1}}</ref>
Trump had borrowed extensively to purchase the Plaza Hotel, but its [[operating income]] was several million dollars below the [[Break-even (economics)|breakeven]] point.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Norris|first=Floyd|date=June 5, 1990|title=A Haze of Debt Clouds The Plaza Hotel's Gleam|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> As a result, the Plaza Hotel's debt ultimately grew to $600 million.<ref name=":3Sun Sentinel 1992">{{Cite news|last=Reuters|first=|date=March 19, 1992|title=Trump Relinquishing Half of Plaza Hotel Sale of Suites as Condos Fails to Raise Cash|page=2D|work=Sun Sentinel|id={{ProQuest|388941901}} }}</ref> By 1991, Trump was making plans to pay off the hotel's debt by selling off the vast majority of its units as [[condominium]]s. Trump estimated that the conversion would net $750 million, almost twice the purchase price.<ref>{{cite news|date=April 10, 1991|title=Trump planning to convert posh Plaza Hotel into condos|page=16|work=Star-Gazette|location=Elmira, NY|url=|access-date=November 29, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Hylton|first=Richard D.|date=April 9, 1991|title=Trump Aims to Turn Most of Plaza Hotel Into Condominiums|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Trump expected to sell rooms in Plaza Hotel|newspaper=Los Angeles Daily News|first=Richard D.|last=Hylton|date=April 9, 1991|url=|via=NewsBank}}</ref> Trump also considered converting the offices within the mansard roof to penthouse condos.<ref name="Satow ch. 11" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Lueck|first=Thomas J.|date=1990-06-03|title=Reaching for the Sky to Add a Room|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The conversion plan failed because of a drop-off in prices in the city's real estate market.<ref name="Satow ch. 11" /><ref name=":3Sun Sentinel 1992" /> As a last resort, in March 1992, Trump approached the Plaza's creditors, a group of seventy banks led by [[Citibank]], who agreed to take a 49% stake in the hotel in exchange for forgiveness of $250&nbsp;million in debt and an interest rate reduction.<ref name=":3Sun Sentinel 1992" /><ref>{{cite news|title=Trump yields 49% of Plaza Hotel in N.Y.|newspaper=The Star-Ledger|location=Newark, NJ|date=March 19, 1992|url=|via=NewsBank}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Lowenstein|first=Roger|date=1992-03-19|title=Trump Agrees to Give Lenders 49% of Plaza Hotel|page=A5|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|135320103}}| issn=0099-9660}}</ref> The agreement was submitted as a [[prepackaged bankruptcy]] in November 1992<ref>{{cite news|date=1992-11-04|title=Prepackaged Bankruptcy Is Filed for Plaza Hotel|page=A6|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|398326488}}|issn=0099-9660}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=1992-11-04|title=Company News; Trump Revises Plaza Loan|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and approved the next month.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Reuters|date=December 12, 1992|title=Company News; Trump's Plaza Hotel Bankruptcy Plan Approved|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
==== Sale to Kwek and Al-Waleed ====
[[File:Plaza Hotel Birthday Celebration.JPG|thumb|The Plaza Hotel turned 100 years old in October 2007, celebrating with ceremonies and fireworks]]
The [[September 11 attacks]] in 2001 resulted in a downturn in the New York City tourism industry. Correspondingly, the Plaza's operating profits decreased greatly, leaving Kwek and Al-Waleed unable to refurbish orthe evenPlaza maintainas thethey Plazahad previously planned to do.<ref name="Satow ch. 12" /> In 2004, they sold the Plaza Hotel for $675 million to developer [[El Ad Properties]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Barron|first=James|date=August 14, 2004|title=Eloise Gets a New Landlord: Plaza Sells for $675 Million|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=2004-08-16|title=Elad Properties: Plaza Hotel Will Change Hands In a $675 Million Transaction|page=A6|work=Wall Street Journal|id={{ProQuest|398907334}}|issn=0099-9660}}</ref> El Ad wished to add residential and commercial units, andbut temporarilyinitially closedfaced thepushback Plazafrom Hotelhotel onunions Apriland 30preservationists, 2005,who foropposed extensiveEl renovationsAd's costingplan $450to million.<ref>{{Citeremove news|date=Marchmost 5,of 2005|title=Thethe Plazahotel Saysrooms It'lland Beconvert Historythe Afterrestaurant Aprilspaces 30|languageto stores.<ref name=en-US"Satow ch. 13"/><ref>{{cite web|worktitle=TheCouncil Newfights Yorkhotels-to-condos Timestrend|url=|access-date=JulyNovember 930, 2020|issnwebsite=0362-4331Newsday}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Danto|first=Ginger|title=SuiteAfter Dealover forsixty hours of discussions between El Ad and the Plaza|work=Brandweek|date=Aprilhotel 25unions,<ref 2005|pagename=30}}<"Satow ch. 13" /ref> Thethey Plaza'scame furnishingsto werean auctionedagreement on-site andApril at14, a2005, 2006in [[Christie's]]which auction.<refEl name="GuraAd p.would 95"convert />fewer [[Fairmontunits Hotelsto andapartments, Resorts]]while took overpreserving operationmore of the hotel suites.<ref>{{Cite news|date=2005-04-14|title=FairmontMayor Announces Deal to manageEase NewJob YorkCuts City'sin Plaza Hotel Overhaul (Published 2005)|language=en-US|work=CBCThe New York Times|url=https://www.cbcnytimes.cacom/news2005/business04/fairmont14/nyregion/mayor-toannounces-managedeal-newto-yorkease-cityjob-scuts-in-plaza-hotel-1overhaul.565230html|access-date=November 23, 2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> During the renovation, most of the short-term hotel rooms were converted into residential units,<ref>{{cite nameweb|last="MashayekhiSteele|first=Lockhart|date=April 2018"14, />2005|title=Breaking: andPlaza the PalmHotel Court'sSaved,' skylightSort was restoredOf|url=https://ny.<|access-date=November name30, 2020|website=":0"Curbed NY}}</ref>
The hotelPlaza reopenedHotel ontemporarily Marchclosed 1,for 2008,a with$450 amillion varietyrenovation ofon condominiumsApril 30, condo-hotel units2005, andtwo short-termweeks hotelafter unitsthe agreement had been brokered.<ref>{{citeCite news|lastdate=Baltic|first=ScottMarch 5, 2005|title=New York'sThe Plaza HotelSays ReopensIt'll Be History After $400MApril Renovation30|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|worklast=CommercialDanto|first=Ginger|title=Suite PropertyDeal Newsfor the Plaza|work=Brandweek|date=MarchApril 325, 20082005|page=30}}</ref> The Plaza's furnishings were auctioned on-site and at a 2006 [[Christie's]] auction.<ref name="Gura p. 95" /> [[Fairmont Hotels and Resorts]] took over operation of the hotel portion.<ref>{{Cite news|title=Fairmont to manage New York City's Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=CBC|url=|access-date=JulyNovember 923, 2020}}</ref> During the renovation, most of the short-term hotel rooms were converted into residential units,<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" />{{cite web|lastand the Palm Court's stained glass ceiling was restored.<ref name=Associated"nyt20051212" Press|date/><ref name="latimes20080303" /> The hotel reopened on March 31, 2008.<ref name="latimes20080303" /><ref>{{cite news|last=Baltic|first=Scott|title=NYCNew York's famed Plaza Hotel reopensReopens After $400M Renovation|url=|accesshotel-reopens-after-400m-renovation/|work=Commercial Property News|date=NovemberMarch 303, 20202008|websiteaccess-date=LosJuly Angeles9, Times2020}}</ref> That November, the Plaza Hotel unveiled its retail collection, an underground mall featuring luxury brands.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Dworin|first=Caroline H.|date=2008-12-06|title=For a Luxury Mall, an Ill-Timed Debut|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Two years later, the Plaza Food Hall opened in the underground mall, anchored by the Todd English Food Hall in collaboration with chef [[Todd English]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Collins|first=Glenn|date=November 22, 2011|title=Plaza Food Hall Is Growing|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|date=2011-05-24|title=Q & A with Miki Naftali|url=|access-date=2020-11-30|website=The Real Deal New York|language=en-US}}</ref> The Oak Room restaurant closed in July 2011, two years after the renovation was completed.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Buckley|first=Cara|date=2011-05-06|title=Oak Room Is Set to Close After Rent Fight With Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Kludt 2011">{{cite web|last=Kludt|first=Amanda|date=May 6, 2011|title=The Plaza Hotel's Oak Room is Set to Close in July|url=|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=Eater NY}}</ref>
In July 2012, [[Sahara India Pariwar]] agreed to buy a 75% controlling stake for $570 million from El Ad Properties.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018">{{cite web|last=Mashayekhi|first=Rey|date=July 18, 2018|title=The Plaza Hotel - The Long and Winding Ownership History|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Commercial Observer}}</ref> Two years later, Sahara's [[Subrata Roy]] announced he was seeking a buyer for his company's majority stake in the Plaza for $4 billion.<ref name="nyt20140823">{{Cite news|last=Bagli|first=Charles V.|date=August 22, 2014|title=Legal Woes of Owners Help Put the Plaza Back in Play|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> At the time, Sahara was experiencing legal issues and was selling off other properties that it owned.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> After Roy was unable to secure a buyer, he hired a broker in August 2017 to sell the hotel,<ref name="wsj20170822">{{Cite news|last=Karmin|first=Craig|date=August 22, 2017|title=Famed Plaza Hotel Is On the Block|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0099-9660}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=Bagli|first=Charles V.|date=August 23, 2017|title=The Plaza Is for Sale, but a Part-Owner Has Other Ideas|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> prompting inquiries from about 50 potential buyers.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Karmin|first=Craig|date=September 19, 2017|title=Dozens of Investors Show Interest in Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0099-9660}}</ref> The same year, Saudi businessman [[Al-Waleed bin Talal]], whose [[Kingdom Holding Company]] owned a minor stake in the hotel, partnered with [[Ben Ashkenazy|Ashkenazy Acquisition Corporation]].<ref>{{Cite web|last=Warerkar|first=Tanay|date=May 25, 2017|title=Beleaguered Plaza Hotel purchase may soon be finalized|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Curbed NY|language=en}}</ref> Kingdom and Ashkenazy's partnership included a [[right of first refusal]], which allowed the companies to match any third-party offer for the hotel.<ref name="wsj20170822" /> In May 2018, the Sahara Group announced it had finalized a deal with businessmen [[Shahal M. Khan]] and [[Kamran Hakim]] to buy a majority share of the hotel for $600 million.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Satow|first=Julie|date=May 4, 2018|title=Deal Is Reached to Sell the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Warerkar|first=Tanay|date=May 3, 2018|title=Legendary Plaza Hotel will sell for $600M to Saudi prince|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Curbed NY}}</ref> However, Ashkenazy and Kingdom exercised their right of first refusal,<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> sued Sahara for trying to sell the hotel to a third party,<ref>{{cite web|last=Hall|first=Miriam|date=May 21, 2018|title=Minority Owners Of The Plaza Hotel Sue Majority Owner For Trying To Sell To Third Party|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=Bisnow}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Tan|first=Gillian|date=May 18, 2018|title=New York Plaza Hotel Buyers Ashkenazy, Alwaleed Sue Owner|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|}}</ref> and received an extension to close on their purchase of the Plaza.<ref>{{cite web|last=Parker|first=Will|last2=Maurer|first2=Mark|date=June 26, 2018|title=Ashkenazy, Kingdom get extension to close on Plaza deal: sources|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=The Real Deal New York}}</ref>
Qatari state-owned hotelier [[Katara Hospitality]] ultimately acquired full ownership of the Plaza Hotel in July 2018.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref>{{Cite web|last=Kim|first=Betsy|date=July 5, 2018|title=Plaza Hotel Sold for $600 Million|url=|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=November 25, 2020|website=GlobeSt|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Tan|first=Gillian|date=July 5, 2018|title=NYC’s Historic Plaza Hotel Sold to Qatari State-Owned Company|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020|}}</ref> Under Katara's ownership, the condominium units garnered high asking prices; for instance, a four-bedroom unit was listed for $45 million in early 2020. Around the same time, the Plaza's condominium board sought to make repairs to the facade.<ref>{{Cite web|date=2020-08-28|title=Balcony Repair Ignites Civil War at Plaza Hotel Over Union Labor|url=|access-date=2020-11-30|website=The Real Deal New York|language=en-US}}</ref> Because of the [[COVID-19 pandemic in New York City]], and a corresponding [[Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism|downturn in tourism globally]], the Plaza's hotel rooms temporarily closed in March 2020, and several hundred employees were laid off.<ref>{{cite web|last=Engquist|first=Erik|date=March 27, 2020|title=Plaza Hotel in New York City Closes, Lays Off 251|url=|access-date=November 26, 2020|website=The Real Deal New York}}</ref> The residential section of the Plaza remained open through the pandemic.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Yeginsu|first=Ceylan|last2=Norman|first2=Derek M.|date=October 9, 2020|title=‘If No Tourists Come, I Have No Business’: New York’s Tourism Crisis|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=November 26, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
== Use ==
=== Residents and guests ===
When the Plaza Hotel opened in 1907, the first guest to sign its register was [[Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt]].<ref name="NYCL p. 5" /> The hotel also housed other wealthy residents such as [[George Jay Gould]], as well as [[Oliver Harriman Jr.]] and his wife [[Grace Carley Harriman]].<ref name="tribune190710012">{{cite news|date=October 1, 1907|title=Dinner at the New Plaza Hotel|page=9|work=New-York Tribune|url=|access-date=November 25, 2020| {{open access}}}}</ref> John Gates, the hotel's co-developer, had a 16-room apartment on the third floor.<ref name="ABM (1907) pp. 16-18">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|pp=16, 18}}</ref> [[Harry Frank Guggenheim]] lived in the hotel's State Apartment,<ref name="NPS p. 6" /><ref name="Gathje p. 82">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=82}}</ref> while Russian princess [[Vilma Lwoff-Parlaghy]], a prominent portrait painter in the early 20th century, lived in a third-floor suite with her lion.<ref name="Gathje p. 89">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=89}}</ref><ref name=":1nyt20190607" /> The hotel's appeal to the wealthy came from the fact that, in the early 20th century, apartments at the Plaza were generally cheaper than in more upscale apartment buildings, and that it faced Central Park, which at the time was highly patronized by the wealthy.<ref name="Frohne p. 354">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=354}}</ref>
Later in the 20th century, the Plaza Hotel served as home to "wealthy widows", such as performer [[Kay Thompson]], who wrote the ''[[Eloise (books)|Eloise]]'' children's book series about a young girl who lived at the hotel.<ref name=":1nyt20190607" /> During the Great Depression, the "wealthy widows" were considered "a tourist attraction in their own right", with their rent income keeping the hotel solvent.<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /> The hotel's other residents included playwright [[Ferenc Molnár]].<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /><ref name="Gathje p. 90">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=90}}</ref> After many units were converted to condominium units in 2008, the Plaza Hotel's residents included musician [[Moby]],<ref>{{Cite web|last=Gould|first=Jennifer|date=2020-03-13|title=Moby’s Central Park penthouse asking $5.75M|url=|access-date=2020-11-30|website=New York Post|language=en-US}}</ref> developer [[Christian Candy]],<ref>{{Cite news|last=Barbanel|first=Josh|date=2012-03-06|title=Candy Gets Taste of the Plaza|language=en-US|work=Wall Street Journal|url=|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0099-9660}}</ref> and fashion designer [[Tommy Hilfiger]].<ref>{{Cite news|last=Marino|first=Vivian|date=2019-11-01|title=Tommy Hilfiger’s Duplex Sells After 11 Years on the Market (Published 2019)|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
The guestrooms have also hosted several notable guests. These have included opera singer [[Enrico Caruso]], as well as novelists [[F. Scott Fitzgerald]] and [[Zelda Fitzgerald]].<ref name="NYCL p. 16" /> [[Frank Lloyd Wright]] often stayed at the Plaza when he was designing the [[Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum]] on Fifth Avenue, considering it to be his home.<ref name="aia5" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|pp=82, 84}}</ref> Art dealer [[Joseph Duveen, 1st Baron Duveen]], who helped assemble the [[Frick Collection]] at the nearby [[Henry Clay Frick House|Frick House]], lived at the Plaza and held important auctions in the ballroom.<ref name="Gathje p. 81" /> In addition, [[the Beatles]] stayed at the Plaza Hotel during their first visit to the United States in February 1964.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref name="Gathje pp. 124-125">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|pp=124–125}}; {{harvnb|ps=.|Harris|1981|pp=94, 99}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=February 14, 1964|title=4,000 Hail Beatles on Arrival in Miami|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
The Plaza Hotel became associated with celebrities and the wealthy upon its opening, surpassing the original Waldorf Astoria in that respect.<ref name="Satow ch. 1">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 1}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Groth|first=Paul|url=|title=Living Downtown: The History of Residential Hotels in the United States|publisher=University of California Press|year=1994|isbn=978-0-520-06876-6|location=|page=42|pages=}}</ref> The Palm Court (then the tea room), with its mostly female guest list, was particularly frequented. Weeks after the hotel's 1907 opening, actress [[Mrs Patrick Campbell]] attempted to smoke there, and the resulting controversy boosted the Plaza's stature.<ref name="NYCL p. 57" /><ref name="Harris p. 66, 68">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=66, 68}}</ref> In January 1908, crowds flocked to see heiress [[Gladys Vanderbilt Széchenyi|Gladys Vanderbilt]] and her fiance, Hungarian count [[László Széchenyi]], have tea while Theodora Shonts arrived with her fiance [[Emmanuel d'Albert de Luynes]], the [[Duke of Chaulnes]].<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=January 12, 1908|title=Crush to See Brides Who'll Wear Titles; Throng of Women at the Plaza Jams Corridors, Men's Cafe, and Grill. Duke and Count on View With Miss Theodora Shonts and Miss Gladys Vanderbilt, Whom They Are Soon to Wed|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Brown p. 174">{{harvnb|Brown|1967|ps=.|p=174}}</ref> That year, the ''New York World'' dubbed the hotel the "Home-for-the-Incurably Opulent".<ref name="NPS p. 8">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=8}}</ref><ref name="Harris p. 66">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=66}}</ref> By 1909, the Palm Court was consistently exceeding its 350-person capacity.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=April 25, 1909|title=Society's Latest Fad--Tearooms|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
During the 1920s, the basement's grill room was a popular meeting place for young adults born during the [[Lost Generation]].<ref name="Harris p. 67">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=67}}</ref> The Oak Room was frequented by actor [[George M. Cohan]], and a commemorative plaque for Cohan was installed in the room in the 1940s after his death.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref name="Gathje p. 78">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=78}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=March 11, 1943|title=Plaque to Honor Cohan, Harris|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The Persian Room was popular with the "cafe society", being frequented by socialites and fashion trendsetters.<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /> In[[Eddy Duchin]] and [[Hildegarde]] were among the room's early performers,<ref name="Harris p. 104">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=104}}</ref> and it later attracted others such as [[Eartha Kitt]], [[Peggy Lee]], and [[Liza Minnelli]].<ref name="Horsley" /> By the 1970s, the Persian Room hosted performances from pop singers like [[Robert Goulet]] and [[Dusty Springfield]].<ref name="Satow ch. 10" />
The hotel has also been popular among world leaders, particularly presidents of the United States. The first of these was [[Theodore Roosevelt]], the 26th U.S. president, who moved his [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican Party]]'s events to the Plaza Hotel from the [[Fifth Avenue Hotel]] after the closure of the former in 1908.<ref name="Harris pp. 109-110">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=109–110}}</ref> Theodore Roosevelt's distant cousin, president [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]], had his birthday luncheon in the Palm Court in 1935.<ref name="NYCL p. 58">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=58 (PDF p.&nbsp;59)}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=January 31, 1935|title=Gay Pageant Here Honors President|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Other U.S. presidents who frequented the hotel's guestrooms or restaurants have included [[William Howard Taft]], [[Harry S. Truman]], and [[Richard Nixon]],<ref name="NYCL p. 58" /><ref name="Harris p. 110">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=110}}</ref> as well as onetime owner Donald Trump.<ref name=":1nyt20190607" /> TheFor other world leaders, the Plaza Hotel also kept a series of national flags, which were displayed whenever a foreign head of state visited.<ref name="Harris p. 110" /> The Plaza Hotel has alsoadditionally been used for political eventsdiplomacy, as in September 1985, the finance ministers of several countries signed the [[Plaza Accord]] at the hotel, which [[Currency appreciation and depreciation|depreciated]] the [[United States dollar|U.S. dollar]] in relation to other currencies.<ref>{{cite book|last=Funabashi|first=Yōichi|url=|title=Managing the Dollar: From the Plaza to the Louvre|publisher=Institute for International Economics|year=1989|isbn=978-0-88132-097-8|series=Books / Institute for international economics|pages=261–271}}</ref>
==== Receptions ====
== Impact ==
The Plaza Hotel has become an icon of New York City. [[Paul Goldberger]], withwriting onefor ''The New York Times'' in 1982, stated that the Plaza had become an important part of the city's architectural history, similar to the [[Grand Central Terminal]] and the [[New York Public Library Main Branch]].<ref name="nyt19820927" /> As another historian saying:said, "Every tourist I’ve ever met, every [tour] group I’ve ever had, they all know the Plaza Hotel".<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> The Plaza is recognized as a Historic Hotel of America by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.<ref name="HHA The Plaza History">{{cite web|title=The Plaza|url=|accessdate=November 16, 2018|website=Historic Hotels|publisher=Historic Hotels of America; National Trust for Historic Preservation}}</ref>
=== Critical reception ===
Upon the present building's opening, the design of the hotel, particularly the interiors, received mostly positive criticism.<ref name="NYCL p. 9" /> ''The New York Times'' characterized the exterior as "a fitting introduction to the interior", praising the interior for its relative modesty compared to other hotels.<ref name="nyt19070929" /> However, H. W. Frohne wrote that Hardenbergh had "fail[ed] to make the public rooms entertaining".<ref name="NYCL p. 9" /><ref name="Frohne p. 364">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=364}}</ref> Critics for two architectural magazines also praised the carved woodwork in the Oak Room and the greenery that originally adorned the Palm Court.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="NYCL p. 11">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=11}}</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|pp=4, 8}}</ref> For the latter, the ''Times'' praised the "gardenlike" effect of the Palm Court, enhanced by its glass ceiling.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="NYCL p. 11" /> Frank Lloyd Wright wrote that Hardenbergh's exterior design for the Plaza Hotel was an [[Early skyscrapers|early skyscraper]] with "a human sense", in contrast to later skyscrapers, which Wright described as "monstrous thing[s]".<ref name="NYCL p. 16" /><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Frazier|first=George|date=January 1956|title=Elegance Entrenched|url=|journal=Esquire|volume=|pages=135|url-access=subscription|via=}}</ref>
Later reviews the Plaza Hotel. In the 1967 book ''The Plaza, Its Life and Times'', Eve Brown wrote that "The Plaza has managed always to be in tune with the times, its dignity unruffled, its good taste unimpaired".<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" /> [[Ada Louise Huxtable]] wrote for the ''The New York Times'' in 1971 that the Plaza Hotel was the city's "most celebrated symbol of cosmopolitan and turn-of-the-century splendor", speaking negatively only of the short-lived Green Tulip restaurant.<ref name="nyt19711105" /> [[Paul Goldberger]], another writer for the ''Times'', stated that the Plaza had gained a stature similar to the [[Grand Central Terminal]] and the [[New York Public Library Main Branch]], in that it had become an important part of the city's architectural history.<ref name="nyt19820927" /> Judith Gura described the interior spaces as "merg[ing] seamlessly into a harmonious ensemble", despite each space having a distinct character.<ref name="Gura p. 90" /> Curtis Gathje, the Plaza Hotel's official historian and a 25-year veteran of the hotel, stated in 2007, "The Plaza is the epitome of civilized New York."<ref name="nyt20070926">{{cite web|author=The New York Times|date=September 26, 2007|title=Answers About the Plaza Hotel|url=//|access-date=November 28, 2020|website=City Room}}</ref>
The site, facing Central Park, was seen as particularly prominent. As early as 1892, Moses King called it "a location of unsurpassed beauty".<ref name="King 1892 p." /> The rebuilt Plaza was described in a 1907 ''[[Architectural Record]]'' article as "the most unobstructed and charming which could have been selected for a large metropolitan hotel", despite being smaller than competitors like the Waldorf Astoria.<ref name="Frohne p. 349" /> According to Goldberger, the Plaza Hotel's location along both Grand Army Plaza and Central Park made it particularly imposing, with two primary facades.<ref name="nyt19820927" /> The 2010 edition of the ''[[AIA Guide to New York City]]'' emphasized the park views, characterizing the third- through fifth-floor suites along Central Park South as having "one of the most exciting views of New York".<ref name="aia5" />
=== Landmark designations ===
[[File:New York City, Nov 29, 2008 (3075044187).jpg|thumb|New York City designated landmark plaque]]
The demolition of the nearby Savoy-Plaza in 1964, and its replacement with the General Motors Building, resulted in a preservation movement to save the Plaza Hotel and nearby structures.<ref name="Satow ch. 9" /> The Plaza Hotel's exterior was designated a city landmark by the [[New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission]] in 1969.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=December 18, 1969|title=2 City Sites Designated Landmarks|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The hotel was added to the [[National Register of Historic Places]] in 1978,<ref name="nris">{{cite web | title=Federal Register: 44 Fed. Reg. 7107 (Feb. 6, 1979) | publisher=[[Library of Congress]] | date=February 6, 1979 | url= | access-date=March 8, 2020 | page=7539 (PDF p.&nbsp;339) | url-status=live }}</ref> and it was also made a [[National Historic Landmark]] in 1986.<ref name="nhlsum">{{cite web | title=List of NHLs by State | website=National Historic Landmarks (U.S. National Park Service) | date=May 4, 1970 | url= | access-date=November 30, 2020}}</ref> A large part of the main public space in the interior, including the lobbies, ballroom, and restaurant spaces, was made a New York City designated landmark in 2005.<ref name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Gura p. 90" /> The interior-landmark designation had been partially motivated by opposition to El Ad's original plans to renovate the hotel.<ref name="Satow ch. 13">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 13}}</ref><ref name="AR 2005">{{cite journal|url=|title=What does the future hold for the Plaza Hotel?|last=Ulam|first=Alex|journal=Architectural Record|volume=193|issue=3|date=March 2005|page=36}}</ref>
=== In media ===
The Plaza Hotel has been used as a setting in several media works throughout its history. Most notably, it served as the setting for books such as the ''Eloise'' series,<ref name="nyt19791230" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref name="Jackson p. 411">{{harvnb|Jackson|2010|ps=.|p=411}}</ref> the success of which led the hotel's owners during the 1960s to hang the character's portrait in the lobby.<ref name="nyt19791230" /> The Plaza was also featured in F. Scott Fitzgerald's 1925 novel ''[[The Great Gatsby]]''.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" />
Several films have been set or filmed at the Plaza, such as ''[[North by Northwest]]'' (1959),''<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" />''<ref name="Gathje p. 116">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=116}}</ref> [[Barefoot in the Park (film)|<u>''Barefoot in the Park''</u>]] (1967),<ref name="Horsley" /><ref name="NYCL p. 16" /><ref>{{cite book|last=Shelley|first=Peter|url=|title=Neil Simon on Screen: Adaptations and Original Scripts for Film and Television|publisher=McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers|year=2015|isbn=978-0-7864-7198-0|page=23|access-date=November 29, 2020}}</ref> [[Funny Girl (film)|''Funny Girl'']] (1968),<ref name="Horsley" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref name="NYCL p. 16" /> [[Plaza Suite (film)|''Plaza Suite'']] (1971),<ref name="Horsley" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref name="NYCL p. 16" /> ''[[The Way We Were]]'' (1973),<ref name="Horsley" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /> and ''[[Home Alone 2: Lost in New York]]'' (1992).<ref>{{Cite web|last=Alberts|first=Hana R.|date=November 7, 2017|title=The definitive guide to 'Home Alone 2' filming locations in NYC|url=|access-date=July 22, 2020|website=Curbed NY|language=en}}</ref> Other films that show the Plaza include ''[[Arthur (1981 film)|Arthur]]'' (1981), ''[[Scent of a Woman (1992 film)|Scent of a Woman]]'' (1992), and [[Sleepless in Seattle|''Sleepless in Seattle'']] (1993).<ref name="Horsley" /> Conversely, the Plaza Hotel has disallowed some productions from filming there.<ref name="Tampa Bay Times 2018">{{cite web|last=Spears|first=Steve|date=June 10, 2018|title=30 years ago, ‘Big Business’ was really small potatoes|url=https://www.tampabay.comundefined/|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=Tampa Bay Times}}</ref> The producers of [[Big Business (1988 film)|''Big Business'']] (1988), faced with such a restriction, created their own version of the Plaza Hotel on a [[sound stage]].<ref name=":2newsday19880720" /><ref name="Tampa Bay Times 2018" />
== See also ==