Plaza Hotel: Difference between revisions

(combine refs)
==== Construction ====
[[File:Plaza Hotel NYC.jpg|thumb|The rebuilt Plaza Hotel during the early 20th century]]
Henry J. Hardenbergh was hired as architect in 1905, initially being commissioned to expand the existing hotel by five stories.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="rer19050513">{{cite journal|date=May 13, 1905|title=Plans for Plaza Hotel Annex|url=https://rerecord.library.columbia.edu/document.php?vol=ldpd_7031148_035&page=ldpd_7031148_035_00001134&no=2|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=75|pages=1057|via=[[Columbia University|columbia.edu]]|number=1939}}</ref> Hardenbergh had already gained some renown for designing upscale hotels,<ref name="Gathje p. 13">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=13}}</ref> such as the [[Waldorf–Astoria (1893–1929)|Waldorf Astoria Hotel]] twenty-five blocks south in 1893 and 1897.<ref name="NYCL p. 6" /><ref>{{cite book|last=Morrison|first=William Alan|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=MAUaAwAAQBAJ|title=Waldorf Astoria|publisher=Arcadia Publishing|year=2014|isbn=978-1-4671-2128-6|series=Images of America|pages=11, 26}}</ref> However, Beinecke, Black, and Gates discovered that the foundation of the existing hotel could not support the additional stories, so they decided to rebuild it completely.<ref name="rer19050617" /><ref>{{harvnb|American name="AA (Architect|1907) |p. =134"}}; /><ref name{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps="Gathje .|p. =11" }}</ref> The George A. Fuller Company was contracted to construct the new hotel,<ref name="rer19050617" /> and the Plaza Operating Company was created in mid-1905 as a subsidiary of the U.S. Realty Company.<ref>{{cite book|author=New York Stock Exchange|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2TYlAQAAMAAJ|title=Listing Statements of the New York Stock Exchange|publisher=F. E. Fitch, Incorporated|year=1929|page=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issue=v. 64}}</ref> Hardenbergh designed the new hotel building while the owners waited for the existing lease to expire.<ref name="NPS p. 7">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=7}}</ref>
 
The first Plaza Hotel was closed on June 11, 1905,<ref>{{cite news|date=June 10, 1905|title=Old Plaza Hotel to Make Way for New Structure|page=9|work=Buffalo Times|url=https://newspapers.com/clip/64050137/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref><ref name="tribune19050613">{{cite news|date=June 13, 1905|title=Won't Leave Plaza|page=7|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/64065310/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> and demolition commenced immediately upon the expiration of the lease there.<ref name="NPS p. 7" /><ref name="Harris p. 17" /> The existing hotel's furnishings were auctioned immediately.<ref name="rer19050617" /><ref name="tribune19050613" /> The site was cleared within two months of the start of demolition.<ref name="NPS p. 3" /><ref name="NPS p. 7" /> Hardenbergh filed plans for the hotel with the [[New York City Department of Buildings]] that September.<ref>{{cite news|date=September 21, 1905|title=The Vendome Changes Hands|page=12|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://newspapers.com/clip/64049935/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> By the next month, contractors were clearing the old hotel's foundation.<ref>{{cite news|date=June 5, 1887|title=Framework Still Sound|page=2|work=The New York Times|url=https://newspapers.com/clip/64048330/|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> The new hotel was to use {{Convert|10000|ST|LT t|abbr=}} of steel, and a group of 100 workers and seven derricks erected two stories of steelwork every six days.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=oidPAAAAYAAJ|title=A Few Facts Regarding the Plaza Hotel|date=May 1, 1907|journal=Carpentry and Building|publisher=David Williams Company|volume=29|pages=159-160}}</ref> The Fuller Company decided to hire both [[Trade union|union]] and non-union ironworkers for the hotel's construction, a decision that angered the union workers.<ref group="lower-alpha">{{Harvnb|Satow|2019|loc=chapter 1}}, states that union workers were hired for high-skill jobs, but required higher wages. Non-union workers were hired for low-skill jobs and could be paid lower wages.</ref> Patrolmen were hired to protect the non-union workers,<ref name="Satow ch. 1"/> and one patrolmen was killed during a dispute with union workers.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=July 12, 1906|title=Murder in Mid-air by Union Workers; Thirty Iron Erectors Attack Three Watchmen|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1906/07/12/archives/murder-in-midair-by-union-workers-thirty-iron-erectors-attack-three.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=July 27, 1906|title=Butler Killed by Fall|page=1|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/64112353/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> By October 1906, the facade of the new hotel was under construction.<ref name="Harris p. 17" />