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[[File:Plaza Hotel May 2010.JPG|left|thumb|The Plaza Hotel and surrounding buildings (including the [[Solow Building]] in the center background) as seen from [[Central Park]] in May 2010]]
 
The Plaza Hotel is at 768 [[Fifth Avenue]] in the [[Midtown Manhattan]] neighborhood of [[New York City]].<ref name="ZoLa">{{Cite web|last=|first=|date=|title=768 5 Avenue, 10019|url=https://zola.planning.nyc.gov/l/lot/1/1274/7504#16.21/40.764454/-73.972105|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=September 8, 2020|website=|publisher=[[New York City Department of City Planning]]}}</ref> It faces [[Central Park South]] (59th Street) and [[the Pond and Hallett Nature Sanctuary]] in [[Central Park]] to the north; [[Grand Army Plaza (Manhattan)|Grand Army Plaza]] to the east; and [[58th Street (Manhattan)|58th Street]] to the south. Fifth Avenue itself is opposite Grand Army Plaza from the hotel.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1">{{harvnb|ps=.|Landmarks Preservation Commission|1969|p=1}}</ref><ref name="NYCityMap">{{Cite web|last=|first=|date=|title=NYCityMap|url=http://maps.nyc.gov/|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=March 20, 2020|website=NYC.gov|publisher=[[New York City Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications]]}}</ref><ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1">{{harvnb|ps=.|Landmarks Preservation Commission|1969|p=1}}</ref> The Plaza Hotel's site covers {{convert|53,772|ft2||abbr=}}.<ref name="ZoLa" /> It measures {{Convert|285|ft||abbr=}} along 58th Street and {{Convert|275|ft||abbr=}} along Central Park South, with a depth of {{convert|200.83|ft}} between the two streets.<ref name="NPS p. 2">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=2}}</ref> As completed in 1907, it originally measured {{Convert|145|ft||abbr=}} along 58th Street and {{Convert|250|ft||abbr=}} along Central Park South, with an "L" running the entire 200-foot depth of the lot along Grand Army Plaza.<ref name="rer19050617">{{cite journal|date=June 17, 1905|title=Fuller Company Will Build the New Plaza Hotel|url=https://rerecord.library.columbia.edu/document.php?vol=ldpd_7031148_035&page=ldpd_7031148_035_00001400&no=10|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=75|pages=1325|via=[[Columbia University|columbia.edu]]|number=1944}}</ref>
 
The Plaza Hotel is near the [[General Motors Building (Manhattan)|General Motors Building]] to the east, [[Park Lane Hotel]] to the west, and [[Solow Building]] and [[Bergdorf Goodman Building]] to the south.<ref name="NYCityMap" /> The hotel's main entrance faces the ''[[Pulitzer Fountain]]'' in the southern portion of Grand Army Plaza.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1" /><ref name="Stern (1987) p. 18">{{harvnb|Stern|Gilmartin|Mellins|1987|ps=.|p=18}}</ref> An entrance to the [[Fifth Avenue–59th Street station]] of the [[New York City Subway]]'s {{NYCS trains|Broadway 60th}} is within the base of the hotel at Central Park South.<ref>{{cite NYC neighborhood map|Midtown}}</ref>
The detail of the [[facade]] is concentrated on its two primary [[Elevation (architecture)|elevations]], which face north toward Central Park and east toward Fifth Avenue. The facade's [[Articulation (architecture)|articulation]] consists of three horizontal sections similar to the components of a [[column]], namely a base, shaft, and crown. The northern and eastern elevations are also split vertically into three portions, with the center portion being recessed. The northeastern and southeastern corners of the hotel contain rounded corners, which resemble [[turret]]s. There are numerous [[loggia]]s, [[balustrade]]s, columns, [[pilaster]]s, balconies, and arches repeated on various parts of the facade.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1" /><ref name="NPS p. 2"/> The 1921 annex contains a design that is largely similar to Hardenbergh's 1907 design.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922">{{cite journal|year=1922|title=Hotel Plaza Addition, New York|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=mS_nAAAAMAAJ|journal=Architecture and Building|publisher=W.T. Comstock Company|volume=54|pages=16-17}}</ref>
 
The ground and first stories of the facade{{efn|In this article, the facade is described using the interior floor-numbering system, which uses European floor numbering. For example, the first floor is one floor above the ground level; under U.S. floor numbering, it would be considered the second floor.<ref name="wp19750615"/>}} are clad with [[Rustication (architecture)|rusticated]] blocks of [[marble]], while the third story contains a smooth marble surface.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1"/><ref{{harvnb|American nameArchitect|1907|p="NPS134}}; p.{{harvnb|Landmarks 2"Preservation /><ref nameCommission|1969|p="AA1}}; (1907) p. 134">{{harvnb|AmericanNational ArchitectPark Service|19071978|ps=.|p=1342}}</ref> The Plaza Hotel contained two guest entrances in the 1907 design: the main entrance on Central Park South and a private entrance for long-term residents on 58th Street.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134">{{harvnb|American Architect|1907|ps=.|p=134}}</ref><ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" /> The main entrance, in the center of the Central Park South facade, contains a porch above the three center bays, and large doorways.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2">{{harvnb|ps=.|Landmarks Preservation Commission|1969|p=2}}</ref><ref name="NPS p. 5">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=5}}</ref> The Grand Army Plaza side originally contained a terrace called the Champagne Porch,<ref name="NPS p. 2" /><ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" /> and three minor entrances, including one to the porch.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 1">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=1}}</ref><ref name="nyt19070929" /> The large central entry on that side, created in 1921, consists of six [[Tuscan order|Tuscan]]-style columns, supporting a balcony on the first floor, immediately above ground level. The first and second floors at the center of the Grand Army Plaza facade contains paired [[Corinthian order|Corinthian]]-style pilasters supporting an entablature.<ref name="NPS p. 2" /><ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" />
 
The third through fourteenth floors, below the mansard roof, are clad with white brick and typically contain rectangular windows.<ref name="NPS p. 2" /><ref>{{harvnb|Architects' name="NYCLand (1969)Builders' Magazine|1907|p.=1}}; 2"{{harvnb|Landmarks /><refPreservation nameCommission|1969|p="ABM2}}; (1907){{harvnb|National p. 1"Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=2}}</ref> These stories contain terracotta veneers that harmonize with the marble facade below it and the mansard roof above.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 1" /> At the center of the Central Park South facade, the five center bays at the eleventh and twelfth floors contain an [[Arcade (architecture)|arcade]] composed of arches with paired pilasters. On the Grand Army Plaza side, there are horizontal [[band course]]s above the twelfth floor.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" /> The 58th Street facade is a scaled-down version of the two primary elevations on Grand Army Plaza and Central Park South.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /> A marble balcony runs above the twelfth floor on all sides.<ref name="NPS p. 2" /><ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" />
 
The top floors are within a green-tile [[mansard roof]] with copper trim.<ref>{{harvnb|American nameArchitect|1907|p="NPS134}}; p.{{harvnb|Landmarks 2"Preservation /><ref nameCommission|1969|p="AA2}}; (1907){{harvnb|National p.Park 134" /><ref nameService|1978|ps="NYCL (1969) .|p. =2" }}</ref> The Grand Army Plaza side contains a [[gable]], while the 58th Street and Central Park South side has four stories of [[dormer]] windows on the fifteenth through eighteenth floors. The turrets on the northeastern and southeastern corners are topped by domed roofs.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" /><ref name="NPS p. 5" />
 
=== Mechanical features ===
 
=== Interior ===
The Plaza Hotel was developed with a steel frame superstructure with hollow tile floors, as well as wire-glass enclosures around all stairways and elevators.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /> Originally, five marble staircases led from the ground floor to all of the other floors.<ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179">{{harvnb|ps=.|Architecture|1907|p=179}}</ref><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 4">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=4}}</ref><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 16">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=16}}</ref> As constructed, the stories above the ground floor surrounded a large courtyard,<ref name="nyt19070929" /> which was covered over with office space in a 1940s renovation.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="nyt19820927">{{Cite news|last=Goldberger|first=Paul|date=September 27, 1982|title=At 75, Plaza Hotel Seeks to Remain Forever Old; an Appraisal|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1982/09/27/nyregion/at-75-plaza-hotel-seeks-to-remain-forever-old-an-appraisal.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Hardenbergh, in designing the Central Park South foyer, had believed the lobby to be the most important space in the hotel,<ref name="NYCL p. 10">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=10}}</ref><ref name="Hardenbergh 1902" /> as did Warren and Wetmore when they designed the Fifth Avenue lobby.<ref name="AF-1923-11">{{cite journal|last=Hopkins|first=Walter|date=November 1923|title=Architectural Design for Hotel Interiors|url=https://usmodernist.org/AF/AF-1923-11.pdf|journal=Architectural Forum|pages=205, 208}}</ref><ref name="NYCL pp. 12-13">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=12–13}}</ref> Furthermore, Warren and Wetmore had thought restaurants to be the second most significant space in a hotel, in designing the Terrace Room.<ref name="AF-1923-11" /><ref name="NYCL p. 13" />
 
There were originally laundry rooms in the basement and the eighteenth floor.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 136" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 25">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=25}}</ref> The basement also contained a grill room, kitchen, various refrigeration rooms, and amenities such as a [[Turkish bath]] and a barber shop when it opened in 1907.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 8">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=8}}</ref> Concealed within the mansard roof were originally the housekeepers' quarters and maids' dormitories; the eighteenth floor had carpentry, ironing, and tailors' departments.<ref>''Hotel Monthly'' 15, no. 176 (November 1907), cited in {{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 1}}</ref> The eighteenth-floor spaces had become offices by the late 20th century.<ref name="Satow ch. 11">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 11}}</ref>
==== Hallways and lobbies ====
[[File:Plaza Hotel ground floor plan.png|thumb|Original plan of the ground floor. The top of this diagram faces south. The Terrace Room, not shown, would be built in the space at the top right of this diagram.]]
In Hardenbergh's original design, a main corridor was built to connect the primary spaces on the ground floor.<ref name="Frohne p. 352">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=352}}</ref><ref name="NYCL p. 9">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=9}}</ref> The corridor, which still exists, connects the lobbies on 58th Street, Grand Army Plaza, and Central Park South.<ref name="NYCL p. 44">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=44 (PDF p. &nbsp;45)}}</ref> The layout of the ground-floor hallways dates largely from the 1921 expansion by Warren and Wetmore.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="NYCL p. 44" /> The corridor wraps around the south, east, and north sides of the Palm Court in the center of the ground floor.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="NYCL p. 442">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=44 (PDF p. &nbsp;45)}}</ref> Various smaller corridors lead off the main corridor. All of the halls are decorated with mosaic floors, [[Coffer|coffered ceilings]] made of plaster, and marble columns and pilasters with bronze [[Capital (architecture)|capitals]].<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="NYCL p. 443">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=44 (PDF p. &nbsp;45)}}</ref>
 
[[File:The Plaza Hotel Interior Main Entrance.jpg|thumb|left|The Fifth Avenue lobby]]
The Central Park South entrance foyer served as the original main lobby, and is shaped in a "U", with an overhanging mezzanine.<ref name="Gura p. 90">{{harvnb|Gura|2015|ps=.|p=90}}</ref><ref name="NYCL p. 29">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=29 (PDF p. 30)}}</ref> It contains veined Italian-marble finishes, gold-colored trimmings, a mosaic floor, a plaster coffered ceiling, and columns similar to those in the main corridor. There is a bank of four elevators directly in front of the entrance, with decorative bronze doors.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 1" /><ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179" /><ref name="NYCL p. 29" /> A crystal chandelier hangs from the ceiling. The entrance doorways contain bronze frames with lunettes.<ref name="NYCL p. 29" /> The original design had the branch offices of major [[broker]]age houses adjoining the foyer, including in the modern-day Oak Bar.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 8" /><ref name="Frohne p. 352" /><ref name="Harris p. 48">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=48}}</ref>
 
The Central Park South entrance foyer served as the original main lobby, and is shaped in a "U", with an overhanging mezzanine.<ref name="Gura p. 90">{{harvnb|Gura|2015|ps=.|p=90}}</ref><ref name="NYCL p. 29">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=29 (PDF p. &nbsp;30)}}</ref> It contains veined Italian-marble finishes, gold-colored trimmings, a mosaic floor, a plaster coffered ceiling, and columns similar to those in the main corridor. There is a bank of four elevators directly in front of the entrance, with decorative bronze doors.<ref>{{harvnb|American nameArchitect|1907|pp="AA134–135}}; (1907){{harvnb|Architects' p.and 134"Builders' /><ref nameMagazine|1907|p="ABM1}}; ({{harvnb|Architecture|1907) |p.=179}}; 1"{{harvnb|Landmarks /><refPreservation nameCommission|2005|ps="Arch.|p=29 (1907)PDF p. 179" &nbsp;30)}}</><ref name="NYCL p. 29" /> A crystal chandelier hangs from the ceiling. The entrance doorways contain bronze frames with lunettes.<ref name="NYCL p. 29" /> The original design had the branch offices of major [[broker]]age houses adjoining the foyer, including in the modern-day Oak Bar.<ref>{{harvnb|Architects' name="ABMand Builders' (Magazine|1907) |p. =8"}}; /><ref name="{{harvnb|Frohne |1907|p. =352"}}; /><ref name="Harris p. 48">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=48}}</ref>
The Grand Army Plaza lobby, also called the Fifth Avenue lobby, was created during Warren and Wetmore's expansion as the hotel's new main lobby, occupying the former Plaza Restaurant's space.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /> The lobby contains a "U"-shaped mezzanine running above the northern, eastern, and southern walls, with three entrance vestibules below the eastern section of the mezzanine. The Fifth Avenue lobby was decorated in bas-relief and preserved some of the original decorations from the Plaza Restaurant, including paneled pilasters and a beamed ceiling. Other features, including the mosaic floor and a crystal chandelier, were added by Warren and Wetmore.<ref name="NYCL p. 32">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=31 (PDF p. 32)}}</ref>
 
The Grand Army Plaza lobby, also called the Fifth Avenue lobby, was created during Warren and Wetmore's expansion as the hotel's new main lobby, occupying the former Plaza Restaurant's space.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /> The lobby contains a "U"-shaped mezzanine running above the northern, eastern, and southern walls, with three entrance vestibules below the eastern section of the mezzanine. The Fifth Avenue lobby was decorated in bas-relief and preserved some of the original decorations from the Plaza Restaurant, including paneled pilasters and a beamed ceiling. Other features, including the mosaic floor and a crystal chandelier, were added by Warren and Wetmore.<ref name="NYCL p. 32">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=31 (PDF p. &nbsp;32)}}</ref>
The 58th Street entrance has three elevators and adjoins what was formerly a women's reception room.<ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179" /><ref name="rer19070914">{{cite journal|date=September 14, 1907|title=Newest Great Hotel|url=https://rerecord.library.columbia.edu/document.php?vol=ldpd_7031148_040&page=ldpd_7031148_040_00000436&no=1|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=80|pages=398|via=[[Columbia University|columbia.edu]]|number=2061}}</ref> Running west of this lobby is a staircase leading up to a mezzanine-level corridor.<ref name="NYCL pp. 21-22" /><ref name="NPS p. 11" /> This corridor has marble floors and ashlar walls, abutting the Terrace Room's balcony to the north and a foyer to the south. The mezzanine-level foyer has marble floors, a painted coffered ceiling supported by two square columns, and a bank of two elevators to the first-floor ballroom. A marble staircase, with a marble and wooden balustrade, leads from the mezzanine foyer to the ballroom level.<ref name="NYCL pp. 66-68">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=66–68 (PDF pp. 67–69)}}</ref>
 
The 58th Street entrance has three elevators and adjoins what was formerly a women's reception room.<ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179" >{{harvnb|ps=.|Architecture|1907|p=179}}</ref><ref name="rer19070914">{{cite journal|date=September 14, 1907|title=Newest Great Hotel|url=https://rerecord.library.columbia.edu/document.php?vol=ldpd_7031148_040&page=ldpd_7031148_040_00000436&no=1|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=80|pages=398|via=[[Columbia University|columbia.edu]]|number=2061}}</ref> Running west of this lobby is a staircase leading up to a mezzanine-level corridor.<ref name="NYCL pp. 21-22" /><ref name="NPS p. 11" /> This corridor has marble floors and ashlar walls, abutting the Terrace Room's balcony to the north and a foyer to the south. The mezzanine-level foyer has marble floors, a painted coffered ceiling supported by two square columns, and a bank of two elevators to the first-floor ballroom. A marble staircase, with a marble and wooden balustrade, leads from the mezzanine foyer to the ballroom level.<ref name="NYCL pp. 66-68">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=66–68 (PDF pp. &nbsp;67–69)}}</ref>
 
The layout of the upper floors was based on the layout of the ground-floor hallways, because all the stairways and elevators were placed in the same position on upper floors.<ref name="Frohne p. 362">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=362}}</ref> On the third floor and all subsequent stories, a centrally located C-shaped corridor runs around the north, east, and south sides of the building, connecting to every room.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 14">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=14}}</ref>
==== Ground-floor restaurants ====
[[File:Oak Room (Plaza Hotel) door, Sept 2017.jpg|thumb|Door leading to the Oak Room]]
The [[Oak Room (Plaza Hotel)|Oak Room]], on the western part of the ground floor,<ref name="NYCL p. 21">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=21 (PDF p. &nbsp;22)}}</ref> was built in 1907 as the bar room. It is west of the Central Park South foyer, separated from the foyer by a corridor.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="nyt19070929">{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=September 29, 1907|title=Another Fine Hotel Now on the City's List; Built During the Last Two Years on Site of Old Plaza Hotel Which Was Demolished to Make Place for New Structure|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1907/09/29/archives/another-fine-hotel-now-on-the-citys-list-built-during-the-last-two.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Compared to other spaces in the Plaza Hotel, it retains many details from the original design.<ref name="nyt19820927" /><ref name="NYCL p. 53253">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=53 (PDF p. &nbsp;54)}}</ref> The Oak Room was designed in a [[German Renaissance#Architecture|German Renaissance]] style, originally by L. Alavoine and Company.<ref name="Gura p. 90" /><ref name="NYCL p. 10" /> It features oak walls and floors, a coved ceiling, frescoes of Bavarian castles, faux wine casks carved into the woodwork, and a grape-laden brass chandelier.<ref name=">{{harvnb|Harris |1981|p. =48"}}; /><ref name="NYCL p. 52">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=52 (PDF p. &nbsp;53)}}</ref> The eastern wall contains a gridded glass double door leading to the main hallway,<ref name="NYCL p. 52">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=52 (PDF p.&nbsp;53)}}</ref> while the northern wall contains two openings to the Oak Bar.<ref name="NYCL p. 53253" />
 
The Oak Bar is just north of the Oak Room, at the northwest corner of the ground floor.<ref name="NYCL p. 21" /> It is designed in [[Tudor Revival architecture|Tudor Revival]] style with a plaster ceiling, [[strapwork]], and floral and foliage motifs.<ref name="NYCL p. 14">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=14}}</ref> The bar room contains walnut woodwork with French furnishings.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179" /> It also has three murals by [[Everett Shinn]], which were added in a 1945 renovation and show the neighborhood as it would have appeared in 1907.<ref name="NYCL >{{harvnb|Harris|1981|p. 14" /><ref name="NPS51}}; p. 6">{{harvnb|NationalLandmarks ParkPreservation ServiceCommission|1978|ps=.2005|p=614}}</ref><ref; name="Harris p. 51">{{harvnb|HarrisNational Park Service|19811978|ps=.|p=516}}</ref> Prior to the 1945 renovation, it served as a brokerage office.<ref name="NYCL p. 14" /><ref name="Gura p. 95" /><ref name="Brown p. 188" />
 
The Edwardian Room, previously known as the Men's Grill or Fifth Avenue Cafe, is at the northeast corner of the ground floor,<ref name="NYCL p. 21" /> measuring {{Convert|50|x|65|ft|abbr=}}. It was originally designed by William Baumgarten & Company and McNulty Brothers, but has been redecorated multiple times.<ref name="NYCL p. 25">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=25}}</ref> It contains dark Flemish-oak paneling, {{Convert|12|ft||abbr=}} high, with finishes and doorway surrounds made of Caen stone.<ref>{{harvnb|Architects' name="NPSand p.Builders' 5" /><ref name="ABM (Magazine|1907) |p. =2"}} /><ref name="NYCL pp. 25-26">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|pp=25–26}}; {{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|ppp=25–265}}</ref> The floor is inlaid with mosaic tiles.<ref name="NYCL p. 26">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=26}}</ref> The beamed ceiling is inlaid with mirrors, giving the impression of highly decorated trusses,<ref>{{harvnb|Architects' name="ABMand (1907)Builders' Magazine|1907|p. =2" /><ref name="NYCL}}; {{harvnb|Frohne|1907|p. 25" /><ref name="Frohne364}}; p. 364">{{harvnb|FrohneLandmarks Preservation Commission|19072005|p=25|ps=.|p=364}}</ref> and the room is lit by large windows and eight large bronze chandeliers.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 2" /><ref name="NYCL p. 25" /> The room's original color scheme was a relatively toned-down palette of green, dark brown, and gray hues.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 2" /><ref name="NYCL p. 25" /> When built, there was a musicians' balcony overhanging the room.<ref name="NYCL p. 25" /> The room also had an entrance at Grand Army Plaza, which was closed with the creation of the Fifth Avenue lobby.<ref name="NYCL pp. 25-26">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=25–26}}</ref> The space housed the Green Tulip and Plaza Suite restaurants in the late 20th century;<ref name="NYCL p. 25" /> by the 2000s, it was known as One CPS.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Confessore|first=Nicholas|date=December 30, 2004|title=Oak Room at the Plaza Is Going the Way of the Pince-Nez|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2004/12/30/nyregion/oak-room-at-the-plaza-is-going-the-way-of-the-pincenez.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
The Palm Court, previously known as the [[Teahouse|tea room]], is in the center of the ground floor.<ref name="NYCL p. 21" /> It contains a design inspired by the Winter Garden at the [[Carlton Hotel, London|Carlton Hotel in London]].<ref name="Harris p. 34">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=34}}</ref><ref name="NYCL p. 57">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=57 (PDF p. &nbsp;58)}}</ref> It is outfitted with walls made of Caen stone.<ref name>{{harvnb|Architecture|1907|p="NPS179}}; p.{{harvnb|Architects' 5"and /><refBuilders' name="Arch (Magazine|1907) |p.=4}}; 179"{{harvnb|Landmarks /><refPreservation nameCommission|2005|p="ABM57 (1907)PDF p.&nbsp;58)}}; 4"{{harvnb|National /><refPark nameService|1978|ps="NYCL p. 57" |p=5}}</ref> As in the main corridor, the Palm Court contains mosaic floors, as well as marble pilasters and columns, topped by bronze capitals.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 4">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=4}}</ref><ref name="NYCL p. 57" /> The Palm Court initially had a stained glass ceiling, which was removed in a 1940s renovation;<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="nyt19820927" /><ref name="NYCL p. 57" /> it was restored in the mid-2000s.<ref name=":0">{{Cite news|last=Barron|first=James|date=2005-12-12|title=A New Ceiling for the Plaza, but It Has Plenty of History|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/12/nyregion/a-new-ceiling-for-the-plaza-but-it-has-plenty-of-history.html|url-status=live|access-date=2020-11-30|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> There were also mirrors on the western wall.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="NYCL p. 57" /> The western wall contains four [[caryatid]]s carved by [[Pottier & Stymus]], which represent the seasons and framed the wall mirrors.<ref name="NYCL p. 57" /><ref name="{{harvnb|Gura |2015|p. =92"}}; /><ref name="{{harvnb|Harris |1981|p.=38}}; 38">{{harvnb|HarrisLandmarks Preservation Commission|19812005|ps=.|p=3857 (PDF p.&nbsp;58)}}</ref> East of the Palm Court, separated from it by the main corridor, was the Plaza Restaurant, and Champagne Porch.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="NYCL pp. 9-10">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=9–10}}</ref> The Palm Court and Plaza Restaurant originally formed a "vast dining hall",<ref name="rer19070914" /><ref name="NYCL p. 10" /> which were designed nearly identically.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 4" /> Removable glass panes along the main corridor abutted both spaces.<ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179" /><ref name="NYCL p. 57" />
 
The Terrace Room, west of the Palm Court,<ref name="NYCL pp. 21-22">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=21–22 (PDF pp. &nbsp;22–23)}}</ref> is part of Warren and Wetmore's 1921 design. The room was so named because it contains three terraces.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /><ref name="NYCL p. 13">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=13}}</ref> The terraces split the room in thirds, increasing in height from east to west; they are separated by balustrades and connected by small staircases.<ref name="NYCL p. 62">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=62 (PDF p. &nbsp;63)}}</ref> The space contains Renaissance style motifs on the pilasters, ceilings, and wall arches, as well as three chandeliers and rusticated-marble walls.<ref name="NYCL pp. 62-63">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=62–63 (PDF pp. &nbsp;63–64)}}</ref> [[John B. Smeraldi]] was commissioned to paint the Terrace Room's ornamentation.<ref name="Gura p. 92">{{harvnb|Gura|2015|ps=.|p=92}}</ref><ref name="NYCL pp. 62-63" /> The Terrace Room is surrounded by a balcony, with a painted coffer ceiling possibly commissioned by Smeraldi, as well as marble pilasters and floors.<ref name="NYCL p. 13" /> A balcony runs slightly above the Terrace Room on its southern wall.<ref name="NYCL p. 63">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=63 (PDF p. &nbsp;64)}}</ref> Immediately south of the balcony is the Terrace Room's corridor and foyer.<ref name="NYCL pp. 21-22" /><ref name="NPS p. 11" />
 
The southwestern corner of the ground floor also originally contained a staff dining room before being redesigned as the Oyster Bar.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /> The southeastern corner originally contained the 58th Street Restaurant, which was exclusively for the hotel's permanent residents.<ref name="Arch (1907) p. 179" /> In 1934, it was replaced by a nightclub called the Persian Room.<ref name="NPS p. 6">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=6}}</ref> The Persian Room had red and Persian blue upholstery by [[Joseph Urban]], five wall murals by [[Lillian Gaertner Palmedo]], and a 27-foot bar.<ref name="Brown p. 76">{{harvnb|Brown|1967|ps=.|p=76}}</ref><ref name="Satow ch. 6" /> The Persian Room operated until 1978.<ref name="Satow ch. 10">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 10}}</ref>
 
==== Ballroom ====
The original double-height ballroom on the first floor, dating from Hardenbergh's plan, was on the north side of the first floor and is no longer extant. The old ballroom, with a capacity of 500 to 600 people, was served by its own elevator and staircase, and contained a movable stage.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="rer19070914" /> The old ballroom was overlooked on three sides by balconies, and contained a similar white-and-cream color scheme to the current ballroom.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 8" /> It was served by its own entrance on 58th Street.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 8" /> The old ballroom was replaced by offices by the 1970s.<ref name="NPS p. 5" />
 
The current ballroom on the first floor is at the center of that story.<ref name="NYCL p. 23">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=21 (PDF p. &nbsp;23)}}</ref><ref name="NPS p. 11">{{harvnb|National Park Service|1978|ps=.|p=11}}</ref> It was initially designed by Warren and Wetmore, and had a capacity of 800 people during dinners and 1,000 people during dances.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /><ref name="NYCL p. 13" /> The room contained a coved ceiling designed by Smeraldi, with crosses, hexagons, and octagons, as well as six overhanging chandeliers. The ballroom had a stage on its western wall, within a rectangular opening. A balcony ran across the three other walls and was supported by pilasters with bronze capitals.<ref name="NYCL p. 35">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=35 (PDF p. &nbsp;36)}}</ref>
 
Warren and Wetmore's ballroom was reconstructed in 1929 to a neoclassical design by Schultze & Weaver.<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="NYCL p. 35" /> The room has a white and cream color scheme with gold ornamentation, evocative of the original ballroom's design.<ref name="NYCL p. 13" /><ref name="Brown p. 73">{{harvnb|ps=.|Brown|1967|p=73}}</ref> The stage remains on the western wall, but is within a rounded opening. The redesign added audience boxes on the north and east walls, with decorative metal railings.<ref name="NYCL p. 36">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=36 (PDF p. &nbsp;37)}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=November 8, 1929|title=1,000 Hear Mary Garden.; With Ruth Breton She Gives First of "Artistic Mornings" at Plaza.|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1929/11/08/archives/1000-hear-mary-garden-with-ruth-breton-she-gives-first-of-artistic.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The ballroom contains a coved ceiling with roundels, lunettes, bas reliefs, and two chandeliers.<ref name="NYCL p. 36" /> South of the ballroom proper is a corridor running west to east.<ref name="NYCL p. 23" /><ref name="NPS p. 11" /> The corridor has a decorative barrel-vaulted paneled ceiling and had a balcony that was removed in the 1929 redesign.<ref name="NYCL p. 39">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=39 (PDF p. &nbsp;40)}}</ref> On the southernmost section of the first floor is the ballroom foyer and the stair hall, two formerly separate rooms that were combined in 1965 to form a neoclassical marble-clad space. The stair hall contains the stair leading from the mezzanine foyer.<ref name="NYCL p. 40">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=40 (PDF p. &nbsp;41)}}</ref><ref name="nyt19641117" />
 
==== Suites ====
[[File:Plaza Hotel corridor, Sept 2017.jpg|thumb|Suite hallway]]
The Plaza Hotel's suites start at the second floor.<ref name="ABM (1907) p. 142">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=14}}</ref> As built, they contained three primary types of suites: those with one bedroom and one bathroom; those with two bedrooms and two bathrooms; and those with a parlor and a varying number of beds and baths.<ref name="rer19070914" /><ref name="Frohne pp. 352-353">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|pp=352–353}}</ref> The walls were originally painted in rose, yellow, cream, and gray hues.<ref name="Gathje p. 81">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=81}}</ref> For decorative effect, the rooms contained wooden wainscoting and furniture, while the plaster ceilings contained crystal chandeliers.<ref name="Gathje pp. 81-82">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|pp=81&ndash;82}}</ref> A guest or resident could request multiple suites, since there were smaller private hallways adjacent to the main hallway on each floor. There were also staff rooms at the corners of the main corridor on each floor.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 16">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=16}}</ref><ref name="Frohne pp. 352-353" /> Dumbwaiters led from the staff rooms to the basement kitchen, allowing guests to order meals and eat them in-suite.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="Harris pp. 22-23">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=22–23}}</ref><ref name="ABM (1907) p. 22">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|p=22}}</ref>
 
Following its 2008 renovation, the hotel contains 181 privately owned condominiums.<ref name="aia5" /><ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> There were 150 condo-hotel units, composed of 50 units sold to private investors and 100 units operated by the hotel's owners. In addition, there were 131 rooms reserved for short-term stays.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" />
=== Replacement and early 20th century ===
 
The first Plaza Hotel had been relatively remote when it was completed, but by the first decade of the 20th century, was part of a rapidly growing commercial district on Fifth Avenue.<ref name="NYCL p. 6">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=6}}</ref> Furthermore, several upscale hotels in Manhattan were also being rebuilt during that time.<ref>{{cite journal|date=June 24, 1905|title=The Hotels of Manhattan|url=https://rerecord.library.columbia.edu/document.php?vol=ldpd_7031148_035&page=ldpd_7031148_035_00001458&no=1|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=75|pages=1367|via=[[Columbia University|columbia.edu]]|number=1945}}</ref> In May 1902, a syndicate purchased the Plaza and three adjacent lots on Central Park South for $3 million.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=May 4, 1902|title=In the Real Estate Field; Plaza Hotel Sale the Feature of Another Lively Week|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1902/05/04/archives/in-the-real-estate-field-plaza-hotel-sale-the-feature-of-another.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 23, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|date=May 3, 1902|title=The Real Estate Situation|url=https://rerecord.library.columbia.edu/document.php?vol=ldpd_7031148_029&page=ldpd_7031148_029_00000928&no=1|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=69|pages=788|via=[[Columbia University|columbia.edu]]|number=1781}}</ref>{{efn|The syndicate was composed of the Central Realty, Bond and Trust Company; Hallgarten and Company; and the [[George A. Fuller]] Company.<ref name=tribune19020603/>}} The sale was the largest-ever cash-only purchase for a Manhattan property at the time.<ref name=tribune19020603>{{cite news|date=June 3, 1902|title=Pay Cash for Plaza Hotel|page=7|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63956845/|access-date=November 25, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=June 3, 1902|title=Plaza Hotel Property Fetches $3,000,000 Cash|page=7|work=Brooklyn Daily Eagle|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63956979/|access-date=November 25, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=June 3, 1902|title=Plaza Hotel Reconstruction; Ten Millions of Dollars Involved in the New Enterprise. The Purchase by the Fuller Company One of the Largest in the Annals of City Real Estate Transactions|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1902/06/03/archives/plaza-hotel-reconstruction-ten-millions-of-dollars-involved-in-the.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 25, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The purchase was headed by [[Harry S. Black]]—who headed the [[George A. Fuller Company]], one of the syndicate's members—as well as German financier [[Bernhard Beinecke]].<ref name="NYCL p. 6" /><ref name="Gathje p. 11">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=11}}</ref><ref; name="{{harvnb|Harris |1981|p.=11}}; 11">{{harvnb|HarrisLandmarks Preservation Commission|19812005|ps=.|p=116}}</ref> Shortly after the purchase, Black and Beinecke formed the Plaza Realty Company to redevelop the hotel.<ref>{{cite journal|date=June 14, 1902|title=Real Estate Notes|url=https://rerecord.library.columbia.edu/document.php?vol=ldpd_7031148_029&page=ldpd_7031148_029_00001267&no=1|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=69|pages=1097|via=[[Columbia University|columbia.edu]]|number=1787}}</ref> Black also formed the [[United States Realty and Construction Company]], a [[Trust law|trust]] whose subsidiaries included the Fuller Company and the Plaza Realty Company.<ref>{{cite flatiron|page=114}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=J2U3AQAAMAAJ|title=Moody's Manual of Corporation Securities|publisher=John Moody & Company|year=1903|page=|access-date=November 27, 2020|issue=v. 4}}</ref> To acquire sufficient funding for the redevelopment, Black and Beinecke approached barbed-wire entrepreneur [[John Warne Gates]], who agreed to fund the project on the condition that Frederic Sterry be named the managing director of the Plaza Hotel.<ref name>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps="NYCL .|p. 6" /><ref name="Gathje p. 11"}}; /><ref name="{{harvnb|Harris |1981|p.=15}}; 15">{{harvnb|HarrisLandmarks Preservation Commission|19812005|ps=.|p=156}}</ref>
 
==== Construction ====
From the start, the Plaza Operating Company was already preparing for the possibility of expansion, and came to acquire the lots between 5 and 19 West 58th Street in the first two decades of the 20th century.<ref name="NYCL p. 12">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=12}}</ref> This land acquisition commenced before the second hotel had even opened.<ref name="NYCL p. 12" /><ref name="Frohne p. 358">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=358}}</ref> By 1915, the Plaza Operating Company had acquired four lots at West 58th Street and one on Central Park South.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 15, 1915|title=The Real Estate Field.; Allerton Realty Company Buys East Thirty-ninth Street Plot for Apartment House Site|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1915/10/15/archives/the-real-estate-field-allerton-realty-company-buys-east-thirtyninth.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 26, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The Plaza Operating Company received an exemption from the [[1916 Zoning Resolution]], which set height restrictions for new buildings on the 58th Street side of the lots.<ref name="Satow ch. 5" /> The company filed plans for a 19-story annex along 58th Street in August 1919, to be designed by Warren and Wetmore.<ref>{{cite journal|date=August 9, 1919|title=Alterations|url=https://rerecord.library.columbia.edu/document.php?vol=ldpd_7031148_064&page=ldpd_7031148_064_00000126&no=1|journal=The Real Estate Record: Real estate record and builders' guide|volume=104|pages=120|via=[[Columbia University|columbia.edu]]|number=6}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=August 5, 1919|title=$2,500,000 To Be Spent Enlarging Plaza Hotel|page=17|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://newspapers.com/clip/64114670/|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> The final lots, at 15 and 17 West 58th Street, were acquired in 1920 after the plans had been filed.<ref name="NYCL p. 12" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=May 28, 1920|title=Plaza Hotel Buys.; Finally Secures Dugro Property on Fifty-eighth Street|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1920/05/28/archives/plaza-hotel-buys-finally-secures-dugro-property-on-fiftyeighth.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The George A. Fuller Company was again hired as the builder.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /> To fund the construction of the annex, the Plaza Operating Company took out mortgage loans worth $2.275 million.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=July 14, 1921|title=$2,275,000 in Loans.: $2,000,000 Additional Loan Placed on Plaza Hotel Property.|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1921/07/14/archives/2275000-in-loans-2000000-additional-loan-placed-on-plaza-hotel.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
The Champagne Porch was only frequented by the extremely wealthy, and after the start of Prohibition, Sterry decided to remove the room altogether in 1921.<ref name="Harris p. 34" /><ref name="bt19210708" /> An enlarged entrance was placed at the site of the Champagne Porch.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /><ref name="NYCL pp. 9-10" /><ref name="Harris p. 30">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=30}}</ref> The work also included building a new restaurant called the Terrace Room, as well as a ballroom and 350 additional suites.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /><ref name="Harris p. 34" /><ref name="bt19210708" /> Warren and Wetmore designed the expanded interior with more subtle contrasts in the decor, compared to Hardenbergh's design.<ref name="Architecture and Building 1922" /><ref name="NYCL p. 12" /> The annex opened October 14, 1921, with an event in the ballroom,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 15, 1921|title=Society Aids a Benefit.; Appears in 'The Garden of Youth' in New Ballroom of the Plaza|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1921/10/15/archives/society-aids-a-benefit-appears-in-the-garden-of-youth-in-new.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> but was not officially completed until April 1922.<ref name="NYCL p. 12" /> With the advent of Prohibition, the bar room was also closed, and the gender segregation rule was relaxed.<ref name="Harris p. 40" /><ref name="NYCL p. 54">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation CommissionGathje|20052000|ps=.|p=5430}}</ref><ref; name{{harvnb|Harris|1981|p="Gathje40}}; p. 30">{{harvnb|GathjeLandmarks Preservation Commission|20002005|ps=.|p=3054 (PDF p.&nbsp;55)}}</ref> The space occupied by the present-day Oak Bar became the offices of brokerage [[EF Hutton]].<ref name="NYCL p. 14" /> The Plaza had become the city's most valuable hotel by 1923,<ref name="Satow ch. 5" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 2, 1923|title=City Realty Value Jumps One Billion to $11,275,526,200; Total and $840,629,525 in Personalty Three-fourths of the State's Wealth|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1923/10/02/archives/city-realty-value-jumps-one-billion-to-11275526200-total-and.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and the U.S. Realty Company overall was highly profitable, paying increasingly high dividends during the 1920s.<ref name="Satow ch. 5" />
 
==== Great Depression ====
For unknown reasons, Warren and Wetmore's ballroom was reconstructed from June to September 1929, based on neoclassical designs by Schultze & Weaver.<ref name="NYCL p. 36" /> Shortly afterward, U.S. Realty's stock price collapsed in the [[Wall Street Crash of 1929|Wall Street Crash]] of October 1929, from which commenced the [[Great Depression in the United States]].<ref name="Satow ch. 5" /> Plaza Hotel co-owner Harry Black killed himself the following year in 1930,<ref>{{Cite news|date=July 20, 1930|title=H.s. Black Ends Life by Bullet in Home|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1930/07/20/archives/hs-black-ends-life-by-bullet-in-home-no-motive-revealed-financier.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and his partner Bernhard Beinecke died two years later.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=December 21, 1932|title=Bernhard Beinecke Dies; a Hotel Man|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1932/12/21/archives/bernhad-beinecke-dies-a-hotel-man-chairman-of-board-of-plaza-86.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The rebuilt Plaza's first manager, Fred Sterry, died in 1933.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=August 15, 1933|title=To Manage Hotel Plaza.; Henry A. Host Will Fill Position of the Late Frederic Sterry|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1933/08/15/archives/to-manage-hotel-plaza-henry-a-host-will-fill-position-of-the-late.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 26, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The early 1930s were also financially difficult for the Plaza Hotel, as only half of the suites were occupied by 1932. To reduce operating costs for the hotel's restaurants, the grill room in the basement was converted into a closet, while the Rose Room became an automobile showroom. The furnishings of the Plaza Hotel fell into disrepair and, during some months, management was unable to pay staff.<ref name="Satow ch. 6" />
 
By the mid-1930s, the old tea room was officially known as the Palm Court, having been referred to as the "Palm Room" for the previous decade.<ref name="Harris p. 38" /><ref name="NYCL p. 15">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation CommissionBrown|20051967|psp=.79}}; {{harvnb|Harris|1981|p=1538}}</ref><ref; name="Brown p. 79">{{harvnb|BrownLandmarks Preservation Commission|19672005|ps=.|p=7915}}</ref> The back room was reopened as the Oak Room restaurant in 1934,<ref name="NYCL p. 15">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=15}}</ref><ref name="Gathje p. 32">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=32}}</ref> although it was still referred to as the "back room" by its frequent visitors, which included bankers and brokers.<ref name="Harris p. 51" >{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=51}}</ref> The same year, display windows and a doorway on the southern wall were added to the Fifth Avenue lobby, and the southeastern corner of the ground floor was refurbished into the Persian Room.<ref name="Brown p. 76" /><ref>{{cite news|date=January 31, 1934|title=Hotel Plaza Plans New Cocktail Room: Corner at 5th Av. And 58th St. Will Be Fitted Up at Cost of $50,000|page=34|work=The New York Times|url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/101079852|url-access=subscription|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331|via=ProQuest}}</ref>
 
=== Mid-20th century ===
==== Hilton operation ====
[[File:New York City (4374514714).jpg|thumb|Seen from the east on 58th Street]]
U.S. Realty continued to lose money through the 1930s, and was selling off its properties by 1942, including the Plaza Hotel.<ref name="Satow ch. 6">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 6}}</ref> [[Atlas Corporation]], collaborating with hotelier [[Conrad Hilton]], bought the Plaza Hotel for $7.4&nbsp;million in October 1943.{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|7.4|1943|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}}<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 8, 1943|title=Atlas in Control of Plaza Hotel; Corporation Buys All Stock of U.S. Realty in Fifth Avenue Property|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1943/10/08/archives/atlas-in-control-of-plaza-hotel-corporation-buys-all-stock-of-us.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=October 8, 1943|title=Atlas Interests Buy Plaza Hotel In Security Deal: Large 5th Avenue Property Sold by General Realty to Floyd B. Odlum Group|page=29|work=New York Herald Tribune|url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1268022005|url-access=subscription|access-date=November 28, 2020|via=ProQuest}}</ref> At the time, the Plaza was 61 percent occupied, and many public areas were closed due to supply shortages caused by [[World War II]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Dabney|first=Thomas Ewing|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=FOFEAAAAIAAJ|title=The Man who Bought the Waldorf: The Life of Conrad N. Hilton|publisher=Duell, Sloan and Pearce|year=1950|page=173}}</ref><ref name="Satow ch. 7">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 7}}</ref> Hilton subsequently spent $6&nbsp;million refurbishing the hotel.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /> During mid-1944, the lobby on Fifth Avenue was renovated and its mezzanine was enclosed. The Palm Court skylight, having fallen into disrepair, was removed for the installation of air conditioning equipment.<ref name="NYCL p. 14" /><ref name="Gathje p. 26">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=26}}</ref> A mezzanine was also built above the Palm Court,<ref name="NPS p. 5" /><ref name="nyt19820927" /><ref name="Gura p. 95">{{harvnb|Gura|2015|ps=.|p=95}}</ref> and the room itself became the Court Lounge.<ref name="NYCL p. 58" /> The brokerage office at the ground level's northwestern corner was turned into the Oak Bar, which opened in January 1945, and EF Hutton was relegated to the Fifth Avenue lobby's mezzanine.<ref name="NYCLBrown p. 14188" /><ref name{{harvnb|Brown|1967|p="Gura188}}; {{harvnb|Gura|2015|p. =95"}}; /><ref name="Brown p. 188">{{harvnb|BrownLandmarks Preservation Commission|19672005|ps=.|p=18814}}</ref> The contractor for the renovations may have been Frederick P. Platt & Brother, which was the Plaza Hotel's primary contractor in the 1940s.<ref name="NYCL p. 14" />
 
The Plaza Hotel Corporation, the hotel's operator, was merged into the [[Hilton Worldwide|Hilton Hotels Corporation]] in 1946.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=June 7, 1946|title=$60,000,000 Hilton Hotel Concern Formed as Four Companies Merge; Plaza, Stevens, Palmer House, Dayton-Biltmore Combined|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1946/06/07/archives/60000000-hilton-hotel-concern-formed-as-four-companies-merge-plaza.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The following year, the Plaza Rendez-Vous opened within the old grill room space.<ref name="Harris p. 69">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=69}}</ref> By the early 1950s, women were allowed inside the Oak Room and Bar during the evenings and summers, although it still acted as a men-only space before 3 p.m., while the stock exchanges operated.<ref name="NYCL >{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|p. 15" /><ref name="Harris142}}; pp. 55-56">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=55–56}}</ref><ref; name="Gathje p. 142">{{harvnb|GathjeLandmarks Preservation Commission|20002005|ps=.|p=14215}}</ref>
 
Hilton sold the hotel in 1953 to Boston industrialist A.M. "Sonny" Sonnabend for $15&nbsp;million,{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|15|1953|r=2}} million in {{Inflation year|US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}} and immediately leased it back for 2.5 years.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 15, 1953|title=$15,000,000 Paid for Plaza Hotel; Hilton Interests Take Lease Back From the Sonnabend Group of Boston, Mass|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1953/10/15/archives/15000000-paid-for-plaza-hotel-hilton-interests-take-lease-back-from.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Gathje p. 163">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=163}}</ref> Sonnabend became president of national restaurant chain [[Childs Company]] in 1955, and Childs purchased the Plaza that November, for $6.2&nbsp;million in stock.<ref>{{Cite news|date=November 18, 1955|title=Childs Approves Plaza Purchase; Holders Also Agree to Lease 3 Other Hotels, Change Corporate Name|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1955/11/18/archives/childs-approves-plaza-purchase-holders-also-agree-to-lease-3-other.html|access-date=July 9, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The same year, the ground-floor Plaza Restaurant was renamed the Edwardian Room.<ref name="Gathje >{{harvnb|Brown|1967|p. 30" /><ref name="NYCL192}}; {{harvnb|Gathje|2000|p. 15" /><ref name="Brown30}}; p. 192">{{harvnb|BrownLandmarks Preservation Commission|19672005|ps=.|p=19215}}</ref> Air conditioning was also installed in each guest room around this time.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Grutzner|first=Charles|date=July 8, 1956|title=Year of the Air Conditioning; New York Hotels Putting Millions Into Cooling and Renovations|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1956/07/08/archives/year-of-the-air-conditioning-new-york-hotels-putting-millions-into.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Childs became the Hotel Corporation of America (HCA) in 1956,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=February 23, 1956|title=Childs Co. Changes Name|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1956/02/23/archives/childs-co-changes-name.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> and Hilton's lease was renewed indefinitely that year.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=March 1, 1956|title=Hotel Corporation of America Buys 2 Hotels for $14,930,000|page=15|work=Daily Boston Globe|url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/842256840|url-status=live|url-access=subscription|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=ProQuest}}</ref> HCA sold the Plaza to [[Lawrence Wien]] in November 1958 for $21 million{{efn-lg|Equivalent to ${{Inflation|index=US-GDP|value=21|start_year=1958}} million in {{Inflation/year|index=US-GDP}}{{inflation/fn|index=US-GDP|group=lower-alpha}}}} and immediately leased it back for 25 years.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=November 21, 1958|title=Plaza Hotel Sold for 21 Millions; Wien Pays Record Sum for 5th Ave. Building -- Chain to Lease It Back|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1958/11/21/archives/plaza-hotel-sold-for-21-millions-wien-pays-record-sum-for-5th-ave.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The transaction included curtailing Hilton's lease to April 1960,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=January 2, 1959|title=Plaza Hotel Title Passes|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1959/01/02/archives/plaza-hotel-title-passes.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> upon which HCA assumed the operating lease.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=April 1, 1960|title=Plaza Hotel in Shift; Hotel Corporation to Take Over on Lease Today|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1960/04/01/archives/plaza-hotel-in-shift-hotel-corporation-to-take-over-on-lease-today.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 27, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
==== Sonnabend operation ====
The Plaza Hotel experienced financial difficulties during the early 1960s, but under Sonnabend's management, the Plaza's financial outlook improved by 1964.<ref name="nyt19791230">{{Cite news|last=Cuff|first=Daniel F.|date=December 30, 1979|title=The Plaza Hotel: A Moneymaking Fairyland|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1979/12/30/archives/the-plaza-hotel-a-moneymaking-fairyland-but-its-an-easy-target-for.html|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="Satow ch. 9">{{harvnb|Satow|2019|ps=.|loc=chapter 9}}</ref> The facade of the Plaza Hotel was cleaned in late 1960, the first time that the exterior had been fully cleaned since its construction.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=November 25, 1960|title=Sidewalk Foremen Watch Face-Lifting At the Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1960/11/25/archives/sidewalk-foremen-watch-facelifting-at-the-plaza-hotel.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> This was followed in 1962 by extensive exterior and interior renovations, which resulted in the redecoration of many of the suites and public rooms.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Ennis|first=Thomas W.|date=September 9, 1962|title=Hotels Spruce Up as Rivalry Rises|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1962/09/09/archives/hotels-spruce-up-as-rivalry-rises-they-answer-newcomers-with-vast.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref name="wsj19650823">{{cite news|last=|first=|date=August 23, 1965|title=The Grand Hotel: Aging but Still Elegant, Gotham's Storied Plaza Prospers on Nostalgia Edwardian Opulence, Service Enchant Jet-Age Patrons|page=1|work=Wall Street Journal|url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/132999458|url-status=live|url-access=subscription|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0099-9660|via=ProQuest}}</ref> Four of the hotel's hydraulic elevators were replaced with electric elevators in 1964,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=April 6, 1964|title=Plaza to Install New Elevators|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1964/04/06/plaza-to-install-new-elevators.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> including the three elevators at the 58th Street lobby.<ref name="nyt19760415">{{Cite news|last=McElheny|first=Victor K.|date=April 15, 1976|title=Plaza's Old Elevators Wheezing to a Halt|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1976/04/15/archives/plazas-old-elevators-wheezing-to-a-halt.html|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> A second phase of renovations was announced the same year, which entailed enlarging some public rooms and replacing the ground-floor barber shop with a [[Trader Vic's]] bar.<ref name="Satow ch. 9" /><ref name="nyt19641117">{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=November 17, 1964|title=Plaza Pressing Expansion Drive; Hotel Will Get Trader Vic's From Savoy‐Plaza and Enlarge Banquet Room|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1964/11/17/archives/plaza-pressing-expansion-drive-hotel-will-get-trader-vics-from.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The ballroom's foyer and stair hall were combined during this renovation.<ref name="NYCL p. 40" /><ref name="nyt19641117" /> The improvements were completed by 1965, having cost $9 million.<ref name="wsj19650823" />
 
Upon Sonny Sonnabend's death in 1964, his son Roger took over the hotel.<ref name="Satow ch. 10" /> Further changes to the hotel's ownership occurred the next year, when [[Sol Goldman]] and [[Alexander DiLorenzo]]'s firm Wellington Associates bought an [[Option (finance)|option]] to obtain a half-interest in the underlying land from Hilton.<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=August 31, 1965|title=Wellington to Get Land Under Plaza|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1965/08/31/archives/wellington-to-get-land-under-plaza.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Gender restrictions at the Oak Room were removed in 1969, after the [[National Organization for Women]] held a sit-in to protest the men-only policy during middays.<ref name>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000="NYCL |p. 15" /><ref name="Gathje p. 142"}}; /><ref name{{harvnb|Harris|1981="Harris |p.=56}}; 56">{{harvnb|HarrisLandmarks Preservation Commission|19812005|ps=.|p=5615}}</ref> HCA, by then renamed Sonesta International Hotels,<ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=October 23, 1969|title=Hotel America To Change Name Nov. 10 to Sonesta|page=64|work=Hartford Courant|url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/550282274|url-status=live|url-access=subscription|access-date=November 27, 2020|via=ProQuest}}</ref> announced another round of renovations in 1971. This included the redecoration of the Grand Ballroom.<ref name="Gura p. 95" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=Edwards|first=Russell|date=August 27, 1971|title=Plaza Plans ‘Original Elegance’ in ‘World of Tomorrow’|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1971/08/27/archives/plaza-plans-original-elegance-in-world-of-tomorrow.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> as well as the replacement of the Edwardian Room with a restaurant called the Green Tulip.<ref name="NYCLHarris p. 1440" /><ref name="HarrisNYCL p. 4014" /><ref name="nyt19711105">{{Cite news|last=Huxtable|first=Ada Louise|date=November 5, 1971|title=An Appraisal: An Edwardian Splendor Or Green Tulip Modern?|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1971/11/05/archives/an-edwardian-splendor-or-green-tulip-modern-an-edwardian-splendor.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Sally Dryden's pink, lime, and brown design for the Green Tulip<ref name="NYCL pp. 26-27" /> received largely negative public reception.<ref name="wp19750615" /><ref name="Satow ch. 10" /><ref name="NYCL pp. 26-27">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|pp=26–27}}</ref> The ballroom also received a renovation at this time.<ref name="NYCL p. 36"/>
 
The renovations coincided with a decline in Sonesta's and the Plaza's finances, with the hotel recording a net negative income by 1971.<ref name="Satow ch. 10" /> Sonesta repurchased the Plaza Hotel from Wien in 1972.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Reckert|first=Clare M.|date=July 6, 1972|title=Sonesta International Takes Title to Plaza Hotel|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1972/07/06/archives/sonesta-international-takes-title-to-plaza-hotel-sonesta-corp-buys.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Shortly afterward, Sonesta looked to sell its interest in the Plaza Hotel to [[Harry Helmsley]], and Wellington attempted to take over Sonesta by buying its shares.<ref>{{Cite news|last=Hammer|first=Alexander R.|date=May 10, 1973|title=Sonesta Shares Target in Deal|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1973/05/10/archives/sonesta-shares-target-in-deal-wellington-seeking-to-buy-up-to-a.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 29, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Gallese|first=Liz Roman|date=May 10, 1973|title=Sonesta Sought by Wellington Associates, But Such a Take-Over May Prove Difficult|page=16|work=Wall Street Journal|url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/133819150|url-access=subscription|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0099-9660|via=ProQuest}}</ref> Both the sale and the attempted Sonesta takeover were unsuccessful, and Wellington made an offer for Sonesta's share of the hotel in April 1974,<ref>{{cite news|last=Meyer|first=Priscilla S.|date=April 2, 1974|title=Sonesta's Plaza Hotel Is Sought by Partners In New York Concern: Wellington Associates, Which Tried Sonesta Take-Over in '73, Is Discussing Purchase|page=16|work=Wall Street Journal|url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/133919074|url-access=subscription|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0099-9660|via=ProQuest}}</ref> which Sonesta refused.<ref>{{cite news|date=May 3, 1974|title=Sonesta Won't Sell The Plaza, New York, To Wellington Group|page=16|work=Wall Street Journal|url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/133971802r|url-access=subscription|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0099-9660|via=ProQuest}}</ref>
When the Plaza Hotel opened in 1907, the first guest to sign its register was [[Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt]].<ref name="NYCL p. 5" /> The hotel also housed other wealthy residents such as [[George Jay Gould]], as well as [[Oliver Harriman Jr.]] and his wife [[Grace Carley Harriman]].<ref name="tribune190710012">{{cite news|date=October 1, 1907|title=Dinner at the New Plaza Hotel|page=9|work=New-York Tribune|url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/63967422/|access-date=November 25, 2020|via=newspapers.com {{open access}}}}</ref> John Gates, the hotel's co-developer, had a 16-room apartment on the third floor.<ref name="ABM (1907) pp. 16-18">{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|pp=16, 18}}</ref> [[Harry Frank Guggenheim]] lived in the hotel's State Apartment,<ref name="NPS p. 6" /><ref name="Gathje p. 82">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=82}}</ref> while Russian princess [[Vilma Lwoff-Parlaghy]], a prominent portrait painter in the early 20th century, lived in a third-floor suite with her lion.<ref name="Gathje p. 89">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=89}}</ref><ref name=":1" /> The hotel's appeal to the wealthy came from the fact that, in the early 20th century, apartments at the Plaza were generally cheaper than in more upscale apartment buildings, and that it faced Central Park, which at the time was highly patronized by the wealthy.<ref name="Frohne p. 354">{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=354}}</ref>
 
Later in the 20th century, the Plaza Hotel served as home to "wealthy widows", such as performer [[Kay Thompson]], who wrote the ''[[Eloise (books)|Eloise]]'' children's book series about a young girl who lived at the hotel.<ref name=":1" /> During the Great Depression, the "wealthy widows" were considered "a tourist attraction in their own right", with their rent income keeping the hotel solvent.<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /> The hotel's other residents included as playwright [[Ferenc Molnár]].<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /><ref name="Gathje p. 90">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=90}}</ref>
 
The guestrooms have also hosted several notable guests. These have included opera singer [[Enrico Caruso]], as well as novelists [[F. Scott Fitzgerald]] and [[Zelda Fitzgerald]].<ref name="NYCL p. 16" /> [[Frank Lloyd Wright]] often stayed at the Plaza when he was designing the [[Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum]] on Fifth Avenue, considering it to be his home.<ref name="aia5" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref>{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|pp=82, 84}}</ref> Art dealer [[Joseph Duveen, 1st Baron Duveen]], who helped assemble the [[Frick Collection]] at the nearby [[Henry Clay Frick House|Frick House]], lived at the Plaza and held important auctions in the ballroom.<ref name="Gathje p. 81" /> In addition, [[the Beatles]] stayed at the Plaza Hotel during their first visit to the United States in February 1964.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref name="Gathje pp. 124-125">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|pp=124–125}}; {{harvnb|ps=.|Harris|1981|pp=124–12594, 99}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=February 14, 1964|title=4,000 Hail Beatles on Arrival in Miami|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1964/02/14/archives/4000-hail-beatles-on-arrival-in-miami.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
 
=== Social scene ===
During the 1920s, the basement's grill room was a popular meeting place for young adults born during the [[Lost Generation]].<ref name="Harris p. 67">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=67}}</ref> The Oak Room was frequented by actor [[George M. Cohan]], and a commemorative plaque for Cohan was installed in the room in the 1940s after his death.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref name="Gathje p. 78">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=78}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=March 11, 1943|title=Plaque to Honor Cohan, Harris|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1943/03/11/archives/plaque-to-honor-cohan-harris.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The Persian Room was popular with the "cafe society", being frequented by socialites and fashion trendsetters.<ref name="Satow ch. 6" /> In the 1970s, the Persian Room hosted performances from pop singers like [[Robert Goulet]] and [[Dusty Springfield]].<ref name="Satow ch. 10" />
 
The hotel has also been popular among world leaders, particularly presidents of the United States. The first of these was [[Theodore Roosevelt]], the 26th U.S. president, who moved his [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican Party]]'s events to the Plaza Hotel from the [[Fifth Avenue Hotel]] after the closure of the former in 1908.<ref name="Harris pp. 109-110">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|pp=109–110}}</ref> Theodore Roosevelt's distant cousin, president [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]], had his birthday luncheon in the Palm Court in 1935.<ref name="NYCL p. 58">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=58 (PDF p. &nbsp;59)}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=January 31, 1935|title=Gay Pageant Here Honors President|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1935/01/31/archives/gay-pageant-here-honors-president-ball-at-the-waldorf-is-central.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 30, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> Other U.S. presidents who frequented the hotel's guestrooms or restaurants have included [[William Howard Taft]], [[Harry S. Truman]], and [[Richard Nixon]],<ref name="NYCL p. 58" /><ref name="Harris p. 110">{{harvnb|Harris|1981|ps=.|p=110}}</ref> as well as onetime owner Donald Trump.<ref name=":1" /> The Plaza Hotel also kept a series of national flags, which were displayed whenever a foreign head of state visited.<ref name="Harris p. 110" /> The Plaza Hotel has also been used for political events, as in September 1985, the finance ministers of several countries signed the [[Plaza Accord]] at the hotel, which [[Currency appreciation and depreciation|depreciated]] the [[United States dollar|U.S. dollar]] in relation to other currencies.<ref>{{cite book|last=Funabashi|first=Yōichi|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=wuZgDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA263|title=Managing the Dollar: From the Plaza to the Louvre|publisher=Institute for International Economics|year=1989|isbn=978-0-88132-097-8|series=Books / Institute for international economics|pages=261–271}}</ref>
 
==== Receptions ====
[[File:Dinner at the Plaza Hotel, New York 1908.jpg|thumb|Depiction of a dinner at the Plaza Hotel in 1908]]
The Terrace Room has frequently been used for press conferences, luncheons, and receptions.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /> For instance, it hosted a 1956 press conference where [[Laurence Olivier]] and [[Marilyn Monroe]] talked about their upcoming film ''[[The Prince and the Showgirl]].''<ref name="Gathje p. 111">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=111}}</ref> At another press conference in the Terrace Room in 1968, [[Richard Burton]] and [[Elizabeth Taylor]] discussed their film ''[[Doctor Faustus (1967 film)|Dr. Faustus]]''.<ref name="NYCL p. 15" /><ref name="Gathje p. 137">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=137}}</ref> In addition, duringDuring the Beatles' 1964 stay at the hotel, visitors were allowed to take pictures with the Beatles at the Terrace Room.<ref name="Gathje pp. 124-125" />
 
==== Benefits and weddings ====
 
=== Critical reception ===
Upon the present building's opening, the design of the hotel, particularly the interiors, received mostly positive criticism.<ref name="NYCL p. 9" /> ''The New York Times'' characterized the exterior as "a fitting introduction to the interior", praising the interior for its relative modesty compared to other hotels.<ref name="nyt19070929" /> However, H. W. Frohne wrote that Hardenbergh had "fail[ed] to make the public rooms entertaining".<ref name="NYCL p. 9" /><ref name="Frohne p. 364" >{{harvnb|Frohne|1907|ps=.|p=364}}</ref> Critics for two architectural magazines also praised the carved woodwork in the Oak Room and the greenery that originally adorned the Palm Court.<ref name="AA (1907) p. 134" /><ref name="NYCL p. 11">{{harvnb|Landmarks Preservation Commission|2005|ps=.|p=11}}</ref><ref>{{harvnb|Architects' and Builders' Magazine|1907|ps=.|pp=4, 8}}</ref> For the latter, the ''Times'' praised the "gardenlike" effect of the Palm Court, enhanced by its glass ceiling.<ref name="nyt19070929" /><ref name="NYCL p. 11" /> Frank Lloyd Wright wrote that Hardenbergh's exterior design for the Plaza Hotel was an [[Early skyscrapers|early skyscraper]] with "a human sense", in contrast to later skyscrapers, which Wright described as "monstrous thing[s]".<ref name="NYCL p. 16" /><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Frazier|first=George|date=January 1956|title=Elegance Entrenched|url=https://classic.esquire.com/issue/19560101|journal=Esquire|volume=|pages=135|url-access=subscription|via=}}</ref>
 
Later reviews the Plaza Hotel. In the 1967 book ''The Plaza, Its Life and Times'', Eve Brown wrote that "The Plaza has managed always to be in tune with the times, its dignity unruffled, its good taste unimpaired".<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 2" /> [[Ada Louise Huxtable]] wrote for the ''Times'' in 1971 that the Plaza Hotel was the city's "most celebrated symbol of cosmopolitan and turn-of-the-century splendor", speaking negatively only of the short-lived Green Tulip restaurant.<ref name="nyt19711105" /> [[Paul Goldberger]], another writer for the ''Times'', stated that the Plaza had gained a stature similar to the [[Grand Central Terminal]] and the [[New York Public Library Main Branch]], in that it had become an important part of the city's architectural history.<ref name="nyt19820927" /> Judith Gura described the interior spaces as "merg[ing] seamlessly into a harmonious ensemble", despite each space having a distinct character.<ref name="Gura p. 90" /> Curtis Gathje, the Plaza Hotel's official historian and a 25-year veteran of the hotel, stated in 2007, "The Plaza is the epitome of civilized New York."<ref name="nyt20070926">{{cite web|author=The New York Times|date=September 26, 2007|title=Answers About the Plaza Hotel|url=//cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/09/26/answers-about-the-plaza-hotel/|access-date=November 28, 2020|website=City Room}}</ref>
=== Landmark designations ===
[[File:New York City, Nov 29, 2008 (3075044187).jpg|thumb|New York City designated landmark plaque]]
The demolition of the nearby Savoy-Plaza in 1964, and its replacement with the General Motors Building, resulted in a preservation movement to save the Plaza Hotel and nearby structures.<ref name="Satow ch. 9" /> The Plaza Hotel's exterior was designated a city landmark by the [[New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission]] in 1969.<ref name="NYCL (1969) p. 1" /><ref>{{Cite news|last=|first=|date=December 18, 1969|title=2 City Sites Designated Landmarks|language=en-US|work=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1969/12/18/archives/2-city-sites-designated-landmarks.html|url-status=live|access-date=November 28, 2020|issn=0362-4331}}</ref> The hotel was added to the [[National Register of Historic Places]] in 1978,<ref name="nris">{{cite web | title=Federal Register: 44 Fed. Reg. 7107 (Feb. 6, 1979) | publisher=[[Library of Congress]] | date=February 6, 1979 | url=http://cdn.loc.gov/service/ll/fedreg/fr044/fr044026/fr044026.pdf | access-date=March 8, 2020 | page=7539 (PDF p. &nbsp;339) | url-status=live }}</ref> and it was also made a [[National Historic Landmark]] in 1986.<ref name="nhlsum">{{cite web | title=List of NHLs by State | website=National Historic Landmarks (U.S. National Park Service) | date=May 4, 1970 | url=https://www.nps.gov/subjects/nationalhistoriclandmarks/list-of-nhls-by-state.htm | access-date=November 30, 2020}}</ref> A large part of the main public space in the interior, including the lobbies, ballroom, and restaurant spaces, was made a New York City designated landmark in 2005.<ref name="NYCL p. 3" /><ref name="Gura p. 90" />
 
=== In media ===
The Plaza Hotel has been used as a setting in several media works throughout its history. ItMost notably, it served as the setting for books such as the ''Eloise'' series,<ref name="nyt19791230" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref name="Jackson p. 411">{{harvnb|Jackson|2010|ps=.|p=411}}</ref> the success of which led the hotel's owners during the 1960s to hang the character's portrait in the lobby.<ref name="nyt19791230" /> The Plaza was also featured in F. Scott Fitzgerald's 1925 novel ''[[The Great Gatsby]]''.<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" />''
 
Several films have been set or filmed at the Plaza, such as ''[[North by Northwest]]'' (1959),''<ref name="Mashayekhi 2018" /><ref name="Jackson p. 1003" />''<ref name="Gathje p. 116">{{harvnb|Gathje|2000|ps=.|p=116}}</ref> [[Barefoot in the Park (film)|<u>''Barefoot in the Park''</u>]] (1967),<ref name="NYCL p. 16" /><ref>{{cite book|last=Shelley|first=Peter|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2CpzBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA23|title=Neil Simon on Screen: Adaptations and Original Scripts for Film and Television|publisher=McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers|year=2015|isbn=978-0-7864-7198-0|page=23|access-date=November 29, 2020}}</ref> [[Funny Girl (film)|''Funny Girl'']] (1968), [[Plaza Suite (film)|''Plaza Suite'']] (1971),<ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /><ref name="NYCL p. 16" /> ''[[The Way We Were]]'' (1973),<ref name="Jackson p. 1003" /> and ''[[Home Alone 2: Lost in New York]]'' (1992).<ref>{{Cite web|last=Alberts|first=Hana R.|date=November 7, 2017|title=The definitive guide to 'Home Alone 2' filming locations in NYC|url=https://ny.curbed.com/maps/home-alone-2-new-york-filming-locations|access-date=July 22, 2020|website=Curbed NY|language=en}}</ref> Conversely, the Plaza Hotel has disallowed some productions from filming there.<ref name="Tampa Bay Times 2018">{{cite web|last=Spears|first=Steve|date=June 10, 2018|title=30 years ago, ‘Big Business’ was really small potatoes|url=https://www.tampabay.comundefined/|access-date=November 30, 2020|website=Tampa Bay Times}}</ref> The producers of [[Big Business (1988 film)|''Big Business'']] (1988), faced with such a restriction, created their own version of the Plaza Hotel on a [[sound stage]].<ref name=":2" /><ref name="Tampa Bay Times 2018" />