Kosakeln: Difference between revisions

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== History and etymology ==
Kosakeln is one of a family of classical Austrian card games known as [[Tarock game]]s; so much so, that the area of the former [[Austro-Hungarian Empire]], in which they have a strong tradition has been described as 'Tarockania'.<ref name=BK>[http://web.archive.org/web/20070514081801/http://www.webit.at/bk/tarock.html ''Tarockania''] at web.archive.org. Retrieved 19 September 2020.</ref> These games have been featured in literature such as [[:de:Fritz von Herzmanovsky-Orlando|Herzmanovsky-Orlando's]] ''Maskenspiel der Genien'' and [[Johann Nestroy]]'s ''Zu ebener Erde und im ersten Stock''. There are numerous variations of Tarock, many still played today, including the challenging four-player games of [[Königrufen]] (the "game of kings"), [[Zwanzigerrufen]] and [[Neunzehnerrufen]], the original three-handed game of [[Tapp Tarock]] and its derivatives, [[Illustrated Tarock]] and [[Point Tarock]], and the "attractive" two-hander of [[Strawman Tarock]].<ref>Kastner, Hugo (2005). "König- oder Zwanz'ger-rufen? Nein, Strohmandeln!" in ''Kartenspiele'', p. 38.</ref>{{sfn|Ulmann|1890|pp=244/245}}{{sfn|Mayr|Sedlaczek|2008|p=380}}
The rules of the two-handed game of Kosakeln have obvious similarities to those of the "queen of all Tarock games played with the 54-card pack",{{sfn|Dummett|1980|p=480}} [[Illustrated Tarock]],{{efn|Sometimes called Point Tarock although that also refers to a different point-bidding game}} and Dummett confirms that it is an adaptation of that game for two players.{{sfn|Dummett|1980|p=488}} Illustrated Tarock emerges in the literature during the 1950s,{{sfn|Löw|1954|p=33–35}} Kosakeln itself being first recorded as ''Kosaken'' by Löw in 1956,{{sfn|Löw|1956|pp=102–110}} followed shortly thereafter by Beck in 1961.{{sfn|Beck|1961|pp=143–145}} The game has also featured more recently in Bamberger (2011){{sfn|Bamberger|2011|pp=28–34}} and Burgstaller (2017).{{sfn|Burgstaller|2017|pp=98–112}} Since ''Kosak'' is German for "Cossack", the name ''Kosakeln'' means "playing [the game of] Cossack".{{sfn|Worsch|p=624|2004}} Hence if two Austrians say they are "playing Cossack", they are likely to be enjoying the Tarot game of Kosakeln.{{sfn|Dummett|1980|p=488}}{{sfn|Worsch|p=624|2004}} The name may therefore be a tribute to the influence of eastern Europe, especially Hungary, where Tarock games are popular and there may also be a connexion to the 3-player, 42-card, Tarock game of [[Husarln]] ("playing Hussar").