Imperial and Royal: Difference between revisions

English title in opening sentence
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(English title in opening sentence)
[[File:Cisleithania, Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg|thumb|Map of imperial Austria (''[[Cisleithania]]'', in pink) and royal Hungary (''[[Transleithania]]'', in green), with Bosnia as a common condominium]]
 
The phrase '''Imperial and Royal''' ([[German language|German]] phrase: '''''kaiserlich und königlich''''', ({{IPA-de|ˈkaɪzɐlɪç ʔʊnt ˈkøːnɪklɪç|pron}}, ''Imperial and Royal''), typically abbreviated as '''''k. u. k.''''', '''''k. und k.''''', '''''k. & k.''''' in German (in all cases the "und" is always spoken unabbreviated), '''''cs. és k.''' (császári és királyi)'' in Hungarian, '''''c. a k.''' (císařský a královský)'' in Czech, '''''C. i K.''' (Cesarski i Królewski)'' in Polish, '''''c. in k.''' (cesarski in kraljevski)'' in Slovenian, '''''c. i kr.''' (carski i kraljevski)'' in Bosnian and Croatian, and '''I.R.''' (''Imperiale Regio'') in Italian, refers to the court/government of the [[Habsburgs]] in a broader historical perspective. Some modern authors restrict its use to the Dual Monarchy of [[Austria-Hungary]] from 1867 to 1918. During that period, it indicated that the Habsburg monarch reigned simultaneously as the '''''K'''aiser'' ([[Emperor of Austria]]) and as the '''''K'''önig'' ([[King of Hungary]]), while the two territories were joined in a [[real union]] (akin to a two-state federation in this instance). The acts of the common government, which was responsible only for the Imperial & Royal ("I&R") Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the I&R Ministry of War and the I&R Ministry of Finance (financing only the two other ministries), were carried out in the name of "His Imperial and Royal Majesty", and the central governmental bodies had their names prefixed with ''k. u. k.''
 
== Symbolic employment of ''und'' or ''u.'' ==