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A '''jam band''' is a musical group whose live albums and concerts relate to a fan culture that began in the 1960s with the [[Grateful Dead]], who held lengthy improvisational "[[jam session|jams]]" during their concerts. These include extended [[musical improvisation]] over rhythmic [[groove (music)|groove]]s and [[vamp (music)|chord patterns]], and long sets of music which often cross genre boundaries.<ref name="wiajb">{{cite web|url=http://www.jambands.com/jamband.html|title=What is a jam band?|accessdate=2007-02-02|publisher=Jambands.com|archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20070124191643/http://www.jambands.com/jamband.html <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 2007-01-24}}</ref>
 
The jam -band musical style spawned from the [[psychedelic rock]] movement of the 1960s. The Grateful Dead and [[The Allman Brothers Band]] became notable for their live improvisational jams and regular touring schedules, which continued into the 1990s. This influenced a new wave of jam bands in the late 1980s and early 1990s, who toured the United States with jam band-style concerts, such as [[Phish]], [[Blues Traveler]], [[Widespread Panic]], [[Dave Matthews Band]], [[The String Cheese Incident]], and [[Col. Bruce Hampton and the Aquarium Rescue Unit]]. The jam -band movement gained mainstream exposure in the US in the early 1990s following the rise of Phish and the Dave Matthews Band as major touring acts and the dissolution of the Grateful Dead following [[Jerry Garcia]]'s death in 1995.
 
Jam -band artists often perform a wide variety of genres. While the Grateful Dead is categorized as psychedelic rock,<ref>[http://www.britannica.com/psychedelic/bands/gratefuldead.html The Grateful Dead] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071015204231/http://www.britannica.com/psychedelic/bands/gratefuldead.html |date=15 October 2007 }} ''Britannica Online'', Retrieved 17 September 2007</ref> by the 1990s the term "jam band" was applied to acts that incorporated genres such as [[blues]], [[country music]], [[contemporary folk music]], [[funk]], [[progressive rock]], [[world music]], [[jazz fusion]], [[Southern rock]], [[alternative rock]], [[acid jazz]], [[bluegrass music|bluegrass]], [[folk rock]] and [[electronic music]] into their sound.<ref name="wiajb"/> Although the term has been used to describe cross-genre and improvisational artists, it retains an affinity to the fan cultures of the Grateful Dead or Phish.<ref name="Relix, all issues">''[[Relix]]'', all issues.</ref>
 
The third generation of jam bands appeared in the late 1990s and early 2000s, many inspired by Phish and other acts of the second wave. These included [[Umphrey's McGee]], [[Dispatch (band)|Dispatch]], [[Assembly of Dust]], [[Gov't Mule]], [[O.A.R.]], [[The Breakfast]], [[The Derek Trucks Band]], [[Agents of Good Roots]], [[Benevento/Russo Duo]], and [[My Morning Jacket|My Morning Jacket.]] Additionally, groups such as [[The Disco Biscuits]] and [[Sound Tribe Sector 9]] added electronic and techno elements into their performances, developing the livetronica subgenre. The early 2010s saw a fourth generation of jam bands, including [[Dopapod]], [[Pigeons Playing Ping Pong]], [[Twiddle (band)|Twiddle]], [[Moon Taxi]] and [[Spafford (band)|Spafford]]. Members of the Grateful Dead have continued touring since 1995 in many different iterations, such as [[The Dead (band)|The Dead]], [[Ratdog|Bob Weir & Ratdog]], [[Phil Lesh and Friends]], [[Donna Jean Godchaux Band]], [[7 Walkers]], [[Furthur (band)|Furthur]] and [[Dead & Company]]. Members of other jam bands often perform together in various configurations and supergroups, such as [[Tedeschi Trucks Band]], [[Oysterhead]], and [[Dave Matthews & Friends]].
 
A feature of the jam -band scene is fan taping or digital recording of live concerts. While manythe othermainstream stylesmusic ofindustry musicoften termviews fan taping as "illegal [[bootleg recording|bootlegging]]", jam bands often allow their fans to make tapes or recordings of their live shows. Fans trade recordings and collect recordings of different live shows, because improvisational jam bands play their songs differently at each performance. By the 2000s, as internet downloading of [[MP3 music|MP3 music files]] became common, downloading of jam -band songs became an extension of the [[Cassette tape|cassette taping]] trend. Bands also distribute their shows online, sometimes within days or hours.
 
== History ==
[[File:Jerry-Mickey at Red Rocks taken 08-11-87.jpg|thumb|right|[[Grateful Dead]]'s [[Jerry Garcia]] and [[Mickey Hart]] performing on 11 August 1987 at the [[Red Rocks Amphitheatre]] near [[Morrison, Colorado]]]]
 
The band that set the template for future jam bands was the [[Grateful Dead]], founded in 1965 by [[San Francisco]]-based guitarist [[Jerry Garcia]]. Although their studio albums enjoyed only modest success, and they were never an AM-radio favorite, "The Dead" attracted an enormous cult following, mainly on the strength of their live performances (and live albums (their studio albums were only modest successes and received little radio play). Drawing inspiration from [[the Paul Butterfield Blues Band]]'s improvisational 1966 epic "[[East-West (The Butterfield Blues Band album)#Content|East-West]]" and [[Eric Clapton]]'s short-lived (but influential) supergroup [[Cream (band)|Cream]],{{citation needed|date=August 2014}} the band specialized, in concert,improvisational injamming improvisationalat jammingconcerts. They played long two-set shows, and gave their fans a different experience every night, with varying setlists[[set list]]s, evolving songs, creative segues, and extended instrumentals. TheirSome loyalof their fans, known as ("Deadheads"), followed them ontheir tourtours from city to city, and a hippie subculture developed around the band, complete with psychedelic clothes, a black market in concert-related products, and drug paraphernalia. The band toured regularly for nearlymost of three decades, except for a hiatus from 1974-1976. The eventual heirs to this "Shakedown Street" fan culture, [[Phish]], formed in 1983 at the University of Vermont in Burlington. They solidified their lineup in 1985 and began their career with a few Grateful Dead songs in their repertoire.
 
[[The Allman Brothers Band]] were also considered a jam band, particularly during the [[Duane Allman]] era. Songs such as "[[In Memory of Elizabeth Reed]]" and "[[Whipping Post (song)|Whipping Post]]", which were 5–7 minutes long on their studio albums, became 20-minute jams at concerts. The Allmans even performed a 34-minute jam with the Grateful Dead in 1970. Their 1972 album ''[[Eat A Peach]]'' included "[[Mountain Jam]]", a 34-minute instrumental that was recorded live. The 1971 live album ''[[At Fillmore East]]'' featured a 24-minute version of "Whipping Post", and a 20-minute version of [[Willie Cobbs]]' "[[You Don't Love Me (Willie Cobbs song)|You Don't Love Me]]".
 
===Mid-1980s{{ndash}}1990===
[[File:Grateful Dead at the Warfield-01.jpg|thumb|right |250px|The Grateful Dead in 1980. Left to right: Jerry Garcia, Bill Kreutzmann, Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, Phil Lesh.]]
The Grateful Dead continued to growgrew their fanbase to nearly unmanageable levels in the second half of the 1980s.{{citation needed|date=April 2013}} The party atmosphere of Grateful Dead shows drew in a new generation of fans, especially after they released "[[Touch of Grey]]" which surprisingly became a hit song on MTV in 1987. They eventually began playing football stadiums, where fans turned the parking lots into campgrounds.
 
In the mid-1980s and early-1990s, the bands [[Phish]], [[moe.]], [[Edie Brickell & New Bohemians]], [[Blues Traveler]], [[Ozric Tentacles]], [[Widespread Panic]], [[Dave Matthews Band]], [[Bela Fleck and the Flecktones]], [[Spin Doctors]], [[The String Cheese Incident]], [[Col. Bruce Hampton and the Aquarium Rescue Unit]], [[Medeski Martin & Wood]], [[The Black Crowes]], [[Leftover Salmon]], [[The Samples]], [[Galactic]], [[əkoostik hookah]], and [[Lettuce (band)|Lettuce]], began touring with jam band-style concerts. Their famepopularity increased in the early 1990s. Widespread Panic originated in Athens, GA, when Michael Houser and John Bell started playing together. In 1986, after Todd Nance and Dave Schools joined them, the band played their first show as "Widespread Panic". Blues Traveler and Spin Doctors - formed and fronted by school friends [[John Popper]] and [[Chris Barron]], respectively - regularly performed at the jam band-friendly venue [[Wetlands Preserve]] in New York City.
 
In some cases, their{{who|date=September 2020}} improvisations have taken a backseat to more polished material, which may be due to their crossover commercial successes, [[MTV]] videos, and mainstream radio airplay. Most notable in pre-jam band history was the obvious influence of the Grateful Dead. By the end of the decade, Phish had signed a recording contract with [[Elektra Records]], and transformed from a New England/Northeast-based band into a national touring band (''see: [[Colorado '88]]''). While they may not have had Phish's commercial success, "With its fusion of southern rock, jazz, and blues, Widespread Panic has earned renown as one of America's best live bands. They have often appeared in [[Pollstar]]'s "Concert Pulse" chart of the top fifty bands on the road, and they have performed more than 150 live dates a year."<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-981 |title=New Georgia Encyclopedia: Widespread Panic |publisher=Georgiaencyclopedia.org |accessdate=2013-07-23 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130516221704/http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-981 |archivedate=16 May 2013 |df=dmy-all }}</ref>
 
===1990–1995===
[[File:Widespread Panic Red Rocks Amphitheatre 6-24-2010.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Widespread Panic playing at the Red Rocks Amphitheatre in 2010]]
In the early 1990s, a new generation of bands was spurred on by the Grateful Dead's touring and the increased exposure of [[The Black Crowes]], Phish, Widespread Panic and Aquarium Rescue Unit. Phish was building a large fan base and innovating new concepts into their shows. At the same time, the inceptionInternet ofgained thepopularity Internetand provided a medium for fans to discuss these bands and their performances as well as to view emerging concepts.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://prezi.com/rdfl-j961sqm/history-of-jam-bands/ |title=The Internet gives publicity for new and emerging concepts |last=Santos |first=Rafael |date=30 October 2016 |website=prezi.com |access-date=30 October 2016 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161031023719/https://prezi.com/rdfl-j961sqm/history-of-jam-bands/ |archivedate=31 October 2016 |df=dmy-all }}</ref>
 
Phish (along with the Grateful Dead, Bob Dylan, and The Beatles) was one of the first bands to have a [[Usenet]] newsgroup. To capitalize on this, they startedexperimented trying outwith new theatrics at shows, such as the Big Ball Jam from (1992–1994), the Secret Language created in(from 1992 ''(03/06/92 - Portsmouth, NH)'',<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mockingbirdfoundation.org/setlists/1992.html#03-06-92 |accessdate=28 February 2009 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090129101825/http://www.mockingbirdfoundation.org/setlists/1992.html |archivedate=29 January 2009 }}</ref> and the Audience Chess match, that lasted the entire (1995 tour). A rapidly expanding concert-going market in the early 1990s saw Phish playing mid-sized amphitheaters already in 1993 and 1994, with the band starting to build momentum. The band also earned chances to playplayed at various large venues, such as [[Madison Square Garden]], by 1994's end. Many new bands were formed, in the blooming scene. Thesewhich were the first new bands to actually be called "jam bands", including [[ekoostik hookah]], [[Dispatch (band)|Dispatch]], [[Gov't Mule]], One-Eyed Jack, [[Leftover Salmon]], Jambay,<ref name="Budnick"/> [[moe.]], [[Rusted Root]] and [[The String Cheese Incident]].
 
During the summer of 1995, shortly after the now-famous Deer Creek<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://hake.com/gordon/deadletter.html|title=7/5/95 Letter from the Grateful Dead|website=hake.com|access-date=2016-08-15|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160709094720/http://hake.com/gordon/deadletter.html|archivedate=9 July 2016|df=dmy-all}}</ref> gate crash,{{relevance Gratefulinline|date=September Dead guitarist and frontman [[Jerry2020}} Garcia]] died, ending the group's thirty years of prominence. The surviving members createdof athe bandGrateful calledDead formed [[The Other Ones]] (theyappearing used the nameas "[[The Dead (band)|The Dead]]" for some tours in the following decade). During the same period, Phish rose to prominence, and bands such as String Cheese Incident and Blues Traveler became successful. Many strandedMan Deadheads moved overmigrated to the Phish scene, which was at the timebecame the top touring Jamjam band behind the Grateful Dead.{{citation needed|date=April 2013}} Phishand beganbecame a new chapter in their career after the demise of the Grateful Dead,recognized as the band became more popular, and more recognized as mainstream, over the next five years.
 
===1996–2008: rise of Phish and music festivals===
[[File:Phish 2009-12-30.jpg|thumb|right|230px |Phish performing at American Airlines Arena in Miami, FL on 30 December 2009.]]
PhishThe heldjam-band theirscene firstgained majormore musicrecognition festivalduring onthe 16late and 17 August 1996 in Plattsburgh1990s, NY,with whichPhish drewbeing 70,000the fans, and featuredmost seveninfluential setsband of music.the Thisgenre wasas theit largestdrew concertlarge ofcrowds theto year,amphitheaters and Phisharenas. followedTheir thatfirst upmajor withmusic similar-sizedfestival festivalson in16 theand Northeast17&nbsp;August in1996 1997,drew 199870,000 fans and 1999.was the Betweenlargest 30concert Decemberof 1999,the andyear. 1Phish Januarycelebrated 2000,the Phishnew heldmillennium with an enormous festival namedcalled "Big Cypress" in southern Florida, which concluded with an eight-hour set to begin the new millennium. The final shows before their 2004 breakup in 2004 were at the Coventry Festival in Vermont. As of 2015, Phish has played a total of ten multi-day camping festivals, the most recent being Magnaball in Watkins Glen, NY from Aug. 21-23.<ref>[[Phish festivals#Magnaball]]</ref>{{Circularcitation referenceneeded|date=September 20152020}} TheOther successjam ofbands thesefollowed festivalsthe ledsuccess otherof bands to start theirthese festivals, notably the Disco Biscuits, who held their first Camp Bisco in 1999, and moe., which began its annual moe.down festivals in 2000.
Phish's popularity exploded after the demise of the Grateful Dead. Despite being ignored by most media, they drew large crowds to amphitheaters and arenas throughout the late 1990s. During this period, the Jam band scene gained more recognition, with Phish identified as a leader. After a short hiatus from 2000–2002, Phish resumed a heavy touring schedule in 2003. By 2004, a variety of issues led lead singer/guitarist Trey Anastasio to break up the band.
 
A more significant consequence of Phish's reinventionrepopularization of large-scale festivals can be seen asin the founding of the [[Bonnaroo festivalMusic Festival]] in 2002. This multi-band, multi-day festival in Manchester, Tennessee, which annually draws close to 100,000 music fans, started as a jam band-focused festivalevent. Over time, bands from many genres have performed at Bonnaroo, but the similarities to Phish's festivals are still apparent. OtherThese and other music festivals haveheld sprung up all overacross the country,US and this hashave become an important part of the music industry, asopening bandsa seeknew waysrevenue stream to help bands compensate for the deteriorating compact disc market.{{citation needed|date=June 2017}}
Phish held their first major music festival on 16 and 17 August 1996 in Plattsburgh, NY, which drew 70,000 fans, and featured seven sets of music. This was the largest concert of the year, and Phish followed that up with similar-sized festivals in the Northeast in 1997, 1998, and 1999. Between 30 December 1999, and 1 January 2000, Phish held an enormous festival named "Big Cypress" in southern Florida, which concluded with an eight-hour set to begin the new millennium. The final shows before their breakup in 2004 were at the Coventry Festival in Vermont. As of 2015, Phish has played a total of ten multi-day camping festivals, the most recent being Magnaball in Watkins Glen, NY from Aug. 21-23.<ref>[[Phish festivals#Magnaball]]</ref>{{Circular reference|date=September 2015}} The success of these festivals led other bands to start their festivals, notably the Disco Biscuits, who held their first Camp Bisco in 1999, and moe., which began its annual moe.down festivals in 2000.
 
A more significant consequence of Phish's reinvention of large-scale festivals can be seen as the founding of the Bonnaroo festival in 2002. This multi-band, multi-day festival in Manchester, Tennessee, which annually draws close to 100,000 music fans, started as a jam band-focused festival. Over time, bands from many genres have performed at Bonnaroo, but the similarities to Phish's festivals are still apparent. Other music festivals have sprung up all over the country, and this has become an important part of the music industry, as bands seek ways to compensate for the deteriorating compact disc market.{{citation needed|date=June 2017}}
 
===2004–present===
AfterThere Coventry, many Phish fans found themselves in a predicament similar to that Deadheads faced almost a decade previously. Withwas no moreclear Phishjam-band tosuccessor follow around, the hundreds of thousands ofafter Phish's fans2004 began investing time in the other top jam band acts of the daybreakup. This gave newerNewer bands such as [[Sound Tribe Sector 9|STS9]], [[Disco Biscuits]], and [[Umphrey's McGee]] a greater opportunity to growgrew their fanbase. TheseNo bandsupcoming havejam steadilyband increasedhas theiryet popularity,to butreach sothe far,attendance nolevels jamof bandPhish, haswho reachedthemselves Phish'shad attendancenever levels.attained Phishthe neverpeak reachedattendance of the Grateful Dead's. peakThe attendance levels, so thelong-term fragmentation of the jam -band scene has been a long termcontinuing trendprocess. Phish announcedheld ona 1reunion October 2008 that they would return to the stageconcert in March &nbsp;2009 at [[Hampton Coliseum]]. Following their reunion, Phishand resumedagain their status asbecame one of the top US concert draws in the United States. The band were one of the highest-grossing touring musical artists of both 2016 and 2017, and their 13-night "Baker's Dozen" run at [[Madison Square Garden]] in 2017 grossed $15 &nbsp;million.<ref>{{cite web |title=Phish Tops Billboard's "Hot Tours" List After Successful MSG New Year's Run |url=https://liveforlivemusic.com/news/phish-tops-billboards-hot-tours-chart/ |website=L4LM |accessdate=30 September 2019 |date=25 January 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Phish, Dead & Company, and DMB Among Top 50 Grossing Tours Of 2016 |url=https://liveforlivemusic.com/news/phish-dead-company-dmb-among-top-50-grossing-tours-2016/ |website=L4LM |accessdate=30 September 2019 |date=12 January 2017}}</ref>
 
[[Widespread Panic]] became the top jam band (by attendance) after Phish broke up in 2004.{{citation needed|date=April 2013}} [[moe.]] Theirhas southernmaintained jama styletightly-knit bringsfanbase, outsupported largeby crowdssteady to amphitheaterstouring and largefrequent indoorfestival venuesappearances.{{citation Bringingneeded|date=September in2020}} [[JimmyString HerringCheese Incident]] inhas 2006,mixed abluegrass virtuosoand jamelectronic bandsounds veteran guitarist,to addedbuild a freshdevoted edgefanbase toas well. SCI has significantly reduced their hugetouring catalogschedule in recent years, giving each of songstheir shows a special reunion vibe.{{according to whom|date=September 2020}}
 
Many of today's jam bands have brought widely varied genres into the scene. A jam band festival may include bands with [[Electronic music|electronic]], [[folk rock]], [[blues rock]], [[jazz fusion]], [[psychedelic rock]], [[southern rock]], [[progressive rock]], [[acid jazz]], [[hip hop]], [[hard rock]], [[reggae]], and [[Bluegrass music|bluegrass]] sounds. The electronic trend has been led by such bands as [[The Disco Biscuits]], [[Sound Tribe Sector 9|Sound Tribe Sector 9]] (STS9)]], [[Lotus (rock band)|Lotus]], [[EOTO]], [[The New Deal (band)|The New Deal]], and [[Dopapod]]. Bands like [[moe.]], [[Umphrey's McGee]], [[Lettuce]], [[Assembly of Dust]], [[The Heavy Pets]] and [[The Breakfast]] have carried on the classic rock sound mixed with exploratory jams. Members of the Grateful Dead have continued touring in many different configurations as [[The Dead (band)|The Dead]], [[Ratdog|Bob Weir & Ratdog]], [[Phil Lesh and Friends]], [[7 Walkers]], and [[Furthur (band)|Furthur]].
[[moe.]] has maintained a tightly-knit fanbase throughout this period. Their enduring popularity is supported by steady touring, including frequent festival appearances. [[String Cheese Incident]] has mixed bluegrass and electronic sounds to build a devoted fanbase as well. SCI has significantly reduced their touring schedule in recent years, giving each of their shows a special reunion vibe.
 
The British [[Intelligent dance music|IDM]] (IDM) band [[Autechre]] became known as "the first digital jam band" after their 4-hour long 2016 album set ''[[elseq 1-5]]''.{{citation needed|date=June 2019}} Blending jam -band elements with those of [[electronica]] is known as "jamtronica" or "livetronica" (a [[portmanteau]] of the terms "[[Concert|live music]]" and "[[electronica]]"). <ref name="ew">{{Cite journal | last=Drumming | first=Neil | url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1028997,00.html | title=Pushing Your Buttons | date=February 21, 2005 | journal=[[Entertainment Weekly]] | accessdate=November 19, 2012}}</ref><ref name="oakland">{{Cite news | last=Harrington | first=Jim | title=Be it tie-dye or techno, STS9 has a good time | url=http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-7008129.html | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402132404/http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-7008129.html | url-status=dead | archive-date=April 2, 2015 | newspaper=[[Oakland Tribune]] | date=April 14, 2005 | accessdate=November 19, 2012}}{{Subscription required|via=[[HighBeam Research]]}}</ref><ref>[https://ew.com/article/2005/02/21/sixty-second-lesson-livetronica/ Sixty second lesson on Livetronica|EW.com]</ref> Bands includes [[The Disco Biscuits]], [[STS9]] (Sound Tribe Sector 9)<ref>[https://www.sfweekly.com/music/three-must-see-acts-this-week-34/ Three Must-See Acts This Week - 01/23/2019 - SF Weekly]</ref>, and [[The New Deal (band)|The New Deal]]<ref name="Back to the Future: An Oral History of Livetronica">{{cite web|last1=Eisen|first1=Benji|title=Back to the Future: An Oral History of Livetronica|url=http://www.relix.com/articles/detail/back_to_the_future_an_oral_history_of_livetronica|website=Relix.com|accessdate=23 October 2014}}</ref> (although STS9 guitarist Hunter Brown has expressed basic reservations about the "livetronica" label, explaining that "it's a really vague term to describe a lot of bands,", he did cite [[Tortoise (band)|Tortoise]] as stylistic precursors).<ref name="oakland" /> ''Entertainment Weekly'' also identified [[Prefuse 73]], [[VHS or Beta]], [[Lotus (American band)|Lotus]], Signal Path, MFA, and Midwest Product as notable livetronica groups.<ref name="ew" />
Many of today's jam bands have brought widely varied genres into the scene. A jam band festival may include bands with [[Electronic music|electronic]], [[folk rock]], [[blues rock]], [[jazz fusion]], [[psychedelic rock]], [[southern rock]], [[progressive rock]], [[acid jazz]], [[hip hop]], [[hard rock]], [[reggae]], and [[Bluegrass music|bluegrass]] sounds. The electronic trend has been led by such bands as [[The Disco Biscuits]], [[Sound Tribe Sector 9|Sound Tribe Sector 9 (STS9)]], [[Lotus (rock band)|Lotus]], [[EOTO]], [[The New Deal (band)|The New Deal]], and [[Dopapod]]. Bands like [[moe.]], [[Umphrey's McGee]], [[Lettuce]], [[Assembly of Dust]], [[The Heavy Pets]] and [[The Breakfast]] have carried on the classic rock sound mixed with exploratory jams. Members of the Grateful Dead have continued touring in many different configurations as [[The Dead (band)|The Dead]], [[Ratdog|Bob Weir & Ratdog]], [[Phil Lesh and Friends]], [[7 Walkers]], and [[Furthur (band)|Furthur]].
 
The British [[Intelligent dance music|IDM]] band [[Autechre]] became known as "the first digital jam band" after their 4-hour long 2016 album set ''[[elseq 1-5]]''.{{citation needed|date=June 2019}} Blending jam band elements with those of [[electronica]] is known as "jamtronica" or "livetronica" (a [[portmanteau]] of the terms "[[Concert|live music]]" and "[[electronica]]"). <ref name="ew">{{Cite journal | last=Drumming | first=Neil | url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1028997,00.html | title=Pushing Your Buttons | date=February 21, 2005 | journal=[[Entertainment Weekly]] | accessdate=November 19, 2012}}</ref><ref name="oakland">{{Cite news | last=Harrington | first=Jim | title=Be it tie-dye or techno, STS9 has a good time | url=http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-7008129.html | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402132404/http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-7008129.html | url-status=dead | archive-date=April 2, 2015 | newspaper=[[Oakland Tribune]] | date=April 14, 2005 | accessdate=November 19, 2012}}{{Subscription required|via=[[HighBeam Research]]}}</ref><ref>[https://ew.com/article/2005/02/21/sixty-second-lesson-livetronica/ Sixty second lesson on Livetronica|EW.com]</ref> Bands includes [[The Disco Biscuits]], [[STS9]] (Sound Tribe Sector 9)<ref>[https://www.sfweekly.com/music/three-must-see-acts-this-week-34/ Three Must-See Acts This Week - 01/23/2019 - SF Weekly]</ref>, and [[The New Deal (band)|The New Deal]]<ref name="Back to the Future: An Oral History of Livetronica">{{cite web|last1=Eisen|first1=Benji|title=Back to the Future: An Oral History of Livetronica|url=http://www.relix.com/articles/detail/back_to_the_future_an_oral_history_of_livetronica|website=Relix.com|accessdate=23 October 2014}}</ref> (although STS9 guitarist Hunter Brown has expressed basic reservations about the "livetronica" label, explaining that "it's a really vague term to describe a lot of bands," he did cite [[Tortoise (band)|Tortoise]] as stylistic precursors).<ref name="oakland" /> ''Entertainment Weekly'' also identified [[Prefuse 73]], [[VHS or Beta]], [[Lotus (American band)|Lotus]], Signal Path, MFA, and Midwest Product as notable livetronica groups.<ref name="ew" />
 
==Jam scene==
The contemporary jam scene has grown to encompass bands from a great diversity of musical genres. A 2000-era genre of jam-band music uses live improvisation that mimics the sounds of [[DJ]]s and [[electronica]] musicians and has been dubbed "trancefusion" (a fusion between [[trance music]] and [[rock and roll]]). [[Progressive bluegrass]] and [[progressive rock]] are also quite popular among fans of jam bands. In the early 2000s, the jam scene helped influence the touring patterns and approach of a new wave of indie bands like Vampire Weekend, MGMT, Interpol, and The National. <ref>Greenhaus, Mike https://jambands.com/mike-greenhaus-the-greenhaus-effect/2009/06/09/smells-like-hippie-spiritrelix-uncovers-indie-rocks-true-jamband-roots/ Jambands.com</ref>
 
Hundreds of jam-based festivals and concerts are held throughout the United States every yearUS. The [[Bonnaroo Music Festival]], held each June in Tennessee, continues to provide a highly visible forum for jam acts, even thoughalthough this festival has attracted many different genres during its decade-plus history. As with other music scenes, devout fans of jam bands are known to travel from festival to festival, often developing a family-like community. These committed fan groups are often referred to by the derogatory terms "wookies" or "wooks.".<ref>{{cite web|url=https://thump.vice.com/en_ca/article/xyp8e3/how-to-spot-a-festival-wookie|title=How to Spot a Festival Wookie|date=6 April 2015|website=vice.com|accessdate=29 April 2018|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180402163433/https://thump.vice.com/en_ca/article/xyp8e3/how-to-spot-a-festival-wookie|archivedate=2 April 2018|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
<!-- Deleted image removed: [[File:SCI2005.jpg|thumb|right|300px|[[The String Cheese Incident]]]] -->
Hundreds of jam-based festivals and concerts are held throughout the United States every year. The [[Bonnaroo Music Festival]], held each June in Tennessee continues to provide a highly visible forum for jam acts, even though this festival has attracted many different genres during its decade-plus history. As with other music scenes, devout fans of jam bands are known to travel from festival to festival, often developing a family-like community. These committed fan groups are often referred to by the derogatory terms "wookies" or "wooks."<ref>{{cite web|url=https://thump.vice.com/en_ca/article/xyp8e3/how-to-spot-a-festival-wookie|title=How to Spot a Festival Wookie|date=6 April 2015|website=vice.com|accessdate=29 April 2018|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20180402163433/https://thump.vice.com/en_ca/article/xyp8e3/how-to-spot-a-festival-wookie|archivedate=2 April 2018|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
 
==Taping==
{{See also|Taper (concert)}}
[[File:Taper section.jpg|right|thumb|230px|A forest of microphone stands at a taper section at [[Telluride Bluegrass Festival]] in June &nbsp;2007.]]
Jam bands often allow their fans to make tapes or recordings ofrecord their live shows, a practice which many other musical genres callview as "illegal bootlegging". The Grateful Dead encouraged this practice, which helped to create a thriving scene around the collecting and trading of recordings of Grateful Deadtheir live performances. Most of the live shows on the Grateful Dead's 30 years of touring were recorded., It was probablyand the tradingtrade ofin recordings ofis Gratefulbelieved Deadto shows whichhave built the band's fan base.{{citation needed|date=September 2020}}
 
Starting in 1984,<ref name=deadnet>{{cite web|title=Official Grateful Dead website|url=http://www.dead.net/archives/year/1984|work=Dead.net website|accessdate=10 August 2011|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110829031519/http://www.dead.net/archives/year/1984|archivedate=29 August 2011|df=dmy-all}}</ref> the band recognized the fact that people were already "unofficially" taping their shows, so they started to sell [[Taper (concert)|taper]] tickets for a taper's section, whichsegregating allowedthese thepeople tapers to bringwith their microphones and tape decks to record with, as well as wrangle the tapersequipment into one area of the venue so to keep them from interfering with other concertgoers. This type of encouragement has spread to nearly all of the jam bands. Some jam -band enthusiasts argue that if a band does not allow fans to tape their live shows, this band is not a jam band in the Grateful Dead tradition.
 
Fans trade recordings and collect recordings of different live shows because improvisationalImprovisational jam bands playperform their songs differently at each performance and generally mixhave upno theirfixed setlistssetlist, in order to encourage fans to see them on multiple nights. FansSome collectfans variouscollect versions of their favoritefavourite songs and actively debate which is the "best version" of any particular song, keeping lists of notable versionsversion. This may extend to the song's relative rarity in setlists of thosediffering eras. Some bands will play on this anticipation by adding little "teases" into their sets. For example, playing a few bars of a famous cover song or hinting at a popular jam and then either never getting actually playing the song, or coming back to it after an extended jam. The use of [[segue]]s to blend strings of songs is another mark of a jam band, and one which makes for sought-after tapes.{{citation needed|date=September 2020}}
 
They keep track of how many times a specific song has been played and note the frequency of performances of certain songs, and note the relative rarity or commonality of its performance during certain years. This increases the momentousness of a rare song being dusted off and played live, or played for the first time.<ref>One such an event was the Grateful Dead's playing of "Unbroken Chain," a song bass-player [[Phil Lesh]] penned (and sang), and a fan-favorite from the Dead's much-loved ''From The Mars Hotel'' (1974) LP, in their final year together.
 
The re-emergence of their archetypal jam song "Dark Star" after years of absence from the repertoire is another such event.</ref> Some bands play with this phenomenon by throwing short little "[[teasing|tease]]s" into their sets. Playing, for example, a few bars of a famous cover song or hinting at a popular jam and then either never getting around to playing the song, or coming back to it after an extended jam. The use of [[segue]]s to blend strings of songs is another mark of a jam band, and one which makes for treasured tapes.<ref>Fans will frequently wax rhapsodic about performances such as "that one show where Phish segued out of 'Fee', into 'Stash', into 'You Enjoy Myself', and then back into 'Stash' again."</ref>
 
===Music downloading===
By the 2000s, as internet downloading of MP3 music files became common, the downloading of jam -band songs became an extension of the cassette taping trend. Archived jam -band downloads are available at various websites, the most prominent ones being [[etree]] and the [[Live Music Archive]], which is part of the [[Internet Archive]].
 
MoreSome jam bands have been distributingdistribute their latest shows online. Bands such as [[Phish]], [[Widespread Panic]], [[The String Cheese Incident]], [[Gov't Mule]], [[ekoostik hookah]], [[Umphrey's McGee]], [[Dopapod]], [[Lotus (rock band)|Lotus]], and [[The Disco Biscuits]] have been offeringoffered digital downloads within days, or sometimes hours, of concerts. The [[Grateful Dead]] have begun to offer online, digital download only, live releases from their archives asfor welldownload. While there is some obvious conflict of interest between the "free and open trading ofand shows"buying andthe artistssame packagingmaterial andpackaged sellingby the same shows for moneyartists, a dynamic equilibrium has been reached where die-hards trade and others are happy to pay for the convenience.{{citation needed|date=September 2020}}
 
Some concert venues offer kiosks where fans may purchase a digital recording of the concert and download it to a [[USB flash drive]] or another portable digital storage device. Some bands, including The Allman Brothers, Zac Brown and [[O.A.R. (band)|O.A.R.]] offer [[Instant Live|"Instant Lives"]], which are concert recordings made available for purchase on Compactcompact Discdisc or [[USBflash Flash Drive]]drive shortly after the show ends. Most major music festivals also offer digital live recordings at the event. Several vendors such as [[Instant Live]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.store.livenation.com/Store.aspx?cp=13281_16771_858 |title=Instant Live - It's better live &#124; Live Nation Store |publisher=Store.livenation.com |accessdate=2013-07-23 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130907054314/http://www.store.livenation.com/Store.aspx?cp=13281_16771_858 |archivedate=7 September 2013 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> by [[Live Nation]] and [[Aderra Inc.|ADERRAAderra]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://aderra.net |title=Aderra Media - Live Music Recorded to MicroSD cards and Flash Drives CONCERT USB-FREE DOWNLOADS |publisher=Aderra.net |accessdate=2013-07-23 |url-status=live |archiveurl=http://archive.wikiwix.com/cache/20110711053239/http://aderra.net/ |archivedate=11 July 2011 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> offer this [[remote recording]] service for instant delivery. Even thoughAlthough these shows are freely traded in digital format, "official" versions are still boughtcollected by fans for the graphics, liner notes, and packaging.
 
==Venues and festivals==
{{See also|List of jam band music festivals}}
{{example farm|section|date=September 2020}}
[[File:All Good Festival Marvin's Mountaintop outside Masontown WV July 2011.jpg|thumb|right|275px|[[All Good Music Festival on Marvin's Mountaintop above Masontown]], West Virginia, 15 July &nbsp;2011.]]
<!-- Please do not add any places that are not sourced as places to see jam band music. --><!--Please don't list anything that isn't notable to the topic, period.-->
In the August 2006 issue of ''Guitar One'' on jam bands, the following places were referred to as the "best places to see jam music": [[Red Rocks Amphitheatre]], [[Red Rocks Park]], [[Denver, CO]]; [[The Gorge Amphitheatre]], [[George, Washington]]; [[High Sierra Music Festival]], [[Quincy, CA]]; [[Saratoga Performing Arts Center]], [[Saratoga Springs, NY]]; [[Hearst Greek Theatre|The Greek Theater]], [[Berkeley, CA]]; [[Bonnaroo Music Festival]] (Bonnaroo has become increasingly mainstream in recent years, and has seen a shift in fan base), [[Manchester, TN]]; [[The Warfield Theater]], [[San Francisco, CA]]; [[Higher Ground (nightclub)|Higher Ground]], [[Burlington, Vermont]], Nelson Ledges Quarry Park, [[Garrettsville, Ohio]]; and the ''Jam in the Dam'' in [[Amsterdam]].
 
One way to see many jam bands in one place is by going to a jam band-oriented [[music festival]]. Some popular festivals that include jam bands are: [[Bonnaroo Music Festival|Bonnaroo]] in Manchester, Tennessee; [[Gathering of the Vibes]] in Bridgeport, Connecticut; [[Rothbury Music Festival|Rothbury Festival]] in Rothbury, Michigan (now known as [[Electric Forest Festival]]; The aforementioned [[High Sierra Music Festival]] in Quincy, California; [[All Good Music Festival|All Good]]; [[Wakarusa Music and Camping Festival]] outside [[Fayetteville, AR]] (now defunct); [[Mountain Jam (festival)]] in Hunter Mt, New York; [[Telluride Bluegrass Festival]] in Colorado; [[Lockn' Festival]] in Arrington, Virginia; [[The Werk Out Music Festival]] in Thornville, Ohio; and [[Summer Camp Music Festival]] in Chillicothe, Illinois.
 
==Business model and copyright law==
{{Refimprove-section|date=September 2020}}
Law professor Mark Schultz found that jam bands had fundamentally different business models from the mainstream music industry. This could be seen in the perceptions of their fans: Jam-band fans view themselves and the band as part of a shared community, which the band management serves. In comparison, fans of mainstream music "often portray band management as part of a ruthless industry that ... mistreats fans and musicians alike".<ref>{{cite journal |last= Schultz
Mark Schultz<ref>{{cite journal |last= Schultz
|first= Mark F. |year= 2006
|title= Fear and Norms and Rock & Roll: What Jambands Can Teach Us about Persuading People to Obey Copyright Law
|journal= Berkeley Technology Law Journal
|volume= 21 |pages= 651–728
|accessdate= |ssrn= 864624}}</ref>
|accessdate= |ssrn= 864624}}</ref> described fundamental differences between the business models of jam bands and the mainstream music industry: "Jamband fans seem to view band management as people who work for the artists and themselves as part of a community that includes the band. Mainstream music fans, on the other hand, often portray band management as part of a ruthless industry that merely employs musicians and mistreats fans and musicians alike." He relates this to the work of [[Tom R. Tyler]], who described "two alternative strategies for effective law enforcement:
 
* Deterrence: effective but inefficient
Professor [[Tom R. Tyler]] considered the main law-enforcement strategies for copyright protection, finding that deterrence and process-based strategies could both be effective, but that the latter was more efficient.{{citation needed|date=September 2020}}
* Process-based: efficient and effective."
 
Jam bands encourage fans to bring recording equipment to live performances and give away copies of what they record. This practice may increase the sizes of their audiences and the total revenue received from concerts and the sale of recorded music. The fans reciprocate the generosity of the jam bands by helping enforce the copyright rules that the bands write, consistent with Tyler's "process-based" law enforcement. Schultz said the [[Recording Industry Association of America]] (RIAA) seems to call most fans [[Copyright infringement|pirates]] intent on stealing their music. Thus, the mainstream music industry attempts to maximize their revenue through deterring illegal sharing of music. [For more on the approach of the mainstream music industry to copyrights, see [[Free Culture (book)]].]
 
Schultz said that the key concept here is reciprocity: Fans treated with generosity and respect by jam bands tend to be more loyal even to the point of helping enforce the copyrights the jam bands claim. Fans similarly reciprocate the hostility they perceive in the anti-piracy lawsuits filed by the mainstream recording industry. It's notis clearunclear which business model is most remunerative for music industry managers, but Schultz insisted that jam bands tend to have more loyal fans, and the mainstream music industry might benefit from following this model and treating their fans with more respect, following the model of jam bands.
 
==List of jam bands==