Emotional reasoning: Difference between revisions

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{{distinguish|Appeal to emotion|Rationalization (psychology)}}
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{{Copy edit|for=grammar and style|date=July 2020}}
{{More citations needed|date=September 2007}}
{{primary sources|date=November 2015}}
 
== Factors ==
[[Schema (psychology)|Cognitive schemas]] is one of the factors to cause emotional reasoning. Schema is made of how we look at this world and our real-life experiences. Schema helps us remember the important things or events that happened in our lives. The result of the learning process is the schema, and it is also made by classical and operant conditioning. For example, an individual can develop a schema about terrorists and spiders that are very dangerous. PeopleBased on their schema, people can change what they think or how they are biased about the way they perceive things based on their schema. Information-processing biases makeof schema impact how a person thinks, memoryand remembers, orand their understanding of experiences and information. The bias makes a person’sperson's schema automatically access to similar content of schema. For example, a person with rat phobia; they areif more likely to seevisualize andor areperceive aware of thea rat isbeing near them. Schemes areSchemas also easily making the connectionconnect with schema-central stimuli. For example, when depressed people start to think about negative things, it wouldcan be reallyvery harddifficult for them to stopthink thinkingof aboutanything itpositive.<ref name=":0">"Cognitive Schemas." Pp. 391–93 in ''The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development'' 1, edited by M. H. Bornstein. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. 2018.</ref>
 
For memory bias, schema can mix upaffect an individual’sindividual's memoryrecollections to cause schema-incongruent memories. For example, if individuals have a schema about how intelligent they are, failure-related recollections have a high chance to stickbe retained in their minds and unlikelythey tobecome flashlikely onto recall positive past events that happened in the past. The schema also makesmake individuals biased through the way that they interpret information. In other words, schema tricksalters their understanding of the information. For example, when people refuse to help low self-esteem children solve thea math problem, this causes the children tomay think they are too stupid to learn how to solve maththe problemsproblem insteadrather ofthan thinkingthe about thoseother people who arebeing too busy to help them out.<ref name=":0" />
 
== Reduction techniques ==
== Techniques for reducing emotional reasoning ==include:
''Validity testing:'' Patients defend their thoughts and ideas, and they are supposed to bring up objective evidence to support their assumptions. If not, they might be exposed to emotional reasoning.<ref name=":1">Ford-Martin, P. 2003. "Cognitive-behavioral therapy." Pp. 226–28 in ''The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders'' 1, edited by M. Harris and E. Thackerey. Thousand Oaks, Detroit, MI: Gale.</ref>
 
''Validity testing:'' Patients defend their thoughts and ideas, and they are supposed to bring upusing objective evidence to support their assumptions. If notthey cannot, they might be exposed to emotional reasoning.<ref name=":1">Ford-Martin, P. 2003. "Cognitive-behavioral therapy." Pp. 226–28 in ''The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders'' 1, edited by M. Harris and E. Thackerey. Thousand Oaks, Detroit, MI: Gale.</ref>
''Cognitive reversal:'' Patients told of a difficult situation that they had in the past, and they work with a therapist to help them fix practicing their problems. Thus, the patient could know how to face and fix difficult situations instead of reverting to emotional reasoning.<ref name=":1" />
 
''Cognitive reversal:'' Patients are told of a difficult situation that they had in the past, and they work with a therapist to help them fixaddress practicingand correct their problems. Thus,This can prepare the patient couldfor knowsimilar howsituations toso facethat andthey fixdo difficult situations instead ofnot revertingrevert to emotional reasoning.<ref name=":1" />
''Guided discovery:'' The therapist asks the patients a series of questions designed to help patients realize their cognition distortions.<ref name=":1" />
 
''Guided discovery:'' The therapist asks the patients a series of questions designed to help patientsthem realize their cognition distortions.<ref name=":1" />
''Writing in a journal:'' Patients form a habit of writing in a journal to record the situations they face, emotions, thoughts they have, and their responses or behaviors to them in their daily life. The therapist and patient will analyze how their maladaptive thought patterns influence their behaviors together.<ref name=":1" />
 
''Writing in a journal:'' Patients form a habit of writing in a journal to record the situations they face, emotions, and thoughts they haveexperience, and their responses or behaviors to them in their daily life. The therapist and patient willthen analyze how theirthe patient's maladaptive thought patterns influence their behaviors together.<ref name=":1" />
''Homework:'' The patient can acquire the ability to do self-recovery and remember the insights that they gain from therapy sessions, and the therapist would ask patients to write down the note during the session or read the books about the therapy. Doing so, they could be more focused on their thoughts and behaviors and record the outcomes for the next therapy session.<ref name=":1" />
 
''Homework:'' TheOnce patientthe canpatient acquireacquires the ability to doperform self-recovery and remember the insights that they gaingained from therapy sessions, and the therapistpatient wouldis asktasked patientswith toreviewing writesessions downand thereading note during the session or read therelated books about the therapy. Doing so, they could be more focusedto onfocus their thoughts and behaviors, andwhich recordare therecorded and outcomesreviewed for the next therapy session.<ref name=":1" />
''Modeling:'' The therapist could use role-playing to act in different ways to respond to difficult situations so patients could understand and model the behavior.<ref name=":1" />  
 
''Modeling:'' The therapist could use role-playing to act in different ways toin respondresponse to difficultimagined situations so that patients could understand and model thetheir behavior.<ref name=":1" />  
''Systematic positive reinforcement:'' Positive reinforcement can reinforce the human’s behavior. In other words, if humans get the reward from anyone or anything for the first time, they are more likely to do it again in the future. The behavior-oriented therapist would use a reward system (systematic positive reinforcement) to motivate patients to reinforce specific behaviors.<ref name=":1" />
 
''Systematic positive reinforcement:'' Positive reinforcement can reinforce the human’s behavior. In other words, if humans get the reward from anyone or anything for the first time, they are more likely to do it again in the future. The behavior-oriented therapist would use a reward system (systematic [[positive reinforcement]]) to motivate patients to reinforce specific behaviors.<ref name=":1" />
Negative memories from the past and stressful life circumstances at the present have a chance to trigger depression. The main factor for causing depression is unresolved life experiences. People who do emotional reasoning are more likely to connect to depression. Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT) is a form of psychotherapy and another way to help people find a positive side for their emotional process. EFT is the research-based treatment, and it emphasizes emotional change and is also the goal of therapy. EFT has two different alternative therapies for treatments. One is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which emphasizes changing self-defeating thoughts and behaviors. Another is interpersonal therapy (IPT), which emphasizes changing people’s skills to have better interaction with others.<ref name=":2">Andrews, L. W. 2010. "Emotion-Focused Therapy." Pp. 183–85 in ''Encyclopedia of Depression'' 1. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.</ref>
 
Negative memories from the past and stressful life circumstances at the present have a chance to trigger depression. The main factor for causing depression is unresolved life experiences. People who doexperience emotional reasoning are more likely to connect to depression. [[Emotionally focused therapy|Emotion-Focusedfocused Therapytherapy]] (EFT) is a form of psychotherapy andwhich another way tocan help people find a positive sideperspective forof their emotional process. EFT is thea research-based treatment, and itthat emphasizes emotional change, andwhich is also the goal of this therapy. EFT has two different alternative therapies for treatments. One is: cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which emphasizes changing self-defeating thoughts and behaviors.; Another isand interpersonal therapy (IPT), which emphasizes changing people’speople's skills to have better interaction with others.<ref name=":2">Andrews, L. W. 2010. "Emotion-Focused Therapy." Pp. 183–85 in ''Encyclopedia of Depression'' 1. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.</ref>
From EFT’s viewpoint, a person’s development is influenced by emotional memories and experiences. The purpose of therapy is to change the emotional process by resurfacing painful emotional experiences and bringing them into awareness. This process helps patients to recognize between what they experience is at present and how the past experiences influence how they feel at the moment. Thus, they are more likely to know what they want in their life and make better decisions for everything, and their emotional process is less likely to include emotional reasoning. Another purpose of therapy is to promote emotional intelligence - the ability to understand their emotions and perceive emotional information to fix problems and control their behavior.<ref name=":2" />
 
FromEFT EFT’soperates viewpoint,on the understanding that a person’sperson's development is influenced by emotional memories and experiences. The purpose of the therapy is to change the emotional process by resurfacing painful emotional experiences and bringing them into awareness. This process helps patients to recognizedifferentiate between what they experience isand atthe presentinfluence and how theof past experiences influenceon how they feel at the moment. Thus,This theycan areresult morein likelygreater toself-awareness knowof what they want in their life and makeenable better decisionsdecision-making for everything, and their emotional process is less likely tothrough includereducing emotional reasoning. Another purpose of therapyEFT is to promote emotional intelligence, -which is the ability to understand their emotions and perceive emotional information, tocontrolling fixtheir problemsbehavior andwhile controlresponding theirto behaviorproblems.<ref name=":2" />
Emotion-focused coping is a way to focus on managing one’s emotions to reduce stress and also to reduce the chance to have emotional reasoning.<ref>Bornstein, M. H.,ed. 2018. "Emotion-Focused Coping." Pp. 730–32 in ''The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development'' 2. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference.</ref> Cognitive therapy is a form of therapy that helps patients recognize their negative thought patterns about themselves and events to revise these thought patterns and change their behavior. <ref>Cognitive Therapy. (2016). In J. L. Longe (Ed.), ''The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology'' (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 215-217). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. Retrieved from <nowiki>https://link-gale-com.byui.idm.oclc.org/apps/doc/CX3631000151/GVRL?u=byuidaho&sid=GVRL&xid=76946d80</nowiki></ref> Cognitive-behavioral therapy helps individuals to do well on cognitive tasks and to help them rethink their situation in a way that can benefit them.<ref>Schmidt, R. F., and W. D. Willis, eds. 2018. "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." ''Encyclopedia of Pain''. Berlin: Springer. p. 408.</ref> The treatment of cognitive-behavioral therapy is through the process of learning and making the change for maladaptive emotions, thoughts, and behaviors.<ref>Lewin, M. R. 2006. "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." Pp. 104–06 in ''Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology'', edited by Y. Jackson. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference.</ref>
 
Emotion-focused coping is a way to focus on managing one’sone's emotions to reduce stress and also to reduce the chance to have emotional reasoning.<ref>Bornstein, M. H.,ed. 2018. "Emotion-Focused Coping." Pp. 730–32 in ''The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development'' 2. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference.</ref> Cognitive therapy is a form of therapy that helps patients recognize their negative thought patterns about themselves and events to revise these thought patterns and change their behavior. <ref>Cognitive Therapy. (2016). In J. L. Longe (Ed.), ''The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology'' (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 215-217). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. Retrieved from <nowiki>https://link-gale-com.byui.idm.oclc.org/apps/doc/CX3631000151/GVRL?u=byuidaho&sid=GVRL&xid=76946d80</nowiki></ref> Cognitive-behavioral therapy helps individuals to doperform well onat cognitive tasks and to help them rethink their situation in a way that can benefit them.<ref>Schmidt, R. F., and W. D. Willis, eds. 2018. "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." ''Encyclopedia of Pain''. Berlin: Springer. p. 408.</ref> The treatment of cognitive-behavioral therapy is through the process of learning and making the change for maladaptive emotions, thoughts, and behaviors.<ref>Lewin, M. R. 2006. "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." Pp. 104–06 in ''Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology'', edited by Y. Jackson. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference.</ref>
 
==Implications==
If not treated, debilitating effects can occur, the most common being [[Depression (mood)|depression]].<ref>{{cite book|last1=Knaus|first1=William|title=The Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Depression: A Step-by-Step Program|date=1 June 2012|publisher=New Harbinger Publications|page=255|edition=Second}}</ref> On the other handHowever, emotional reasoning has the potential to be useful when appraising the outside world and not ourselves. It is useful when one has to emotionally appraise something. How one feels when assessing thean object, person or event, can be an instinctual survival response and a way to adapt to the world.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Lazarus|first1=Richard|title=Passion and Reason: Making Sense of our Emotions|date=11 April 1996|publisher=Oxford University Press|page=3}}</ref> "The amygdala buried deep in the limbic system serves as an early warning device for novelty, precisely so that attention can be mobilized to alert the mind to potential danger and to prepare for a potential of flight or fight."{{whose quote|date=September 2020|Need an inline statement of whose quotation this is. Note that quotes show a single viewpoint and may not unbalanced and inappropriate for an encyclopedic summary.}}<ref>{{cite book|last1=Kellogg|first1=Ronald|title=The Making of the Mind: The Neuroscience of Human Nature|date=16 July 2013|publisher=Prometheus Books|page=176}}</ref>
 
==See also==