Juan Diego: Difference between revisions

11 bytes removed ,  1 month ago
(→‎Historicity arguments: Removed unnecessary clause, it's totally possible to belief Juan Diego existed without the supernatural story)
(→‎Probative value of silence: Simplified language)
The basis of the Franciscans' disquiet and even hostility to Guadalupe was their fear that the evangelization of the Indians had been superficial, that the Indians had retained some of their pre-Christian beliefs, and, in the worst case, that Christian baptism was a cloak for persisting in pre-Christian devotions.<ref name="Lafaye_238"/><ref>{{harvp|Phelan|1970|p=51}}</ref><ref>{{harvp|Poole|1995|loc=''e.g''., pp.62, 68, 150 etc.}}</ref> These concerns are to be found in what was said or written by leading Franciscans such as fray Francisco de Bustamante (involved in a dispute on this topic with Archbishop Montúfar in 1556, as mentioned above); fray [[Bernardino de Sahagún]] (whose ''Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España'' was completed in 1576/7 with an appendix on surviving superstitions in which he singles out Guadalupe as a prime focus of suspect devotions); fray [[Jerónimo de Mendieta]] (whose ''Historia eclesiástica indiana'' was written in the 1590s); and fray Juan de Torquemada who drew heavily on Mendieta's unpublished history in his own work known as the ''Monarquía indiana'' (completed in 1615 and published in Seville, Spain, that same year). There was no uniform approach to the problem and some Franciscans were less reticent than others. Bustamante publicly condemned the cult of [[Our Lady of Guadalupe]] outright precisely because it was centred on a painting (allegedly said to have been painted "yesterday" by an Indian) to which miraculous powers were attributed,<ref>{{harvp|Brading|2001|pp=268–275}}</ref> whereas Sahagún expressed deep reservations as to the Marian cult at Tepeyac without mentioning the cult image at all.<ref>{{harvp|Lafaye|1976|pp=216f}}</ref><ref>{{harvp|Brading|2001|pp=214f}}</ref><ref>{{harvp|Poole|1995|p=78}}</ref> Mendieta made no reference to the Guadalupe event although he paid particular attention to Marian and other apparitions and miraculous occurrences in Book IV of his history – none of which, however, had evolved into established cults centred on a cult object. Mendieta also drew attention to the Indians' subterfuge of concealing pre-Christian cult objects inside or behind Christian statues and crucifixes in order to mask the true focus of their devotion.<ref>Mendieta, ''Historia eclesiástica indiana'', Bk. IV, capp. 24–28 for Marian apparitions etc.; Bk. III, cap.23 for Indians insinuating pre-Christian cult objects into churches.</ref> Torquemada repeated, with variations, an established idea that churches had been deliberately erected to Christian saints at certain locations (Tepeyac among them) in order to channel pre-Christian devotions towards Christian cults.<ref>''Monarquía indiana'', Bk.X, cap.8, quoted at {{harvp|Poole|1995|pp=92f}}.</ref>
 
===Probative valueSignificance of silence===
OnlyThe whennon-reference veryby particularcertain conditionschurch obtainofficials canof legitimateJuan inferencesDiego bedoes drawnnot fromnecessarily silenceprove inthat he did contemporarynot sourcesexist.{{efn|See, ''e.g''., the conditions elaborated by the 17th-century Church historian Jean Mabillon.<ref>{{harvp|Brading|2001|p=182}}</ref>}} The doubtful relevance of the silence ashas tobeen thequestioned Guadalupeby eventsome, inciting certain documents from the time of Zumárraga, hasas alreadywell beenas notedthe underfact sectionthat 6.2.2 above, andthat Miguel Sánchez himself preached a sermon in 1653 on the [[Immaculate Conception]] in which he cites [[Woman of the Apocalypse|chapter 12]] of the [[Book of Revelation]], but makes no mention of Guadalupe.<ref>For Sánchez' sermon, see {{harvp|Poole|1995|p=109}}; as to the lack of special significance to be attributed to many of the "silent" sources, see {{harvp|Poole|1995|p=219}}.</ref>
 
==Pastoral significance of St. Juan Diego in the Catholic Church in Mexico and beyond==
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