Juan Diego: Difference between revisions

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[[File:Felicidad_de_México_p59.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Engraving published in the book ''Happiness of Mexico'' in 1666 and 1669 (Spain) representing Juan Diego during the appearance of the Virgin of Guadalupe.]]
The following account is based on that given in the ''[[Nican mopohua]]'' which was first published in [[Nahuatl]] in 1649 as part of a compendious work known as the ''[[Huei tlamahuiçoltica]]''. No part of that work was available in Spanish until 1895 when, as part of the celebrations for the coronation of the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe in that year, there was published a translation of the ''Nican Mopohua'' dating from the 18th century. This translation, however, was made from an incomplete copy of the original. Nor was any part of the ''Huei tlamahuiçoltica'' republished until 1929, when a facsimile of the original was published by Primo Feliciano Velásquez together with a full translation into Spanish (including the first full translation of the ''Nican Mopohua''), since then the ''Nican Mopohua'', in its various translations and redactions, has supplanted all other versions as the narrative of preference.{{efn|''Cf.'' {{harvp|Poole|1995|pp=117f}}; {{harvp|Brading|2001|p=324}}; for various other translations into Spanish and English, see {{harvp|Sousa|Poole|Lockhart|1998|loc=note 4 on p. 3}}.}} The precise dates in December 1531 (as given below) were not recorded in the ''[[Nican Mopohua|]]''Nican Mopohua'']], but are taken from the chronology first established by Mateo de la Cruz in 1660.<ref>See {{harvp|Brading|2001|p=76}}, citing Cruz' commentary to his 1660 abridgement of Sanchez' ''Imagen de la Virgen María.''</ref>
Juan Diego, as a devout neophyte, was in the habit of regularly walking from his home to the [[Franciscan]] mission station at Tlatelolco for religious instruction and to perform his religious duties. His route passed by the hill at [[Tepeyac]]. '''First apparition''': at dawn on Saturday December 9, 1531, while on his usual journey, he encountered the [[Virgin Mary]] who revealed herself as the ever-virgin Mother of God and instructed him to request the bishop to erect a chapel in her honour so that she might relieve the distress of all those who call on her in their need. He delivered the request, but was told by the bishop (Fray [[Juan Zumárraga]]) to come back another day after he had had time to reflect upon what Juan Diego had told him. '''Second apparition''', later the same day: returning to Tepeyac, Juan Diego encountered the Virgin again and announced the failure of his mission, suggesting that because he was "a back-frame, a tail, a wing, a man of no importance" she would do better to recruit someone of greater standing, but she insisted that he was whom she wanted for the task. Juan Diego agreed to return to the bishop to repeat his request. This he did on the morning of Sunday, December 10, when he found the bishop more compliant. The bishop, however, asked for a sign to prove that the apparition was truly of heaven. '''Third apparition''': Juan Diego returned immediately to Tepeyac and, encountering the Virgin Mary reported the bishop's request for a sign; she condescended to provide one on the following day (December 11).{{efn|This apparition is somewhat elided in the ''Nican Mopohua'' but is implicit in three brief passages.<ref>{{harvp|Sousa|Poole|Lockhart|1998|pp=75, 77, 83}}</ref> It is fully described in the ''Imagen de la Virgen María'' of Miguel Sánchez published in 1648.}}
[[Image:Posada guadalupe.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Juan Diego, ''hoja religiosa'', etching by [[José Guadalupe Posada]] n.d. but ? pre-1895]]
By Monday, December 11, however, Juan Diego's uncle [[Juan Bernardino]] had fallen sick and Juan Diego was obliged to attend to him. In the very early hours of Tuesday, December 12, Juan Bernardino's condition having deteriorated overnight, Juan Diego set out to Tlatelolco to get a priest to hear Juan Bernardino's confession and minister to him on his death-bed. '''Fourth apparition''': in order to avoid being delayed by the Virgin and embarrassed at having failed to meet her on the Monday as agreed, Juan Diego chose another route around the hill, but the Virgin intercepted him and asked where he was going; Juan Diego explained what had happened and the Virgin gently chided him for not having had recourse to her. In the words which have become the most famous phrase of the Guadalupe event and are inscribed over the main entrance to the [[Basilica of Guadalupe]], she asked: "{{lang|es|¿No estoy yo aquí que soy tu madre?}}" ("Am I not here, I who am your mother?"). She assured him that Juan Bernardino had now recovered and she told him to climb the hill and collect flowers growing there. Obeying her, Juan Diego found an abundance of flowers unseasonably in bloom on the rocky outcrop where only cactus and scrub normally grew. Using his open mantle as a sack (with the ends still tied around his neck) he returned to the Virgin; she re-arranged the flowers and told him to take them to the bishop. On gaining admission to the bishop in Mexico City later that day, Juan Diego opened his mantle, the flowers poured to the floor, and the bishop saw they had left on the mantle an imprint of the Virgin's image which he immediately venerated.{{efn|Sánchez made a point of naming numerous flowers of different hues (roses, lilies, carnations, violets, jasmine, rosemary, broom – accounting for the various pigments eventually to manifest themselves on the tilma);<ref>(Sanchez, pp.137f.)</ref> according to the ''Nican Mopohua'',<ref>(Sanchez, p.79)</ref> the Virgin told Juan Diego he would find "various kinds of flowers" at the top of the hill which Juan Diego picked and brought back to her, although there is the intervening description of them (when Juan Diego arrived at the top of the hill and surveyed the flowers) as "different kinds of precious Spanish [Caxtillan] flowers". Florencia, in the account of the fourth apparition, three times<ref>{{harvp|de Florencia|1688|loc=cap. 5, n° 33f., fol.13}}</ref> repeats the phrase "(diversas) rosas y flores", and in the final interview with the bishop<ref>{{harvp|de Florencia|1688|loc=cap. 6, n° 38, fol. 15r.}}</ref> says that there poured from the tilma "un vergel abreviado de flores, frescas, olorosas, y todavía húmedas y salpicadas del rocío de la noche" (a garden in miniature of flowers, fresh, perfumed and damp, splashed with nocturnal dew). In Becerra Tanco's version (p.18), the only flowers mentioned were "rosas de castilla frescas, olorosas y con rocío" (roses of Castile, fresh and perfumed, with the dew on them). It was Becerra's Tanco's version that imposed itself on the iconographic tradition.}}
'''Fifth apparition''': the next day Juan Diego found his uncle fully recovered, as the Virgin had assured him, and Juan Bernardino recounted that he too had seen her, at his bed-side; that she had instructed him to inform the bishop of this apparition and of his miraculous cure; and that she had told him she desired to be known under the title of Guadalupe. The bishop kept Juan Diego's mantle first in his private chapel and then in the church on public display where it attracted great attention. On December 26, 1531, a procession formed for taking the miraculous image back to Tepeyac where it was installed in a small, hastily erected chapel.{{efn|The date does not appear in the ''Nican Mopohua'', but in Sanchez's ''Imagen''.}} In the course of this procession, the first miracle was allegedly performed when an Indian was mortally wounded in the neck by an arrow shot by accident during some stylized martial displays executed in honour of the Virgin. In great distress, the Indians carried him before the Virgin's image and pleaded for his life. Upon the arrow being withdrawn, the victim made a full and immediate recovery.{{efn|The procession and miracle are not part of the ''Nican Mopohua'' proper, but introduce the ''Nican Mopectana'' which immediately follows the ''Nican Mopohua'' in the ''Huei tlamahuiçoltica''.}}
===Sánchez, ''Imagen de la Virgen María''===
The first written account to be published of the Guadalupe event was a theological exegesis hailing Mexico as the [[New Jerusalem]] and correlating Juan Diego with [[Moses]] at [[Mount Horeb]] and the Virgin with the mysterious Woman of the Apocalypse in chapter 12 of the [[Book of Revelation]]. Entitled ''Imagen de la Virgen Maria, Madre de Dios de Guadalupe, Milagrosamente aparecida en la Ciudad de México'' (Image of the Virgin Mary, Mother of God of Guadalupe, who miraculously appeared in the City of Mexico), it was published in Spanish in Mexico City in 1648 after a prolonged gestation.{{efn|Sánchez claimed in 1666 to have been researching the topic for "more than fifty years".<ref>{{harvp|Poole|1995|p=102}}</ref>}} The author was a Mexican-born Spanish priest, [[Miguel Sánchez]], who asserted in his introduction (''Fundamento de la historia'') that his account of the apparitions was based on documentary sources (few, and only vaguely alluded to) and on an oral tradition which he calls "''antigua, uniforme y general''" (ancient, consistent and widespread). The book is structured as a theological examination of the meaning of the apparitions to which is added a description of the [[Tilma|''[[tilma'']]'' and of the sanctuary, accompanied by a description of seven [[miracles]] associated with the cult, the last of which related to a devastating inundation of Mexico City in the years 1629–1634. Although the work inspired panegyrical sermons preached in honour of the Virgin of Guadalupe between 1661 and 1766, it was not popular and was rarely reprinted.<ref>{{harvp|Brading|2001|p=74}}</ref><ref>{{harvp|Poole|1995|p=109}}</ref> Shorn of its devotional and scriptural matter and with a few additions, Sánchez' account was republished in 1660 by a Jesuit priest from [[Puebla]] named Mateo de la Cruz, whose book, entitled ''Relación de la milagrosa aparición de la Santa Virgen de Guadalupe de México'' ("Account of the miraculous apparition of the Holy Image of the Virgin of Guadalupe of Mexico"), was soon reprinted in Spain (1662), and served greatly to spread knowledge of the cult.<ref>{{harvp|de Florencia|1688|loc=cap. XIV, n° 183, foll. 89v. & 90r.}}; ''cf''. {{harvp|Poole|1995|p=109}}, {{harvp|Brading|2001|p=76}}.</ref>
===''Nican Mopohua''===