Juan Diego: Difference between revisions

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== Beatification and canonization ==
[[File:Codice1548_chico.jpg|thumb|right|250px|The [[Codex Escalada]] dated from the middle of the sixteenth century.]]
The modern movement for the [[canonization]] of Juan Diego (to be distinguished from the process for gaining official approval for the Guadalupe cult, which had begun in 1663 and was realized in 1754)<ref>{{harvp|Brading|2001|p=132}}</ref> can be said to have arisen in earnest in 1974 during celebrations marking the five hundredth anniversary of the traditional date of his birth,{{efn|The [[Cristero]] roots of the movement in the previous half century are traced in {{harvp|Brading|2001|pp=311—314, 331–335}}.}} but it was not until January 1984 that the then Archbishop of Mexico, Cardinal [[Ernesto Corripio Ahumada]], named a [[Postulator]] to supervise and coordinate the inquiry, and initiated the formal process for canonization.<ref>Cardinal Rivera, ''Carta pastoral'', nn. 22, 24</ref>{{efn|''cf.'' Chávez Sánchez, ''Camino a la canonización'', which reports that the first Postulator (Fr. Antonio Cairoli OFM) having died, Fr. Paolo Molinari SJ succeeded him in 1989. Both of these were postulators-general of the religious Orders to which they belonged (the Franciscans and Jesuits, respectively) and were resident in Rome. In 2001 Fr. Chávez Sánchez himself was appointed Postulator for the cause of canonization, succeeding Mgr. Oscar Sánchez Barba who had been appointed in 1999.}} The procedure for this first, or diocesan, stage of the canonization process had recently been reformed and simplified by order of [[Pope John Paul II]].<ref>The reform of the procedure was mandated by John Paul II in his Apostolic Constitution [https://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_25011983_divinus-perfectionis-magister_en.html ''Divinus perfectionis Magister''] ("The Divine Teacher and Model of Perfection"), January 25, 1983, and was put into effect from February 7, 1983 pursuant to rules drawn up by the Congregation for the Causes of Saints: [https://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/csaints/documents/rc_con_csaints_doc_07021983_norme_en.html New Laws for the Causes of Saints].</ref>
The diocesan inquiry was formally concluded in March 1986,<ref>Cardinal Rivera, ''Carta Pastoral'', n.24</ref> and the decree opening the Roman stage of the process was obtained on April 7, 1986. When the decree of validity of the diocesan inquiry was given on January 9, 1987, (permitting the cause to proceed), the candidate became officially "venerable". The documentation (known as the ''Positio'' or "position paper") was published in 1989, in which year all the bishops of Mexico petitioned the Holy See in support of the cause.<ref>Chávez Sánchez, ''Camino a la canonización'', which includes the text of a letter of December 3, 1989 from Archbishop Suárez Rivera of Monterrey, as president of the Mexican Episcopal Conference, to Cardinal Felici, Prefect of the [[Congregation for the Causes of Saints]]; for the publication of the ''Positio'', see Chávez Sánchez, ''Camino a la canonización'', footnote 30.</ref> Thereafter, there was a scrutiny of the ''Positio'' by consultors expert in history (concluded in January 1990) and by consultors expert in theology (concluded in March 1990), following which the [[Congregation for the Causes of Saints]] formally approved the ''Positio'' and Pope John Paul II signed the relative decree on April 9, 1990. The process of beatification was completed in a ceremony presided over by Pope John Paul II at the [[Basilica of Guadalupe]] on May 6, 1990, when December 9 was declared as the feast day to be held annually in honor of the candidate for sainthood, thereafter known as "Blessed Juan Diego Cuauthlatoatzin".<ref>AAS 82 [1990] p.855.</ref> In accordance with the exceptional cases provided for by [[Urban VIII]] (1625, 1634) when regulating the procedures for beatification and canonization, the requirement for an authenticating miracle prior to beatification was dispensed with, on the grounds of the antiquity of the cult.{{efn|A similar case of "equipollent beatification", as it is called, occurred in the case of eleven of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales, who were beatified (with numerous other such martyrs) in stages between 1888 and 1929, but who were canonized together in 1970.<ref>[http://www.ewtn.com/library/MARY/40MARTYR.htm Canonization of 40 English and Welsh Martyrs], by Paolo Molinari, SJ, ''L'Osservatore Romano'', weekly edition in English, October 29, 1970.</ref>}}