Alfred Ely Beach: Difference between revisions

[[File:Beach Pneumatic plan.jpg|thumb|right|Plan of the Beach Pneumatic Transit station and tunnel]]
In 1870 New York state senator [[William M. Tweed]] introduced a bill forto fund construction of Beach's subway thatwhich did not pass.<ref name=tweed>"New York Herald" and "New York Tribune", March 11, 1870.</ref> By the end of 1871 Tweed's [[Tammany Hall]] political machine was in disgrace and from then on Beach, in an effort to gain support from reformers, claimed that Tweed had opposed his subway.<ref name=beach_revisionist>Alfred E Beach, "The Broadway Underground Railway". New York: Beach Pneumatic Transit, 1872.</ref> The real opposition to the subway was from politically connected property owners along Broadway, led by [[Alexander Turney Stewart]] and [[John Jacob Astor III]], who feared that tunnelling would damage buildings and interfere with surface traffic.<ref name=stewart>For example see "New York Herald", March 21, 1871, and "New York Tribune", Mar 29, 1871, and "New York Times", March 30, 1872.</ref> Bills for Beach's subway passed the legislature in 1871 and 1872 but were vetoed by Governor [[John T. Hoffman]] because he said that they gave away too much authority without compensation to the city or state. In 1873 Governor [[John Adams Dix]] signed a similar bill into law, but Beach was not able to raise funds to build over the next six months, and then the [[Panic of 1873]] dried up the financial markets.<ref name="walker"/>
During this same time, other investors had built an [[elevated railway]] in Greenwich St and Ninth Ave, which operated successfully with a small steam engine starting in 1870. This elevated railway gave an Idea to [[James Henry Greathead]] for the [[Docker's Umbrella]] in Liverpool which, was a similar idea for an overhead railway for the purpose of easing congestion on the ground in England. The wealthy property owners did not object to the New York railway well away from Broadway, and by the mid-1870s it appeared that elevated railways were practical and underground railways were not, setting the pattern for rapid transit development in New York for the rest of the 19th century.<ref name="walker" />